Sejarah Charleston, Carolina Selatan

Sejarah Charleston, Carolina Selatan

Charleston, ibukota county Charleston County, adalah wilayah metropolitan terbesar kedua di Carolina Selatan. Itu terletak terutama di antara sungai Ashley dan Cooper. Pelabuhan Charleston telah memberikan kota itu peran utama dalam sejarah angkatan laut Amerika Serikat, dan khususnya Perang Saudara. Ketika Charles II dikembalikan ke tahta Inggris, dia tidak dapat memberi hadiah kepada semua orang yang dia berutang uang tunai. . Pada tahun 1663, ia memberikan delapan mantan jenderal, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Tuan Pemilik, gelar Carolina. Konstitusi Fundamental Carolina, yang ditulis pada tahun 1669 oleh filsuf John Locke dan meniru "Surat Tentang Toleransi" -nya, memberikan dasar bagi pemerintahan awal Carolina. Pada tahun 1670, para pemukim tiba di Sungai Ashley dan mendirikan pemukiman di tepi baratnya, yang mereka beri nama Charles Town untuk menghormati Charles II. Tahun berikutnya, untuk memberikan pertahanan yang lebih baik, mereka memindahkan diri mereka ke seberang sungai dan membangun kembali di ujung semenanjung antara sungai Ashley dan Cooper. Konstitusi Fundamental memberikan iklim toleransi yang sangat mempengaruhi perkembangan awal Charles Town dan menyebabkan imigrasioleh kelompok yang beragam seperti Huguenot Prancis dan Yahudi Sephardic. Pada tahun 1718, Blackbeard berlayar ke pelabuhan Charles Town dengan empat kapal dan menyandera untuk tebusan. Kerajaan Inggris menginginkan kontrol yang lebih besar atas koloni tersebut dan pada tahun 1720, mengaturnya kembali sebagai Koloni Mahkota. Pada tahun 1747, kota tersebut melakukan tawar-menawar dengan suku Indian Choctaw, menukar hak perdagangan dengan kesepakatan oleh Choctaw untuk menyerang Prancis. Masyarakat Perpustakaan Charleston diselenggarakan pada tahun 1749. Lembaga ini mengorganisir Museum Charleston pada tahun 1773, museum tertua di Amerika . College of Charleston memberikan kelas pertamanya pada tahun 1770, menjadikannya perguruan tinggi kota tertua di Amerika. Charles Town memainkan peran penting selama Revolusi Amerika. Seorang Charlestonian, Henry Middleton, terpilih sebagai presiden ^FirstContinental Congress pada tahun 1774. Perkebunannya, Middleton Place^, adalah rumah bagi tiga generasi lagi politisi Carolina Selatan terkemuka dan sekarang menjadi National Historic Landmark yang dilestarikan dengan cermat. Ibu kota negara bagian dipindahkan ke Columbia pada tahun 1786. Masyarakat Reformasi Israel didirikan pada tahun 1824, menjadikan Charleston tempat kelahiran cabang Reformasi Yudaisme di Amerika. Itu kemudian menjadi Universitas Kedokteran Carolina Selatan. Benteng, perguruan tinggi militer yang didukung negara bagian Carolina Selatan, dibuka pada tahun 1842. Rumah Sakit Roper, rumah sakit komunitas pertama di Carolina, didirikan pada tahun 1850. Reaksi terhadap pemilihan Abraham Lincoln pada bulan November 1860 tidak berlangsung lama. Pada tanggal 20 Desember, sebuah pertemuan konvensi di Charleston menyatakan Carolina Selatan sebagai persemakmuran yang independen, tindakan pemisahan diri pertama oleh negara bagian mana pun. Hunley sendiri tenggelam saat kembali ke pelabuhan. Perang di Charleston secara resmi berakhir pada 14 April 1865, ketika bendera Union dikibarkan di atas Fort Sumter pada ulang tahun keempat penyerahannya. Meskipun Charleston berada di Deep South dan hukum Jim Crow diberlakukan setelah Rekonstruksi, kota mengambil pendekatan moderat menurut standar lokal. Orang kulit hitam dapat berpartisipasi dalam politik Charleston dan memilih secara bebas sejak Perang Dunia II dan seterusnya. Seorang hakim Charleston, J. Watis Waring, tidak setuju dengan keputusan Pengadilan Distrik Federal yang menjunjung doktrin "separate but equal" dalam Briggs v. Elliott pada tahun 1951. Perbedaan pendapatnya dikutip oleh Mahkamah Agung AS ketika memutuskan di Brown v. Dewan Pendidikan pada tahun 1954. Didirikan sebagai Asosiasi Seni Carolina pada tahun 1858, Museum Seni Gibbes membuka pintunya untuk umum pada tahun 1905. ^Charleston Southern University^, didirikan pada tahun 1964, dikaitkan dengan Konvensi Baptis Carolina Selatan.


Jika Anda berjalan di sepanjang High Battery di Downtown Charleston menuju ujung semenanjung, lihat ke kiri. Di sana, di mulut Pelabuhan Charleston, Anda akan melihat mercusuar hitam putih Pulau Sullivan.

Dikenal oleh penduduk setempat sebagai Charleston Light, Mercusuar Pulau Sullivan dibangun pada awal 1960-an untuk menggantikan lampu di Pulau Morris, yang terancam hancur oleh erosi dan sejak itu telah dipugar. Charleston Light masih merupakan mercusuar yang berfungsi, terus berfungsi sebagai mercusuar untuk menyambut kapal ke Pelabuhan Charleston.


Sejarah Charleston: Budaya Abadi

Kota Charleston muncul ketika dinamai Raja Charles II dari Inggris oleh penjajah Inggris yang tiba pada musim semi 1670. Koloni yang baru didirikan ini memiliki banyak musuh yang harus dihadapi – Spanyol, Prancis, penduduk asli Amerika, dan bahkan bajak laut. Setelah Revolusi Amerika pada tahun 1783, nama kota ini menjadi Charleston, yang dipertahankan hingga saat ini.

Apa yang dinanti-nantikan di Charleston, SC

Ada banyak hal yang terjadi di Charleston, SC. Sesuai dengan peringkat Kota AS terbaik nomor 1 yang diwariskan oleh majalah Travel + Leisure pada tahun 2019, ada banyak tempat wisata populer yang harus Anda kunjungi. Baik itu tentang mencicipi masakan yang lezat, melihat-lihat rumah yang indah, dan jalan-jalan, atau mengunjungi museum dan tempat pembuatan bir, Charleston memiliki banyak hal untuk ditawarkan!

Ini adalah atraksi yang harus dilihat di Charleston! Karena itu adalah deretan tiga belas rumah berwarna pastel yang indah dan cerah, yang terkenal sebagai deretan rumah deret Georgia terpanjang di seluruh Amerika Serikat!

Rumah yang diubah menjadi museum ini, selain dekorasi dan desainnya yang mewah, juga memiliki tangga tiga lantai yang dapat terbang bebas yang memiliki keindahan arsitektur dan integritas struktural! Dibangun pada tahun 1808, rumah ini juga menceritakan kisah budak yang pernah tinggal di sana.

Mengunjungi museum ini mirip dengan menghidupkan kembali sejarah Charleston. Ada banyak hal menarik di tempat ini, dan salah satunya adalah kerangka ikan paus gantung yang berakhir di Pelabuhan Charleston pada tahun 1800-an.

Kota ini terletak di pintu masuk Pelabuhan Charleston. Jika Anda ingin jalan-jalan di pantai-pantai di Carolina Selatan, pastikan untuk mengunjungi tempat yang luar biasa ini! Deburan ombak yang tenang dan damai, jalan setapak yang alami, dan hamparan pasir yang luas menanti Anda membuat kunjungan ke tempat ini worth it!

Jika Anda berada di Charleston, pastikan untuk tidak melewatkan jalan yang ramai ini! Berkontribusi pada pesona selatannya adalah signifikansi arsitektur dan sejarahnya. Banyaknya toko di sepanjang jalan ini menjadikannya surga pembelanja. Di bagian atas King Street terdapat restoran kelas atas.

Jika Anda ingin pengalaman bersantap Selatan yang lengkap, kunjungi restoran ini! Pendirinya, Chef Sean Brock, memastikan bahwa bahan yang digunakan dalam memasak hanya berasal dari Selatan.

Meskipun daftar ini adalah saran tempat yang harus Anda kunjungi saat berada di Charleston, perlu diingat bahwa Charleston adalah harta karun yang penuh dengan tempat wisata. Itulah mengapa Anda harus mengunjungi daerah terkenal lainnya di kota tercinta ini.

Beberapa hal sepele tentang Charleston, SC

Kota ini dinamai Raja Charles II dari Inggris pada tahun 1670.

Charleston disebut "Kota Suci" karena banyak tempat ibadah yang didirikan di atas kota.

Perang Saudara dimulai dengan tembakan pertama yang ditembakkan ke Charleston, SC.

Pertandingan golf resmi pertama A.S. berlangsung di Charleston, SC.

Museum, perguruan tinggi negeri, dan rumah bermain pertama di seluruh AS dibangun di Charleston, SC.

Charleston adalah pelabuhan peti kemas terbesar ketujuh di AS.

Saya harap ini membantu Anda mengenal lebih jauh tentang Charleston, Carolina Selatan.


Ikhtisar Sejarah Charleston S.C.

Raja Charles II dari Inggris memberikan wilayah Carolina kepada delapan teman setia yang kemudian secara kolektif dikenal sebagai “Tuan Pemilik” pada tahun 1663. Pemukiman Carolina pertama mereka adalah “Charles Town” dinamai Raja Charles yang kemudian disingkat menjadi “Charleston”. Komunitas ini didirikan pada 1670 di seberang Sungai Ashley dari lokasi Charleston saat ini. Situs ini dipilih oleh Anthony Ashley-Cooper dengan misi menjadi “ . yang berkembang pesatkota pelabuhan”.

Penyelesaian awal mengalami masa-masa penuh gejolak dengan serangan berkala oleh Spanyol dan Prancis yang memperebutkan klaim Inggris atas wilayah tersebut. Dikombinasikan dengan perlawanan dari penduduk asli Amerika dan serangan oleh bajak laut, penjajah membangun tembok benteng di sekitar pemukiman asli. Semua yang tersisa dari yang asli “kota bertembok” adalah bangunan yang diawetkan yang menampung pasokan mesiu pemukiman.

Rencana untuk “pemukiman baru” yang merupakan situs “ saat iniCharleston yang bersejarah” dibuat pada tahun 1680 di kongruensi di mana Sungai Ashley dan Cooper mengalir ke Samudra Atlantik. Tanah di sekitar persimpangan “Pertemuan dan Jalan Luas” disisihkan untuk Civic Square. Seiring waktu itu dikenal sebagai “Empat Sudut Hukum” mengacu pada berbagai lengan hukum pemerintah dan agama yang memimpin kota yang sedang berkembang.

Era Charleston Berikutnya
St. Michael’s Episcopal, gereja tertua di Charleston dibangun pada tahun 1752 dan Capitol Building didirikan di seberang alun-alun pada tahun berikutnya. Pengadilan Provinsi bertemu di lantai dasar sementara Majelis Rendah dan Kamar Dewan Gubernur Kerajaan berada di lantai dua.

Pemukim asli Charles Town adalah orang Inggris. Ketika Charleston tumbuh, itu menjadi campuran kelompok etnis dan agama. Selama masa kolonial ini, Boston dan Charleston menjadi kota bersaudara karena orang kaya menjadikan Boston rumah musim panas mereka sementara Charleston menjadi rumah musim dingin mereka.

Perdagangan dimulai dengan Bermuda dan Karibia dengan banyak migran yang datang dari daerah tersebut. Beberapa Perancis, Skotlandia, Irlandia dan Jerman ditransplantasikan ke Charleston membawa agama yang berbeda termasuk Protestan, Katolik dan Yudaisme ke Charleston. Gratis Black Charlestonians dan Black Slave bekerja sama untuk membangun “Gereja Metodis Bersatu Bethel Lama” pada tahun 1797.

Charleston tumbuh menjadi pusat perdagangan pelabuhan yang ramai dan menjadi kota terkaya dan terbesar di selatan Philadelphia dan pada 1770 itu adalah pelabuhan terbesar keempat di koloni di belakang Boston, New York dan Philadelphia. Populasinya sekitar 11.000 dengan lebih dari setengahnya adalah budak. Beras dan nila menjadi budidaya utama oleh pemilik perkebunan kaya dan mengekspor membuat Charleston pusat budaya dan ekonomi selatan.

Selama periode imigrasi ke dataran rendah Charleston ini, migrasi ke “pedalaman” Carolina juga berlangsung. Sebagian besar datang dari luar negeri melalui Charleston tetapi banyak imigran baru datang ke selatan dari Virginia, Maryland, dan Pennsylvania. Akhirnya populasi bagian utara menjadi lebih besar daripada negara rendah pesisir di sekitar Charleston. Dengan latar belakang, budaya dan kepentingan yang berbeda beberapa generasi konflik terjadi antara “kurang dipoles” atas-negara bagian dan elit Charleston.


Deklarasi Kemerdekaan
Hubungan antara koloni dan Inggris mulai memburuk. Sebagai protes dari Undang-Undang Teh tahun 1773 oleh Inggris (pajak tanpa perwakilan), Charleston menyita dan menyimpan teh di Charleston’s“Pertukaran dan Rumah Pabean”. Perwakilan dari koloni berkumpul di Bursa pada tahun 1774 untuk memilih delegasi ke Kongres Kontinental, kelompok yang bertanggung jawab untuk menyusun Deklarasi Kemerdekaan dari Inggris.

Periode Pasca Revolusi
Penemuan mesin gin kapas pada tahun 1793 menjadikan kapas ekspor utama Charleston dan Carolina Selatan dan selanjutnya mendorong kemakmuran ekonomi yang didominasi perkebunan. Perkebunan kapas mengandalkan tenaga kerja budak dan budak menjadi tenaga kerja utama di kota sebagai pekerja rumah tangga dan pasar. Pada tahun 1820, populasi Charleston telah membengkak menjadi 23.000 dengan mayoritas kulit hitam.

Vesey Denmark kulit hitam bebas (non-budak) menghasut perencanaan pemberontakan budak yang terungkap pada tahun 1822 sebelum pemberontakan dapat dilaksanakan. Dengan histeria berikutnya, orang kulit putih Charlestonian membatasi aktivitas semua orang kulit hitam. Ratusan orang kulit hitam dan bahkan beberapa pendukung putih dari rencana pemberontakan diadakan di “penjara tua”. Denmark Vessey akhirnya digantung.

Selama paruh pertama tahun 1800-an, warga Carolina Selatan menjadi bersikeras tentang hak-hak negara bagian versus otoritas pemerintah Federal. Lebih dari 90% dari dana Federal berasal dari bea masuk yang sejumlah besar dihasilkan oleh kota pelabuhan Charleston. Pada tahun 1832 South Carolina membatalkan tindakan tarif Federal. Hal ini mendorong pergerakan tentara Federal ke benteng Charleston seperti “Benteng Sumter” dan mulai memungut tarif secara paksa. Sebuah kompromi akhirnya tercapai yang menghasilkan pengurangan bea tarif secara bertahap.

Sementara itu ada ketidaksepakatan politik atas penggunaan dan perluasan perbudakan ke wilayah lain. Sebelum pemilihan presiden pada tahun 1860, Konvensi Nasional Demokratik diadakan di Charleston. “Aula Hiberia” menjabat sebagai markas besar delegasi yang mendukung Stephen A. Douglas sebagai presiden. Para delegasi berharap Douglas dapat menjembatani kesenjangan antara demokrat utara dan selatan dalam masalah perbudakan. Konvensi tersebut bubar ketika para delegasi gagal mengumpulkan dua pertiga mayoritas untuk calon mana pun. Perpecahan di Partai Demokrat menyebabkan pemilihan Abraham Lincoln, kandidat Partai Republik.

Periode Perang Saudara Amerika
Pada tanggal 20 Desember 1860, legislatif Carolina Selatan adalah negara bagian selatan pertama yang memilih untuk memisahkan diri dari Persatuan Federal terutama karena tujuan Abraham Lincoln dianggap '8220memusuhi perbudakan yang berlanjut”.

Pada tanggal 9 Januari 1861, Kadet dari Citadel, perguruan tinggi militer seni liberal Carolina Selatan menembakkan tembakan pertama Perang Saudara ke kapal Union yang memasuki Pelabuhan Charleston. Pada 12 April 1961, pasukan Konfederasi Carolina Selatan menembaki Union yang menahan Fort Sumter di pelabuhan. Setelah 34 jam pengeboman terus menerus, pasukan Union menyerahkan Fort Sumter.

Pada tahun 1865, pasukan Union yang diperkuat menyerang Charleston dan menguasai kota. Setelah kekalahan Konfederasi, pasukan Federal tetap berada di Charleston selama rekonstruksi dari perang yang telah menghancurkan kemakmuran Charleston. Budak dibebaskan, ekonomi membaik dan Charleston menikmati vitalitas baru dan komitmen untuk rekonstruksi, pelestarian dan dedikasi untuk memulihkan institusi masyarakat dan masyarakat.

Charleston Carolina Selatan hari ini
Charleston memiliki sisi modern, tetapi magnet untuk pariwisata adalah sejarah Charleston yang kaya dengan arsitekturnya yang terpelihara dan landmark yang akan terus hidup untuk dinikmati baik oleh penduduk maupun pengunjung.

Hari ini, semua warga kulit hitam dan putih Charleston dengan senang hati menyebut Charleston sebagai “Kota Suci” di mana Sungai Ashley dan Cooper bergabung untuk membentuk Pelabuhan Charleston di Samudra Atlantik.


Pengunjung kami sering menggunakan salah eja dan singkatan untuk Charleston,
Carolina Selatan termasuk Charlston, Carlina, SC, So Carolina, So Car. Pengguna
juga gunakan Low Country atau Lowcountry untuk menggambarkan Charleston.
Kata-kata itu disertakan untuk kenyamanan pengguna.

Solusi untuk Warga dan Wisatawan Charleston
Hotel, Penginapan, Restoran, Atraksi, Real Estate, Liburan & Informasi Turis


Gempa mengguncang Charleston, Carolina Selatan

Gempa bumi di dekat Charleston, Carolina Selatan, pada 31 Agustus 1886 menyebabkan lebih dari 100 orang tewas dan ratusan bangunan hancur. Ini adalah gempa terbesar yang tercatat dalam sejarah Amerika Serikat bagian tenggara.

Gempa tersebut didahului oleh gempa susulan yang dirasakan di Summerville, Carolina Selatan, pada tanggal 27 dan 28 Agustus, tetapi, tetap saja, tidak ada yang siap menghadapi kekuatan gempa 31 Agustus. Pukul 21:51, gemuruh dimulai, dan terasa hingga ke Boston, Chicago, dan Kuba. Ada kerusakan pada bangunan sejauh Ohio dan Alabama. Charleston, Carolina Selatan, yang menerima pukulan terbesar dari gempa, yang diperkirakan berkekuatan sekitar 7,6. Hampir semua bangunan di kota itu rusak parah. Diperkirakan 14.000 cerobong asap jatuh dari gempa. Itu menyebabkan beberapa kebakaran dan saluran air dan sumur pecah. Total kerusakan lebih dari $5,5 juta (sekitar $112 juta dalam uang hari ini).

Meskipun tidak ada retakan permukaan yang terlihat akibat getaran ini, rel kereta api bengkok ke segala arah di beberapa lokasi. Hektar-hektar tanah dicairkan. Gempa ini tetap menjadi misteri selama bertahun-tahun karena tidak ada patahan bawah tanah yang diketahui sejauh 60 mil ke segala arah. Namun, ilmu pengetahuan dan metode deteksi yang lebih baik baru-baru ini menemukan kesalahan tersembunyi di sepanjang dataran pantai Virginia dan Carolina. Namun, gempa sebesar ini tetap sangat tidak mungkin terjadi di lokasi ini.


Sejarah Charleston, Carolina Selatan - Sejarah

Sejarah Charleston, Carolina Selatan adalah salah satu komunitas terpanjang dan paling beragam di Amerika Serikat, mencakup ratusan tahun pemukiman fisik mulai tahun 1670 hingga zaman modern.

Pendirian dan pertumbuhan awal

Setelah Charles II dari Inggris, Skotlandia dan Irlandia (1630–1685) dikembalikan ke tahta Inggris setelah Protektorat Oliver Cromwell, ia memberikan wilayah Carolina yang disewa kepada delapan teman setianya, yang dikenal sebagai Tuan Pemilik, pada tahun 1663. butuh tujuh tahun sebelum Lords dapat mengatur penyelesaian, yang pertama adalah Charles Town. Komunitas ini didirikan oleh pemukim Inggris pada tahun 1670 di tepi barat Sungai Ashley, beberapa mil di barat laut kota saat ini. Itu segera dipilih oleh Anthony Ashley-Cooper, salah satu Pemilik Lords, untuk menjadi "kota pelabuhan yang hebat", sebuah takdir yang dipenuhi kota itu. Pada 1680, pemukiman telah berkembang, bergabung dengan orang lain dari Inggris, Barbados, dan Virginia, dan pindah ke lokasi semenanjung saat ini. Ibukota koloni Carolina, Charleston adalah pusat ekspansi lebih lanjut dan titik paling selatan pemukiman Inggris selama akhir abad ke-17.

Permukiman itu sering menjadi sasaran serangan dari laut dan darat. Serangan berkala dari Spanyol dan Prancis (seperti ekspedisi yang gagal pada tahun 1706 selama Perang Ratu Anne), yang masih memperebutkan klaim Inggris atas wilayah tersebut, digabungkan dengan perlawanan dari penduduk asli Amerika, serta serangan bajak laut. Koloni Charleston mendirikan tembok benteng di sekitar pemukiman kecil untuk membantu pertahanannya. Dua bangunan tersisa dari Kota Bertembok, Majalah Powder, tempat persediaan mesiu kota disimpan, dan Rumah Merah Muda, yang diyakini merupakan kedai kolonial tua.

Sebuah rencana 1680 untuk pemukiman baru, Grand Modell, ditata "model kota biasa yang tepat," dan masa depan bagi komunitas yang berkembang. Tanah di sekitar persimpangan Meeting dan Broad Streets disisihkan untuk Civic Square. Seiring waktu itu dikenal sebagai Empat Sudut Hukum, mengacu pada berbagai cabang hukum pemerintah dan agama yang memimpin alun-alun dan kota yang sedang berkembang. Gereja Episkopal St. Michael, gereja tertua dan paling terkenal di Charleston, dibangun di sudut tenggara pada tahun 1752. Tahun berikutnya Capitol koloni didirikan di seberang alun-alun. Karena posisinya yang menonjol di dalam kota dan arsitekturnya yang elegan, bangunan itu memberi isyarat kepada warga dan pengunjung Charleston pentingnya bangunan itu di dalam koloni Inggris. Pengadilan provinsi bertemu di lantai dasar, Majelis Rendah dan Kamar Dewan Gubernur Kerajaan bertemu di lantai dua.

Pada pertengahan abad ke-18 Charleston telah menjadi pusat perdagangan yang ramai, pusat perdagangan Atlantik untuk koloni-koloni selatan, dan kota terkaya dan terbesar di selatan Philadelphia. Pada 1770 itu adalah pelabuhan terbesar keempat di koloni, setelah hanya Boston, New York, dan Philadelphia, dengan populasi 11.000, sedikit lebih dari setengah budak itu. Padi dan nila telah berhasil dibudidayakan oleh para pekebun pemilik budak di dataran rendah pesisir sekitar. Itu dan toko angkatan laut diekspor dalam industri perkapalan yang sangat menguntungkan. Itu adalah pusat budaya dan ekonomi Selatan.

Keberagaman suku dan agama

Sementara pemukim paling awal terutama berasal dari Inggris, Charleston kolonial juga merupakan rumah bagi campuran kelompok etnis dan agama. Pada masa kolonial, Boston, Massachusetts, dan Charleston adalah kota kembar, dan orang-orang kaya menghabiskan musim panas di Boston dan musim dingin di Charleston. Ada banyak perdagangan dengan Bermuda dan Karibia, dan beberapa orang datang untuk tinggal di Charleston dari daerah ini. Prancis, Skotlandia, Irlandia, dan Jerman bermigrasi ke kota pantai yang sedang berkembang, yang mewakili banyak denominasi Protestan, serta Katolik Roma dan Yudaisme. Yahudi Sephardic bermigrasi ke kota dalam jumlah sedemikian rupa sehingga Charleston akhirnya menjadi rumah bagi, pada awal abad ke-19 dan sampai sekitar tahun 1830, komunitas Yahudi terbesar dan terkaya di Amerika Utara Pemakaman Jalanan Yahudi, pertama kali didirikan pada tahun 1762, membuktikan kehadiran mereka yang sudah lama ada di masyarakat. Gereja Anglikan pertama, Gereja Episkopal St. Philip, dibangun pada 1682, meskipun kemudian dihancurkan oleh api dan dipindahkan ke lokasinya saat ini. Budak juga merupakan bagian terbesar dari populasi, dan aktif dalam komunitas keagamaan kota. Charlestonians dan budak kulit hitam yang bebas membantu mendirikan Old Bethel United Methodist Church pada tahun 1797, dan jemaat Emanuel A.M.E. Gereja berasal dari kelompok agama yang diorganisir semata-mata oleh orang Afrika-Amerika, bebas dan budak, pada tahun 1791. Ini adalah A.M.E. gereja di selatan, dan A.M.E.E tertua kedua. gereja di tanah air. Museum Amerika pertama dibuka untuk umum pada 12 Januari 1773 di Charleston. Dari pertengahan abad ke-18 sejumlah besar imigrasi terjadi di pedalaman Carolina, beberapa di antaranya datang dari luar negeri melalui Charleston, tetapi juga sebagian besar merupakan pergerakan ke selatan dari Virginia, Maryland dan Pennsylvania, sampai populasi pedalaman lebih besar dari penduduk pesisir. Orang-orang Upcountry dipandang oleh Charlestonians sebagai tidak dipoles dalam banyak hal, dan memiliki kepentingan yang berbeda, mengatur panggung untuk beberapa generasi konflik antara Upcountry dan elit Charleston.

Foto Atas : Gereja Episkopal St. Philip

Seiring pertumbuhan Charleston, begitu pula peluang budaya dan sosial masyarakat, terutama bagi para pedagang dan pekebun elit. Gedung teater pertama di Amerika dibangun di Charleston pada tahun 1736, tetapi kemudian digantikan oleh Planter's Hotel abad ke-19 tempat para pekebun kaya tinggal selama musim pacuan kuda Charleston (sekarang Dock Street Theatre, dikenal sebagai salah satu teater aktif tertua yang dibangun untuk pertunjukan panggung di Amerika Serikat. Masyarakat yang baik hati dibentuk oleh beberapa kelompok etnis yang berbeda: Masyarakat Carolina Selatan, yang didirikan oleh kaum Huguenot Prancis pada tahun 1737, Masyarakat Persahabatan Jerman, yang didirikan pada tahun 1766 dan Masyarakat Hibernian, yang didirikan oleh para imigran Irlandia pada tahun 1801. Charleston Library Society didirikan pada tahun 1748 oleh beberapa orang kaya Charleston yang ingin mengikuti isu-isu ilmiah dan filosofis saat itu.Kelompok ini juga membantu mendirikan College of Charleston pada tahun 1770, perguruan tinggi tertua di South Carolina dan tertua ke-13 di Amerika Serikat. Amerika Serikat.

Revolusi Amerika: 1776 – 1785

Ketika hubungan antara penjajah dan Inggris memburuk, Charleston menjadi titik fokus dalam Revolusi Amerika berikutnya. Sebagai protes dari Undang-Undang Teh tahun 1773, yang mewujudkan konsep perpajakan tanpa perwakilan, Charlestonians menyita teh dan menyimpannya di Bursa dan Rumah Pabean. Perwakilan dari seluruh koloni datang ke Bursa pada tahun 1774 untuk memilih delegasi ke Kongres Kontinental, kelompok yang bertanggung jawab untuk menyusun Deklarasi Kemerdekaan dan Carolina Selatan mendeklarasikan kemerdekaannya dari mahkota di tangga Bursa. Tak lama kemudian, menara gereja Charleston, terutama gereja St. Michael, menjadi sasaran kapal perang Inggris yang menyebabkan pasukan pemberontak mengecat menara tersebut dengan warna hitam agar menyatu dengan langit malam.

Itu dua kali target serangan Inggris. Pada setiap tahap, strategi Inggris mengasumsikan basis besar pendukung Loyalis yang akan bersatu dengan Raja dengan memberikan dukungan militer. Pada tanggal 28 Juni 1776 Jenderal Henry Clinton dengan 2000 orang dan satu skuadron angkatan laut mencoba untuk merebut Charleston, berharap untuk pemberontakan Loyalis simultan di Carolina Selatan. Tampaknya cara yang murah untuk mengobarkan perang tetapi gagal karena angkatan laut dikalahkan oleh Angkatan Darat Kontinental, khususnya Resimen Carolina Selatan ke-2 di Fort Moultrie di bawah komando William Moultrie. Ketika armada menembakkan peluru meriam, bahan peledak gagal menembus dinding kayu palmetto benteng yang belum selesai namun tebal. Selain itu, tidak ada Loyalis lokal yang menyerang kota dari belakang seperti yang diharapkan Inggris. Loyalis terlalu terorganisir dengan buruk untuk menjadi efektif, tetapi hingga 1780 pejabat senior di London, disesatkan oleh orang-orang buangan Loyalis, menempatkan kepercayaan mereka pada kebangkitan mereka.

Clinton kembali pada tahun 1780 dengan 14.000 tentara. Jenderal Amerika Benjamin Lincoln terjebak dan menyerahkan seluruh 5400 pasukannya setelah pertarungan panjang, dan Pengepungan Charleston adalah kekalahan perang terbesar Amerika (lihat bagian "Panglima Tertinggi" Henry Clinton untuk informasi lebih lanjut). Beberapa orang Amerika lolos dari pembantaian, dan bergabung dengan beberapa milisi, termasuk dari Francis Marion, 'Swampfox,' dan Andrew Pickens. Milisi ini menggunakan taktik Hit-and-run. Akhirnya, Clinton kembali ke New York, meninggalkan Charles Cornwallis dengan 8000 Redcoats untuk menggalang Loyalis, membangun benteng di seluruh negara bagian, dan menuntut sumpah setia kepada Raja. Banyak dari benteng ini diambil alih oleh milisi gerilya yang kalah jumlah. Inggris mempertahankan kendali kota sampai Desember 1782. Setelah Inggris meninggalkan nama kota secara resmi diubah menjadi Charleston pada tahun 1783.

Sebelum perang: 1785 – 1861

Perdagangan dan ekspansi

By 1788, Carolinians were meeting at the Capitol building for the Constitutional Ratification Convention, and while there was support for the Federal Government, division arose over the location of the new State Capital. A suspicious fire broke out in the Capitol building during the Convention, after which the delegates removed to the Exchange and decreed Columbia the new state capital. By 1792, the Capitol had been rebuilt and became the Charleston County Courthouse. Upon its completion, the city possessed all the public buildings necessary to be transformed from a colonial capital to the center of the antebellum South. The grandeur and number of buildings erected in the following century reflect the optimism, pride, and civic destiny that many Charlestonians felt for their community.

Charleston became more prosperous in the plantation-dominated economy of the post-Revolutionary years. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 revolutionized this crop’s production, and it quickly became South Carolina’s major export. Cotton plantations relied heavily on slave labor. Slaves were also the primary labor force within the city, working as domestics, artisans, market workers or laborers. Many black Charlestonians spoke Gullah, a language based on African American structures which combined African, French, German, Jamaican, English, Bahamian and Dutch words. In 1807 the Charleston Market was founded. It soon became a hub for the African-American community, with many slaves and free people of color staffing stalls.

Photo Above : City Market, now occupied by the Daughters of the Confederacy.

By 1820 Charleston’s population had grown to 23,000, with a black majority. When a massive slave revolt planned by Denmark Vesey, a free black, was discovered in 1822, such hysteria ensued amidst white Charlestonians and Carolinians that the activities of free blacks and slaves were severely restricted. Hundreds of blacks, free and slave, and some white supporters involved in the planned uprising were held in the Old Jail. It also was the impetus for the construction of a new State Arsenal in Charleston. Recently, research published by historian Michael P. Johnson of Johns Hopkins University has cast doubt on the veracity of the accounts detailing Vesey’s aborted slave revolt.

Photo Above : List of exports to Europe from Charleston, 1787

As Charleston’s government, society and industry grew, commercial institutions were established to support the community’s aspirations. The Bank of South Carolina, the second oldest building constructed as a bank in the nation, was established here in 1798. Branches of the First and Second Bank of the United States were also located in Charleston in 1800 and 1817. While the First Bank was converted to City Hall by 1818, the Second Bank proved to be a vital part of the community as it was the only bank in the city equipped to handle the international transactions so crucial to the export trade. By 1840, the Market Hall and Sheds, where fresh meat and produce were brought daily, became the commercial hub of the city. The slave trade also depended on the port of Charleston, where ships could be unloaded and the slaves sold at markets. Contrary to popular belief, slaves were never traded at the Market Hall areas.

Political changes

In the first half of the 19th century, South Carolinians became more devoted to the idea that state’s rights were superior to the Federal government’s authority. Buildings such as the Marine Hospital ignited controversy over the degree in which the Federal government should be involved in South Carolina’s government, society, and commerce. During this period over 90 percent of Federal funding was generated from import duties, collected by custom houses such as the one in Charleston. In 1832 South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification, a procedure in which a state could in effect repeal a Federal law, directed against the most recent tariff acts. Soon Federal soldiers were dispensed to Charleston’s forts and began to collect tariffs by force. A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over state’s rights would continue to escalate in the coming decades. Charleston remained one of the busiest port cities in the country, and the construction of a new, larger United States Custom House began in 1849, but its construction was interrupted by the events of the Civil War.

Prior to the 1860 election, the National Democratic Convention convened in Charleston. Hibernian Hall served as the headquarters for the delegates supporting Stephen A. Douglas, who it was hoped would bridge the gap between the northern and southern delegates on the issue of extending slavery to the territories. The convention disintegrated when delegates were unable to summon a two-thirds majority for any candidate. This divisiveness resulted in a split in the Democratic Party, and the election of Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate.

Civil War: 1861 – 1865

On December 20, 1860, the South Carolina General Assembly made the state the first to ever secede from the Union. On January 9, 1861, Citadel cadets fired the first shots of the American Civil War when they opened fire on the Union ship Star of the West entering Charleston’s harbor. On April 12, 1861, shore batteries under the command of General Pierre G. T. Beauregard opened fire on the Union-held Fort Sumter in the harbor. After a 34-hour bombardment, Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort. Officers and cadets from The Citadel were assigned to various Confederate batteries during the bombardment of Fort Sumter. Although The Citadel continued to operate as an academy during the Civil War, cadets were made a part of the South Carolina military department along with the cadets from the Arsenal Academy in Columbia, to form the Battalion of State Cadets. Cadets from both institutions continued to aid the Confederate army by helping drill recruits, manufacture ammunition, protect arms depots, and guard Union prisoners.

In December 1864 Citadel and Arsenal cadets were ordered to join Confederate forces at Tullifinny Creek, South Carolina where they engaged in pitched battles with advancing units of General W. T. Sherman‘s army, suffering eight casualties.

Photo Above : The ruins of Mills House and nearby buildings in Charleston, with a shell-damaged carriage and the remains of a brick chimney in the foreground. 1865.

In all, The Citadel Corps of Cadets earned eight battle streamers and one service streamer for its service to South Carolina during the War. The city under siege took control of Fort Sumter, became the center for blockade running, and was the site of the first successful submarine warfare on February 17, 1864 when the H.L. Hunley made a daring night attack on the USS Housatonic. In 1865, Union troops moved into the city, and took control of many sites, such as the United States Arsenal, which the Confederate army had seized at the outbreak of the war. The War department also confiscated the grounds and buildings of the Citadel Military Academy, which was used as a federal garrison for over 17 years, until its return to the state and reopening as a military college in 1882 under the direction of Lawrence E. Marichak.

Photo Above : Ruins seen from the Circular Church, Charleston, South Carolina, 1865.

Postbellum: 1865 – 1945

Rekonstruksi

After the defeat of the Confederacy, Federal forces remained in Charleston during the city’s reconstruction. The war had shattered the prosperity of the antebellum city. Freed slaves were faced with poverty and discrimination. Industries slowly brought the city and its inhabitants back to a renewed vitality and growth in population. As the city’s commerce improved, Charlestonians also worked to restore their community institutions.

King Street circa 1910-1920

In 1867 Charleston’s first free secondary school for blacks was established, the Avery Institute. General William T. Sherman lent his support to the conversion of the United States Arsenal into the Porter Military Academy, an educational facility for former soldiers and boys left orphaned or destitute by the war. Porter Military Academy later joined with Gaud School and is now a K-12 prep school, Porter-Gaud School. The William Enston Homes, a planned community for the city’s aged and infirmed, was built in 1889. J. Taylor Pearson, a freed slave, designed the Homes, and passed peacefully in them after years as the maintenance manager post-reconstruction. An elaborate public building, the United States Post Office and Courthouse, was completed in 1896 and signaled renewed life in the heart of the city.

Photo Above: Confederate Memorial at White Point Gardens.

1886 Earthquake

On August 31, 1886, Charleston was nearly destroyed by an earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale. Major damage was reported as far away as Tybee Island, Georgia (over 60 miles away) and structural damage was reported several hundred miles from Charleston (including central Alabama, central Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southern Virginia, and western West Virginia). It was felt as far away as Boston to the north, Chicago and Milwaukee to the northwest, as far west as New Orleans, as far south as Cuba, and as far east as Bermuda. It damaged 2,000 buildings in Charleston and caused $6 million worth of damage ($133 million(2006 USD)), while in the whole city the buildings were only valued at approximately $24 million($531 million(2006 USD).

Modern-day: 1945 – present

Hurricane Hugo

Much of Charleston was devastated by Hurricane Hugo

Hurricane Hugo hit Charleston in 1989, and though the worst damage was in nearby McClellanville, the storm damaged three-quarters of the homes in Charleston’s historic district. The hurricane caused over $2.8 billion in damage.

Joe Riley era

Since his election as mayor in 1975, Joe Riley has been the major proponent of reviving Charleston’s economic and cultural heritage. The last thirty years of the 20th century saw major new reinvestment in the city, with a number of municipal improvements and a commitment to historic preservation. These commitments were not slowed down by Hurricane Hugo and continue to this day.

Charleston is a major tourist destination, with a considerable number of luxury hotels, hotel chains, inns, and bed and breakfasts and a large number of award-winning restaurants and quality shopping. The city is well-known for its streets lined with grand live oaks draped with Spanish moss, and the ubiquity of the Cabbage Palmetto, which is the state tree of South Carolina. Along the waterfront in an area known as Rainbow Row are many beautiful and historic pastel-colored homes. The city is also an important port, boasting the second largest container seaport on the East Coast and the fourth largest container seaport in North America. Charleston is becoming a prime location for information technology jobs and corporations, most notably Boeing, Google, Amazon, Blackbaud, Modulant, CSS and Benefitfocus.

Charleston is also an important art destination, named a top 25 arts destination by AmericanStyle magazine.

Charleston is the primary medical center for the eastern portion of the state. The city has several major hospitals located in the downtown area alone: Medical University of South Carolina Medical Center (MUSC), Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, and Roper Hospital. MUSC is the state’s first school of medicine, the largest medical university in the state, and the sixth oldest continually operating school of medicine in the United States. The downtown medical district is experiencing rapid growth of biotechnology and medical research industries coupled with substantial expansions of all the major hospitals. Additionally, more expansions are planned or underway at several other major hospitals located in other portions of the city and the metropolitan area: Bon Secours-St Francis Xavier Hospital, Trident Medical Center, and East Cooper Regional Medical Center.


One of the Earliest Memorial Day Ceremonies Was Held by Freed African Americans

Memorial Day was born out of necessity. After the American Civil War, a battered United States was faced with the task of burying and honoring the 600,000 to 800,000 Union and Confederate soldiers who had died in the single bloodiest military conflict in American history. The first national commemoration of Memorial Day was held in Arlington National Cemetery on May 30, 1868, where both Union and Confederate soldiers are buried.

Several towns and cities across America claim to have observed their own earlier versions of Memorial Day or �oration Day” as early as 1866. (The earlier name is derived from the fact that decorating graves was and remains a central activity of Memorial Day.) But it wasn’t until a remarkable discovery in a dusty Harvard University archive the late 1990s that historians learned about a Memorial Day commemoration organized by a group of Black people freed from enslavement less than a month after the Confederacy surrendered in 1865.

Back in 1996, David Blight, a professor of American History at Yale University, was researching a book on the Civil War when he had one of those once-in-a-career eureka moments. A curator at Harvard’s Houghton Library asked if he wanted to look through two boxes of unsorted material from Union veterans.

“There was a file labeled 𠆏irst Decoration Day,’” remembers Blight, still amazed at his good fortune. 𠇊nd inside on a piece of cardboard was a narrative handwritten by an old veteran, plus a date referencing an article in NS Tribun New York. That narrative told the essence of the story that I ended up telling in my book, of this march on the race track in 1865.”

The clubhouse at the Charleston racetrack where the 1865 Memorial Day events took place.

The race track in question was the Washington Race Course and Jockey Club in Charleston, South Carolina. In the late stages of the Civil War, the Confederate army transformed the formerly posh country club into a makeshift prison for Union captives. More than 260 Union soldiers died from disease and exposure while being held in the race track’s open-air infield. Their bodies were hastily buried in a mass grave behind the grandstands.

When Charleston fell and Confederate troops evacuated the badly damaged city, those freed from enslavement remained. One of the first things those emancipated men and women did was to give the fallen Union prisoners a proper burial. They exhumed the mass grave and reinterred the bodies in a new cemetery with a tall whitewashed fence inscribed with the words: “Martyrs of the Race Course.”

And then on May 1, 1865, something even more extraordinary happened. According to two reports that Blight found in Tribun New York dan Kurir Charleston, a crowd of 10,000 people, mostly freed slaves with some white missionaries, staged a parade around the race track. Three thousand Black schoolchildren carried bouquets of flowers and sang “John Brown’s Body.” Members of the famed 54th Massachusetts and other Black Union regiments were in attendance and performed double-time marches. Black ministers recited verses from the Bible.

The Battle of Fort Wagner on Morris Island was the Union attack on July 18, 1863, led by the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. The infantry was one of the first major American military units made up of Black soldiers. 

If the news reports are accurate, the 1865 gathering at the Charleston race track would be the earliest Memorial Day commemoration on record. Blight excitedly called the Avery Institute of Afro-American History and Culture at the College of Charleston, looking for more information on the historic event.

But it was clear from the newspaper reports that a Memorial Day observance was organized by freed slaves in Charleston at least a year before other U.S. cities and three years before the first national observance. How had been lost to history for over a century?

“This was a story that had really been suppressed both in the local memory and certainly the national memory,” says Blight. 𠇋ut nobody who had witnessed it could ever have forgotten it.”

Blight kept digging for more information, but the only other mention he found of the race track event was in a 1916 correspondence sent from a women’s Civil War historical society in New Orleans to its sister chapter in Charleston, asking about a big parade of freed slaves on a horse track at the end of the war.

“I regret that I was unable to gather any official information in answer to this,” wrote the Charleston society’s president.

“That’s such a telling statement,” says Blight. “The woman who wrote that letter may not have known about it, but the fact that she didn’t tells the story.”

A sketch of the Union Soldiers cemetery, reading the "Martyrs of the Race course," in Charleston, South Carolina.

Once the war was over and Charleston was rebuilt in the 1880s, the city’s white residents likely had little interest in remembering an event held by former enslaved people to celebrate the Union dead. “That didn’t fit their version of what the war was all about,” says Blight.

In time, the old horse track and country club were torn down, and thanks to a gift from a wealthy Northern patron, the Union soldiers&apos graves were moved from the humble white-fenced graveyard in Charleston to the Beaufort National Cemetery. By the time Blight was rummaging through the Harvard archives in 1996, the story of the first Memorial Day had been entirely forgotten.

After his book Ras dan Reuni was published in 2001, Blight gave a talk about Memorial Day at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, and after it was finished, an older Black woman approached him.

“You mean that story is true?” the woman asked Blight. “I grew up in Charleston, and my granddaddy used to tell us this story of a parade at the old race track, and we never knew whether to believe him or not. You mean that’s true?”

For Blight, it’s less important whether the 1865 commemoration of the “Martyrs of the Race Course” is officially recognized as the first Memorial Day.

“It’s the fact that this occurred in Charleston at a cemetery site for the Union dead in a city where the Civil war had begun,” says Blight, 𠇊nd that it was organized and done਋y African American former slaves is what gives it such poignancy.”


Charleston Community History

The Pineapple Fountain located in Charleston Waterfront Park.

After Charles II was restored to the English throne, he granted the chartered Carolina territory to eight of his loyal friends, known as the Lord Proprietors, in 1663. It took seven years before the Lords could arrange for settlement, the first being that of Charles Town. The community named for the King Charles I was established by English settlers in 1670 across the Ashley River from the city's current location. It was soon chosen by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, one of the Lord Proprietors, to become a "great port towne," a destiny which the city fulfilled. By 1680, the settlement had grown, joined by others from England, Barbados, and Virginia, and relocated to its current peninsular location. The capital of the Carolina colony, Charleston was the center for further expansion and the southernmost point of English settlement during the late 1600s.

The settlement was often subject to attack from sea and from land. Periodic assaults from Spain and France, who still contested England's claims to the region, were combined with resistance from American Indians as well as pirate raids. Charleston's colonists erected a fortification wall around the small settlement to aid in its defense. The only building to remain from the Walled City is the Powder Magazine, where the city's supply of gun powder was stored.

A 1680 plan for the new settlement, the Grand Modell, laid out "the model of an exact regular town," and the future for the growing community. Land surrounding the intersection of Meeting and Broad Streets was set aside for a Civic Square. Over time it became known as the Four Corners of the Law, referring to the various arms of governmental and religious law presiding over the square and the growing city. St. Michael’s Episcopal, Charleston's oldest and most noted church, was built on the southeast corner in 1752. The following year the Capitol of the colony was erected across the square. Because of its prominent position within the city and its elegant architecture, the building signaled to Charleston's citizens and visitors its importance within the British colonies. Provincial court met on the ground floor, the Commons House of Assembly and the Royal Governor's Council Chamber met on the second floor.

While the earliest settlers primarily came from England, colonial Charleston was also home to a mixture of ethnic and religious groups. French, Scottish, Irish and Germans migrated to the developing seacoast town, representing numerous Protestant denominations, as well as Catholicism and Judaism. Sephardic Jews (of Spanish and Portuguese ancestry) migrated to the city in such numbers that Charleston became one of the largest Jewish communities in North America. The Jewish Coming Street Cemetery, first established in 1762, attests to their long standing presence in the community. The first Anglican church, St. Philip’s Episcopal, was built in 1682, although later destroyed by fire and relocated to its current location. Enslaved people also comprised a major portion of the population, and were active in the city's religious community. Both free black and enslaved Charlestonians helped establish the Old Bethel United Methodist Church in 1797, and the congregation of the Emanuel A.M.E. Church stems from a religious group organized solely by African Americans, free and enslaved, in 1791.

By the mid-18th century Charleston had become a bustling trade center, and the wealthiest and largest city south of Philadelphia. Rice and indigo had been successfully cultivated by gentleman planters in the surrounding coastal lowcountry, while merchants profited from the successful shipping industry. As the relationship between the colonists and England deteriorated, Charleston became a focal point in the ensuing Revolution. In protest of the Tea Act of 1773, which embodied the concept of "taxation without representation," Charlestonians confiscated tea and stored it in the Exchange and Customs House. Representatives from all over the colony came to the Exchange in 1774 to elect delegates to the Continental Congress, the group responsible for drafting the Declaration of Independence and South Carolina declared its independence from the crown on the steps of the Exchange.

Soon, the church steeples of Charleston, especially St. Michael's, became targets for British war ships. A siege on the city in 1776 was successfully defended by William Moultrie from Sullivan's Island, but by 1780 Charleston came under British control for two and a half years. After the British retreated in December 1782, the city's name was officially changed to Charleston.

By 1788, Carolinians were meeting at the Capitol building for the Constitutional Ratification Convention, and while there was support for the Federal Government, division arose over the location of the new State Capital. A suspicious fire broke out in the Capitol building during the Convention, after which the delegates removed to the Exchange and decreed Columbia the new State Capital. By 1792, the Capitol had been rebuilt and became the Charleston County Courthouse. Upon its completion, the city possessed all the public buildings necessary to be transformed from a colonial capital to the center of the antebellum South. But the grandeur and number of buildings erected in the following century reflect the optimism, pride, and civic destiny that many Charlestonians felt for their community.

As Charleston grew, so did the community's cultural and social opportunities, especially for the elite merchants and planters. The first theater building in America was built in Charleston in 1736, but was later replaced by the 19th-century Planter's Hotel where wealthy planters stayed during Charleston's horse-racing season (now the Dock Street Theatre). Benevolent societies were formed by several different ethnic groups: the South Carolina Society, founded by French Huguenots in 1737 the German Friendly Society, founded in 1766 and the Hibernian Society, founded by Irish immigrants in 1801. The Charleston Library Society was established in 1748 by some wealthy Charlestonians who wished to keep up with the scientific and philosophical issues of the day. This group also helped establish the College of Charleston in 1770, the oldest college in South Carolina and the 13th college in the United States.

Charleston became more prosperous in the plantation dominated economy of the post-Revolutionary years. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 revolutionized this crop's production, and it quickly became South Carolina's major export. Cotton plantations relied heavily on the forced labor of enslaved Africans. Enslaved men, women, and children were also the primary labor force within the city, working as domestics, artisans, market workers or laborers. Many black Charlestonians spoke Gullah, a dialect based on African American structures which combined African, Portuguese, and English words.

By 1820 Charleston's population had grown to 23,000, with a black majority. When Denmark Vesey’s planned uprising of enslaved people was discovered in 1822, hysteria ensued amidst white Charlestonians. As a result, the activities of free and enslaved blacks were severely restricted. Hundreds of African Americans and some white supporters involved in the planned uprising were held in the Old Jail. It was also the impetus for the construction of a new State Arsenal in Charleston.

As Charleston's government, society and industry grew, commercial institutions were established to support the community's aspirations. The Bank of South Carolina, the second oldest building constructed as a bank in the nation, was established here in 1798. Branches of the First and Second Bank of the United States were also located in Charleston in 1800 and 1817. While the First Bank was converted to City Hall by 1818, the Second Bank proved to be a vital part of the community as it was the only bank in the city equipped to handle the international transactions so crucial to the export trade. By 1840, the Market Hall and Sheds, where fresh meat and produce were brought daily, became the commercial hub of the city. The slave trade also depended on the port of Charleston, where ships could be unloaded and enslaved people sold at markets.

In the first half of the 19th century, South Carolinians became more devoted to the idea that state's rights were superior to the Federal government's authority. Buildings such as the Marine Hospital ignited controversy over the degree in which the Federal government should be involved in South Carolina's government, society, and commerce. During this period over 90 percent of Federal funding was generated from import duties, collected by custom houses such as the one in Charleston. In 1832 South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification, a procedure in which a state could in effect repeal a Federal law, directed against the most recent tariff acts. Soon Federal soldiers were dispensed to Charleston's forts and began to collect tariffs by force. A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over state's rights would continue to escalate in the coming decades. Charleston remained one of the busiest port cities in the country, and the construction of a new, larger United States Custom House began in 1849, but its construction was interrupted by the events of the Civil War.

In 1860, the National Democratic Convention convened in Charleston. Hibernian Hall served as the headquarters for the delegates supporting Stephen A. Douglas, who it was hoped would bridge the gap between the northern and southern delegates on the issue of extending slavery to the territories. The convention disintegrated when delegates were unable to summon a two-thirds majority for any candidate. This divisiveness resulted in a split in the Democratic party, and the election of Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate. On December 20, 1860, the South Carolina legislature was the first state to vote for secession from the Union. They asserted that one of the causes was the election to the presidency of a man "whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery."

On January 9, 1861, Citadel cadets fired the first shots of the Civil War when they opened fire on a Union ship entering Charleston's harbor. April 2, 1861, shore batteries under the command of General Pierre G. T. Beauregard opened fire on the Union-held Fort Sumter in the harbor. After a 34-hour bombardment, Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort. Cadets from the Citadel, South Carolina's liberal arts military college, continued to aid the Confederate army by helping drill recruits, manufacture ammunition, protect arms depots, and guard Union prisoners. The city under siege took control of Fort Sumter, became the center for blockade running, and was the site of the first submarine warfare in 1863. In 1865, Union troops moved into the city, and took control of many sites, such as the United States Arsenal which the Confederate army had seized at the outbreak of the war.

After the eventual defeat of the Confederacy, Federal forces remained in Charleston during the city's reconstruction. The war had hindered the prosperity of the antebellum city, yet it freed all those African Americans forcibly held in bondage. While many newly freed people struggled with poverty and discrimination due to racist attitudes of white residents, African Americans faced a future free from the physical and mental abuse of their enslavers.

Industries slowly brought the city and its inhabitants back to a renewed vitality and growth in population. As the city's commerce improved, Charlestonians also worked to restore their community institutions. In 1867 Charleston's first free secondary school for blacks was established, the Avery Institute. General William T. Sherman lent his support to the conversion of the United States Arsenal into the Porter Military Academy, an educational facility for former soldiers and boys left orphaned or destitute by the war. The William Enston Home, a planned community for the city's aged and infirm, was built in 1889. An elaborate public building, the United States Post Office and Courthouse, was completed in 1896 and signaled renewed life in the heart of the city.

In 1886 Charleston was nearly destroyed by a major earthquake that was felt as far away as Boston and Bermuda. Few buildings escaped damage. Coupled with fires, hurricanes, tornados, several wars, and urban renewal in the 20th century, it is extraordinary how many of Charleston's historic buildings remain. Today the city's community buildings help to make Charleston one of the most complete historic districts in the country, with more than 1400 historically significant buildings.


History of Charleston, South Carolina - History

Richard Furman was pastor at First Baptist and was instrumental in the building of the current sanctuary designed by Robert Mills. This painting was donated by The Belser Family (Furman's descendants) on the 330th Anniversary Sunday (September 30, 2012).

The annual Easter Sunrise service at the Battery began in 1997. Over 500 people (tourists and residents) attend this meaningful service celebrating the resurrection of Christ.

Richard Furman was pastor at First Baptist and was instrumental in the building of the current sanctuary designed by Robert Mills. This painting was donated by The Belser Family (Furman's descendants) on the 330th Anniversary Sunday (September 30, 2012).

First Baptist Church, Charleston, the earliest Baptist church in the South was organized on September 25, 1682 in Kittery, Maine, under the sponsorship of the First Baptist Church of Boston. Late in 1696, the pastor William Screven, and 28 members of the Kittery congregation immigrated to Charleston, SC.

Often we are asked about marriages or burials. Unfortunately, due to several events of natural disaster, the only records we have available are included in the list above. You may wish to visit the South Carolina Historical Society at 100 Meeting Street (Fireproof Building) for more research assistance.


Tonton videonya: Charleston #Alianza África 2014