Galeri untuk Skuadron No.120

Galeri untuk Skuadron No.120

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z -

Terima kasih banyak kepada Peter Claydon karena telah mengirimkan foto-foto ini, yang merupakan milik pamannya, C.W.J. Claydon, yang menghabiskan sebagian besar perang sebagai petugas medis dengan Skuadron No.120 di Ballykelly, Irlandia Utara.


Kronologi Penerbangan Militer Kanada 1939-1947

Sebuah detasemen dari Skuadron No. 1 (F) di Calgary pergi ke Sea Island untuk menerima pengiriman pesawat tempur Hawker Hurricane pertama yang dikeluarkan untuk menggantikan Siskins yang sudah lama usang. Pada tanggal 1 Juni S/L EG Fullerton mengangkut Badai pertama dari Vancouver ke pangkalan skuadron di Calgary.

Selama kunjungan Yang Mulia Raja dan Ratu, RCAF memberikan pengawalan udara dan penjaga kehormatan. Tiga Stranraer mengawal Royal Yacht ke St. Lawrence setibanya di Quebec, mengawal kapal RCN yang membawa Royal Party ke Prince Edward Island, dan sekali lagi mengawal Royal Yacht pada keberangkatannya dari Halifax. Di Trenton, lima Wapiti dan tiga pesawat Atlas terbang dengan pengawalan, dan di Vancouver tiga Stranraer dan lima Hurricanes mengawal Yang Mulia dalam perjalanan ke Victoria dan kembali. Sementara Raja dan Ratu berada di kediaman di Ottawa, RCAF menyediakan Penjaga Rumah Tangga Kerajaan.

Skuadron RCAF mulai bergerak ke stasiun perang. No.. 3 (B) Skuadron Wapitis meninggalkan Calgary dalam perjalanan ke Halifax, diikuti lima hari kemudian oleh Skuadron No. 1 (F) dalam perjalanan ke St Hubert. Skuadron No. 2 (AC) mulai bergerak dari Trenton ke Halifax dan kemudian ke Saint John. Skuadron No. 8 (GP), setelah menarik pesawatnya dari operasi fotografi terpisah, meninggalkan Ottawa menuju Sydney.

Menjelang perang, total kekuatan RCAF adalah 4.061 perwira dan penerbang (Permanen – 298 perwira, 2.750 penerbang Auxiliary – 112 perwira, 901 penerbang). Itu memiliki 270 pesawat dari 28 jenis “layanan” jenis yang berbeda termasuk dua puluh dua Wapitis, dua puluh Oxford, sembilan belas Badai, tiga belas Atlas, dua belas Delta, sebelas Hiu, sepuluh Pertempuran, sembilan Stranraer, lima Siskins, empat Norsemen dan empat Vancouver.

Organisasi Angkatan adalah:

  • Markas Besar dan Kantor Catatan, Ottawa
  • Komando Udara Barat, Vancouver
  • Komando Udara Timur, Halifax
  • Komando Pelatihan Udara, Toronto
  • Vancouver
  • mulut dart
  • Ottawa (Pembuatan Foto, Penerbangan Uji & Pengembangan, Penerbangan Komunikasi)
  • Camp Borden (Markas Besar Sayap Pelatihan Menengah, Skuadron Pelatihan Menengah, Sekolah Instruksional Darat Menengah No. 2 Sekolah Pelatihan Teknik)
  • Trenton (Markas Besar Sayap Pelatihan Tingkat Lanjut, Skuadron Pelatihan Tingkat Lanjut, Sekolah Instruksional Darat Tingkat Lanjut No. 1 Pelatihan Teknis, Persenjataan Udara, Pelatihan Peralatan, Navigasi Udara dan Pesawat Amfibi, dan Sekolah Nirkabel).
  • No. 1 (P) – Badai dalam perjalanan ke St. Hubert
  • No. 2 (AC) – Atlas Saint John, NB
  • No. 3 (B) – Wapiti, dalam perjalanan Halifax
  • No. 4 (GR) – Vancouver dan Stranraer Vancouver
  • No. 5 (GR) – Stranraer Dartmouth
  • No. 6 (TB) – Hiu Vancouver
  • 7 (GP) – Fairchild and Norseman Ottawa
  • No.8 (GP) – Delta Sydney
  • Skuadron No. 9, 10 dan 11 juga telah disahkan, tetapi tidak dibentuk sebelum 1 September.
  • Pesawat No. 1, Ottawa
  • Peralatan No. 2, Winnipeg
  • Perbaikan No. 3, Vancouver
  • Perbaikan No. 4, Dartmouth
  • Peralatan No. 5, Moncton
  • No. 11 (Teknis), Montreal
  • No. 12 (Teknis), Toronto
  • No. 13 (Teknis), Vancouver
  • 21 (Majalah), Kamloops
  • 22 (Majalah), Debert

Angkatan Udara Aktif Bantu

  • No. 110 (AC), Toronto
  • No.111 (CAC), Vancouver
  • No. 112 (AC), Winnipeg
  • No. 113 (P), Calgary
  • No. 114 (B), London
  • No. 115 (P), Montreal
  • No. 116 (P), Halifax
  • 117 (CAC), Saint John
  • No. 118 (B), Montreal
  • No. 119 (B), Hamilton
  • No. 120 (B), Regina
  • No. 121 (P), Kota Quebec

Masing-masing dari 12 skuadron Auxiliary memiliki Detasemen PF. Lima skuadron (No. ·113, 114, 116, 117 dan 121) masih dalam tahap awal organisasi dan dibubarkan setelah pecahnya permusuhan.

Sebelum deklarasi perang, kemajuan besar telah dibuat dalam pembentukan atau peningkatan pangkalan di pantai Pasifik dan Atlantik. Sebuah Depot Peralatan dibuka di Moncton dan sebuah majalah di Debert. Layanan meteorologi Departemen Transportasi diperluas ke pantai timur, dan rencana dibuat untuk layanan lengkap untuk semua perusahaan Angkatan Udara. Peningkatan Persenjataan Layanan secara aktif diupayakan. Direktorat Persenjataan dibentuk di Markas Besar, Sekolah Persenjataan Udara di Trenton diperluas, dan persenjataan pada semua pesawat dinas dimodernisasi. Sebuah Bagian Intelijen juga diselenggarakan.

Pelatihan terbang dinas untuk periode 1 April hingga 31 Agustus berjumlah 11.924,15 jam (7.104,20 oleh unit Permanen dan 4.819,55 oleh skuadron Auxiliary, termasuk
dua minggu di perkemahan musim panas tahunan). Sebagaimana diatur tahun sebelumnya, pelatihan dasar dilakukan di klub terbang sipil pelatihan menengah diberikan di Camp Borden dan lanjutan di Trenton. Untuk melatih instruktur sekolah dasar sipil, Sekolah Instruktur Terbang’ dibuka di Camp Borden pada awal tahun.

Operasi udara Pemerintah Sipil terdiri dari foto udara dan survei untuk Dinas Kehutanan Dominion dan Biro Geologi dan Topografi. Satu detasemen dari tiga pesawat ditugaskan pada bulan Juli untuk melakukan pengintaian rinci terhadap pantai Labrador. Namun, pekerjaan itu terhenti ketika pesawat harus dikirim untuk mencari mesin sipil yang hilang di Labrador. Semua pekerjaan fotografi dihentikan pada 25 Agustus. Pada tanggal itu, 424,35 jam terbang telah direkam dan 25.100 mil persegi difoto.

Jerman menyerang Polandia. RCAF ditempatkan pada layanan aktif.

Inggris Raya dan Prancis menyatakan perang terhadap Jerman.

P/O Selby R Henderson, seorang Kanada di Skuadron No. 206, RAF, adalah navigator utama dalam pasukan pengebom yang menyerang kapal perang Jerman. Dia dengan demikian menjadi orang Kanada pertama yang berpartisipasi dalam serangan mendadak operasional dalam Perang Dunia Kedua.

Kanada menyatakan perang terhadap Jerman.

Dengan Order-in-Council, Cadangan Khusus RCAF dibuat dan ditempatkan pada layanan aktif.

Dalam perjalanan dari Megantic, PQ ke Sydney, NS untuk mengambil tugas masa perang, Delta Mk II serial no. 673 (sebelumnya Northrop Gamma) pesawat pengintai menghilang. Puing-puing mesin itu terletak di New Brunswick pada tahun 1958, sembilan belas tahun setelah kecelakaan, tetapi tidak ada tanda-tanda awaknya, FS JE Doan dan LAC DA Rennie. (Tuan Joseph Nelles menulis cerita dua halaman berjudul “First Lost…Last Found” diterbitkan di majalah Airforce Volume 19, No 4, pp 3-4, – Januari 1996– yang menceritakan kisah lengkap tentang Korban pertama Kanada dalam Perang Dunia Kedua. Jika Anda ingin salinan cerita, tulis kepada direktur di airforce.ca melalui email).

Direktorat Pengamanan Angkatan Udara dibentuk di Markas Besar untuk mengarahkan ekspansi cepat Angkatan dan 20 pusat perekrutan dibuka di seluruh Dominion. Pada akhir tahun fiskal (31 Maret 1940), 102.777 aplikasi telah diterima.

RCAF Manning Pool (kemudian No. 1 Manning Depot) dibentuk di Toronto.

S/L William Isaac Clements, yang tergabung dalam Skuadron No. 53 (Blenheim), RAF, melakukan pengintaian malam jarak jauh dari Metz, Prancis, ke daerah Hamm-Hanover Jerman – anggota pertama RCAF yang terbang di atasnya wilayah musuh.

Pembentukan Divisi Organisasi dan Pelatihan di Markas Besar berwenang, untuk melaksanakan rencana pelatihan yang diusulkan. (Kantor pusat sekarang membentuk empat Divisi – Staf Udara, Personil, Teknik dan Suplai Aeronautika, dan Organisasi dan Pelatihan – masing-masing di bawah Anggota Udara. Gelar “Anggota Udara” yang baru diperkenalkan 21 Oktober).

Pemerintah Inggris Raya, Kanada, Australia dan Selandia Baru menandatangani, di Ottawa, sebuah kesepakatan untuk membentuk Rencana Pelatihan Udara Persemakmuran Inggris yang diorganisir dan dikelola oleh RCAF (bertindak untuk Pemerintah Kanada). Rencana awal mengusulkan pendirian tiga Sekolah Pelatihan Awal, tiga belas Sekolah Pelatihan Terbang Dasar, enam belas Sekolah Pelatihan Terbang Layanan, sepuluh Sekolah Pengamat Udara, sepuluh Sekolah Pengeboman dan Senjata, dua Sekolah Navigasi Udara dan empat Sekolah Nirkabel, ditambah sekolah-sekolah tambahan yang diperlukan dan depot, total 74 unit.

Pelatihan akan dimulai pada tanggal 29 April 1940 dan semua sekolah akan beroperasi pada tanggal 30 April 1942. Ketika dikembangkan sepenuhnya, Rencana tersebut akan menghasilkan 520 pilot dengan pelatihan dasar, 544 pilot dengan pelatihan layanan, 340 pengamat dan 580 operator-penembak udara nirkabel. setiap empat minggu.

Kekuatan RCAF_pada akhir tahun berjumlah 8.287 perwira dan penerbang, meningkat lebih dari 100 persen dalam empat bulan. Ada 280 Permanen, 195 Auxiliary dan 454 Perwira Cadangan Khusus dan 7.358 penerbang.

Kekuatan operasional adalah empat belas skuadron, semuanya ditempatkan di Kanada: No. 1 (F) Dartmouth, No. 4 (BR) Vancouver, No. 5 (BR) Dartmouth, No. 6 (BR) Vancouver, No. 8 (BR) North Sydney, No. 10 (BR), dibentuk dari No. 3 pada 5 September, Halifax, No. 11 (BR) Dartmouth, No. 110 (AC) Ottawa, No. 111 (CAC) Vancouver, No. 112 (AC) ) Ottawa, No. 115 (F) St. Hubert, No. 118 (B) Dartmouth, No. 119 (B) Hamilton dan
No.120 (BR) Vancouver.

RCAF Overseas Headquarters, London, Inggris, dibentuk di bawah W/C FV Heakes yang pernah menjadi Liaison Officer RCAF. Pada 7 Maret G/C MV Walsh, MBE, mengambil alih komando.

The London Gazette mengumumkan bahwa P/O SR Henderson dan W/C JF Griffiths, dua orang Kanada di RAF, telah dianugerahi Distinguished Flying Cross untuk operasi udara melawan musuh, orang Kanada pertama yang diberi penghargaan selama perang. Penghargaan P/O Henderson adalah untuk menyerang kapal terbang Jerman pada 8 November 1939. W/C Griffiths didekorasi untuk serangan terhadap kapal perang Jerman pada 14 Desember 1939.

Skuadron 110 (AC) ditambah personel Skadron 2 (AC) berlayar dari Halifax di bawah komando S/L WB Van Vliet. Ini turun di Liverpool pada 25 Februari, yang pertama dari 48 skuadron RCAF yang bertugas di luar negeri selama perang.

Sekolah Nirkabel sebelum perang dipindahkan dari Trenton ke Montreal dan dinamai kembali Sekolah Nirkabel No. 1, yang pertama dari empat sekolah semacam itu yang beroperasi di dalam BCATP.

Pada tahun fiskal, 1 April 1939-31 Maret 1940, RCAF menerbangkan 69.472,50 jam, termasuk 5.022,10 jam untuk operasi layanan dan 60.316,30 jam untuk pelatihan di klub terbang sipil, sekolah layanan, dan unit. Sisanya (4.134.10 jam) meliputi pengujian, transfer pesawat, transportasi, operasi Pemerintah Sipil (sebelum 25 Agustus 1939), kerjasama dengan Milisi dan tugas lain-lain.

Untuk melaksanakan BCATP, empat Komando Pelatihan diselenggarakan. Komando Pelatihan Udara (Toronto) ditetapkan kembali TC No. 1 pada 1 Januari TC No. 2 dibentuk di Winnipeg pada 15 April, TC No. 3 di Montreal pada 18 Maret dan TC No. 4 di Regina pada 29 April.

Sekolah Pelatihan Awal No. 1 secara resmi dibuka di Eglinton Hunt Club, Toronto, menyerap Sekolah Pelatihan Dasar yang sebelumnya berlokasi di Trenton. Asupan pertama peserta pelatihan BCATP, 164 AC2, tiba pada 29 April.

Sekolah Navigasi Udara No. 1 dibentuk di Trenton, memberikan pelatihan khusus di bidang ini untuk siswa BCATP.

Rombongan maju dari Skuadron Kota Winnipeg No. 112 (AC) berlayar dari Montreal, dan turun di Liverpool delapan hari kemudian.

Hon CG Power, KC, MC, diangkat menjadi Menteri Pertahanan Nasional untuk Udara.

Pada tanggal 23 Mei S/L FM Gobeil, seorang perwira pertukaran RCAF yang memimpin Skuadron RAF No. 242 (Kanada), menyerang sebuah Bf.109 di dekat Berek, Prancis. Dua hari kemudian petugas ini, dalam pertempuran lain di dekat Menin, Belgia, menembak jatuh sebuah Me. 110.

Sekolah Pengamat Udara No. 1 secara resmi dibuka di Malton dengan penerimaan pertama peserta pelatihan BCATP. Semua AOS dioperasikan oleh perusahaan sipil di bawah pengawasan RCAF.

Skuadron No. 1 (F), ditambah personel Skuadron No. 115 (F), di bawah komando S/L EA McNab, dan barisan belakang Skuadron No. 112 (AC), dikomandoi S/L WF Hanna , berlayar dari Halifax dan tiba di Liverpool pada 20 Juni.

Skuadron No. 10 (BR) di Dartmouth mengirim satu detasemen lima Douglas Digbys, di bawah kendali S/L HM Carscallen, untuk beroperasi dari Bandara Newfoundland
(Memandang sebentar).

Sebuah Dewan Udara dibentuk untuk memberi nasihat kepada Menteri Pertahanan Nasional untuk Udara.

Empat Sekolah Pelatihan Terbang Dasar pertama (No. 1 di Malton, No. 2 di Fort William, No. 3 di London dan No. 4 di Windsor Mills, PQ) secara resmi
dibuka dengan penerimaan 24 pilot-pilot BCATP. EFTS dioperasikan terutama oleh perusahaan sipil dengan staf pengawas RCAF. Pengecualian adalah EFTS di Cap de la Madeleine, yang dioperasikan oleh Quebec Airways.

Panji RCAF telah disetujui oleh HM Raja. Itu diadaptasi dari panji RAF dengan substitusi daun maple merah untuk lingkaran merah di tengah roundel.

Penerimaan pertama murid BCATP untuk pelatihan terbang dinas dilaporkan ke Sekolah Pelatihan Terbang Layanan No. 1 di Camp Borden. Sekolah telah dibentuk pada awal tahun dari unit pelatihan yang beroperasi di sana.

S/L EA McNab, saat terbang dengan Skuadron No. 111, RAF, menghancurkan sebuah Do. 215 dan memenangkan kemenangan pertama RCAF dalam Pertempuran Inggris.

Skuadron No. 1 (F) (kemudian No. 401) mulai beroperasi dengan pesawat Hurricane-nya dan mulai berpatroli dan mengacak-acak pangkalannya di Northolt.

Sekolah Pengeboman dan Senjata No. 1 dibentuk di Jarvis, Ontario, sekolah pertama dari sebelas sekolah semacam itu yang dibentuk dalam BCATP untuk melatih para penembak bom dan penembak udara untuk RCAF dan Angkatan Udara Persemakmuran.

Atas Perintah Dewan, Dewan Pertahanan Gabungan Permanen dibentuk untuk mengoordinasikan kegiatan Kanada dan Amerika yang berkaitan dengan pertahanan Amerika Utara. Terdiri dari warga sipil dan personel dari semua layanan kedua negara, Dewan mengadakan pertemuan pertamanya pada 26 Agustus. Banyak dari pertemuan berikutnya membahas masalah angkatan udara, termasuk Rute Pementasan Barat Laut, operasi anti-kapal selam, dan pasokan pesawat. Perwakilan RCAF pertama di Dewan adalah A/C Albert Abraham Lawson Cuffe (gambar di atas). Untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang Air Commodore Cuffe, lihat tautan ini di sini.

Mencegat serangan oleh 25 atau 30 pembom Dornier, Skuadron No. 1 menghancurkan tiga dan merusak empat. F/0 RL Edwards tewas dalam pertempuran – korban pertama RCAF’s. No 1 tetap dalam Pertempuran Inggris sampai 9 Oktober ketika ditarik untuk istirahat. Dalam periode 53 hari, 17 Agustus hingga 9 Oktober, itu dikreditkan dengan menghancurkan 30 pesawat musuh dan merusak 43 lainnya. Tiga pilot tewas dalam aksi dan sepuluh terluka atau terluka.

S/L EA McNab, komandan Skuadron No. 1 (F), dianugerahi Distinguished Flying Cross atas jasanya dalam Pertempuran Inggris. Tiga hari kemudian F/L Gordon Roy McGregor (foto) dan F/O BD Russel dari skuadron yang sama juga menerima DFC. (Untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang McGregor, kunjungi tautan ini, di sini).

Pelatihan dan Pasokan dipisahkan dari AMOT dan AMAES masing-masing dan menjadi divisi terpisah di bawah Anggota Udara. Sebuah Perintah di Dewan mengesahkan pembentukan Liga Kadet Udara Kanada, sebuah organisasi sipil untuk melatih anak laki-laki berusia 12 hingga 18 tahun untuk kemungkinan pendaftaran di masa depan di RCAF.

Draf pertama lulusan BCATP, 12 perwira dan 25 sersan pengamat, tiba di Liverpool. Kursus 37 telah lulus dari Sekolah Navigasi Udara No. 1 di Trenton pada 24 Oktober.

Ada tiga skuadron RCAF di luar negeri: No. 1 (F), No. 110 (AC) dan No. 2 (F) yang baru saja dibentuk dari Skadron No. 112 (AC). Di rumah ada sebelas skuadron: di EAC – No. 5, 10 dan 11 (BR) di Darmouth, No. 8 (BR) di North Sydney dan No. 119 (BR) di Yarmouth di WAC – No. 4 (BR) di Ucluelet, No. 6 (BR) di Coal Harbour, dan No. 111 (F), 120 (BR) dan 13 (Operational Training) di Skuadron Patricia Bay No. 12 (Komunikasi) ditempatkan di Rockcliffe.

Pasal 15 Persetujuan 17 Desember 1939, dengan ketentuan bahwa “siswa Kanada, Australia dan Selandia Baru, setelah pelatihan selesai, akan diidentifikasi dengan Dominion mereka masing-masing, baik dengan cara mengatur unit dan formasi Dominion atau dalam beberapa cara lain.” Dengan perjanjian tambahan Sinclair-Ralston yang ditandatangani di London pada tanggal 7 Januari 1941, diatur bahwa 25 skuadron RCAF akan dibentuk di Inggris dalam 18 bulan ke depan (tidak termasuk tiga yang asli dikirim dari Kanada ).

Untuk menghindari kebingungan dengan unit RAF, skuadron RCAF di luar negeri diberi nomor ulang dalam seri 400. Dengan demikian No. 110 menjadi No. 400 No. 1 menjadi No. 401, dan No. 112 yang telah ditata ulang menjadi Skadron No. 2 (F), menjadi No. 402. Pada tanggal yang sama No. 402 disahkan sebagai operasional, skuadron tempur RCAF kedua yang beraksi di luar negeri. Skuadron No. 403 (F), yang pertama dari unit “Artikel 15”, dibentuk di Baginton, Inggris. Diikuti oleh 17 lagi dalam sepuluh bulan berikutnya, ini adalah:

  • No. 404 (Pejuang Pesisir) 15 April
  • Nomor 405 (Pembom) 23 April
  • 407 (Pesisir) 8 Mei
  • No. 406 (Pejuang Malam) 10 Mei
  • No. 411 (Pejuang) 16 Juni
  • No. 409 (Pejuang Malam) 17 Juni
  • No. 408 (Pembom) 24 Juni
  • No. 410 (Pejuang Malam) 30 Juni
  • No. 412 (Pejuang) 30 Juni
  • No. 413 (Pesisir) 1 Juli
  • No. 414 (Kerjasama Angkatan Darat) 12 Agustus
  • No. 415 (Pesisir) 20 Agustus
  • No. 418 (Penyusup) 15 November
  • No. 416 (Pejuang) 18 November
  • No.417 (Pejuang) 27 November
  • No. 419 (Pembom) 7 Desember
  • No.420 (Pembom) 19 Desember

Dari jumlah tersebut, No. 403 hingga 413 inklusif telah mulai beroperasi pada akhir tahun.

Skuadron No. 10 (BR) yang telah melakukan penerbangan di Gander sejak Juni 1940, pindah ke bandara Newfoundland.

Dua belas pilot Skuadron No. 402, yang dipimpin oleh W/C GR McGregor, DFC, ambil bagian dalam patroli ofensif di sektor Boulogne di pantai Prancis. Ini adalah operasi ofensif pertama yang dilakukan oleh unit RCAF di atas wilayah yang dikuasai musuh.

Pelatihan operasional di Kanada dimulai dengan pembukaan Unit Pelatihan Operasional No. 31 di Debert, NS. Dilengkapi dengan pesawat Hudson dan Bolingbroke, unit ini adalah yang pertama dari sepuluh OTU yang berlokasi di Kanada di bawah kendali RAF dan RCAF.

Tiga pengebom Vickers Wellington dari Skuadron No. 405 melakukan serangan pertama RCAF ke Jerman, mengebom galangan kargo di Schwerte, tenggara Dortmund, dengan total 9.000 pon bahan peledak tinggi dan 2.160 pon bahan bakar untuk ketiga pesawat.

Pembentukan Angkatan Udara Bantu Wanita Kanada diberi wewenang oleh Order in Council, untuk merekrut wanita untuk pelatihan di berbagai perdagangan darat sehingga pria dapat dibebaskan untuk tugas tempur. Pada akhir perang telah mendaftarkan 17.038 wanita, di antaranya lebih dari 1.500 melihat layanan di luar negeri. Perwira wanita pertama adalah Kathleen Walker, diangkat sebagai Petugas Penerbangan, 2 Juli penerbang pertama adalah Jane Bennett.

PL-6819 23 Februari 1942
Sersan Joseph Laurent Guillaume Robillard (DFC)

Saat menerbangkan Spitfire dengan No. 145 Squadron (RAF) FS JGL Robillard ditembak jatuh di atas Prancis. Melakukan kontak dengan warga sipil Prancis, ia menghindari penangkapan dan mencapai Gibraltar pada akhir Oktober. Dia kemudian kembali ke tugas operasional. FS Robillard adalah penerbang RCAF pertama yang berhasil menjadi “evader”. (Pelajari lebih lanjut di sini di tautan ini).

Sebuah Catalina dari Skuadron No. 116, dikapteni oleh F/L NE Small, menyerang sebuah U-boat, tetapi bomnya tidak meledak.

F/O RC Fumerton dan Sersan LPS Bing, menerbangkan Beaufighter dari Skuadron No. 406, memenangkan kemenangan petarung malam pertama RCAF dengan menghancurkan Ju. 88 di atas Bedlington, Northumberland.

Pembentukan Skuadron Pelatihan Udara Universitas diusulkan dan disetujui.

Depot Manning untuk personel wanita dibuka di Havegal College, Toronto, dengan 150 penerbang mengambil kursus administrasi. Depot itu kemudian berganti nama menjadi Depot Manning No.

Meskipun cedera serius, yang terbukti fatal, LAC KM Gravell, penembak udara operator nirkabel yang sedang menjalani pelatihan di Sekolah Nirkabel No. 2, Calgary, dengan gagah berani
berusaha menyelamatkan pilotnya dari reruntuhan pesawat Tiger Moth mereka yang terbakar. Keberanian dan pengorbanan dirinya diakui oleh penghargaan anumerta dari George Cross.

Kanada menyatakan perang terhadap Jepang, dan langkah-langkah segera diambil untuk memperkuat pertahanan Pasifik kami. Pembentukan skuadron baru dilembagakan dan yang lainnya digeser dari EAC ke WAC.

Skuadron No. 404 (Blenheim) membantu memberikan perlindungan tempur jarak jauh untuk pasukan Komando yang menyerang posisi musuh di Vaagso (Norwegia).

Ada 21 skuadron RCAF di Inggris dan 16 di rumah. Dari skuadron luar negeri, 14 yang operasional (lima pesawat tempur, tiga pesawat tempur malam, satu kerjasama tentara, dua pembom dan tiga pantai). Di EAC ada Nos. 5 (BR), 11 (BR), 116 (BR), (terbentuk 28 Juni) dan 118 (F) di Dartmouth, No. 8 (BR) di North Sydney, No. 119 (BR) di Yarmouth, dan No. 10 (BR) di Gander, Nfld. Di WAC No. 13 (Pelatihan Operasional), 111 (F), dan 115 (F), (terbentuk 1 Agustus) berada di Patricia Bay No. 4 (BR) berada di Ucluelet, No. 6 (BR) di Alliford Bay, No. 120 (BR) di Coal Harbour, No. 7 (BR), (terbentuk 8 Desember) di Prince Rupert, dan No. 9 (BR), (dibentuk 8 Desember) di Bella Bella. Skuadron No. 12 (Comm) masih di Rockcliffe.

Anggota CWAAF yang terlatih mulai melapor ke unit-unit di Kanada. SFTS No.2, Uplands, merupakan stasiun pertama yang menerima personel tersebut, yang awalnya ditempatkan di stasiun BCATP.

Angkatan Udara Bantu Wanita Kanada berganti nama menjadi Angkatan Udara Kerajaan Kanada (Divisi Wanita).

Scharnhorst, Gneisenau dan Prinz Eugen melarikan diri dari Brest, di mana mereka sering diserang oleh unit-unit Komando Pengebom RCAF, dan melarikan diri ke Selat dan melalui Selat Dover di bawah serangan pesawat-pesawat Armada Udara dan Pesisir, Pengebom dan Pesawat Tempur Perintah dari RAF. Sembilan skuadron Kanada (empat pembom, empat pesawat tempur dan satu pantai) ambil bagian dalam aksi hari itu, tujuh pesawat hilang dan tiga pesawat tempur musuh hancur dan tiga rusak.


Isi

AH-64D Apache Longbows dari skuadron, dipersenjatai dengan beragam muatan rudal AGM-114 Hellfire, roket Hydra 70 dan satu Chain Gun M230 30 mm, dapat dipanggil untuk mendukung SAF dalam operasi apa pun yang membutuhkannya. Ketentuan juga telah dibuat untuk mengintegrasikan helikopter ke dalam jaringan Komando dan Kontrol Berbasis Pengetahuan Terpadu SAF, sebuah konsep yang mirip dengan doktrin perang sentris jaringan Departemen Pertahanan Amerika Serikat. Sistem Manajemen Tempur yang dikembangkan secara lokal ini mengintegrasikan semua sensor dan sistem senjata di kapal, meningkatkan kesadaran ruang pertempuran dan memungkinkan sedikit waktu bagi musuh untuk bereaksi karena loop sensor-ke-penembak pendek karena secara efektif berbagi informasi antara rekan-rekan tentara dan angkatan lautnya.

Ketika Inggris memutuskan pada tahun 1967 untuk menarik pasukan mereka dari Timur Jauh, Singapura melihat kebutuhan untuk membangun angkatan bersenjatanya sendiri. Komando Pertahanan Udara Singapura (SADC) dibentuk sebagai bagian dari pengaturan awal. Skuadron Alouette, didirikan pada September 1969, dengan demikian meletakkan dasar bagi kekuatan helikopter RSAF. [2]

Skuadron Alouette Sunting

Skuadron Alouette awalnya berbasis di Seletar Airfield, menempati hanggar Lockheed (sekarang ST Aerospace). Pada Januari 1971, Skuadron menjadi unit SADC pertama yang dikerahkan ke luar negeri ketika empat pesawatnya berpartisipasi dalam operasi bantuan banjir Kuantan di Malaysia. Tak lama kemudian, Skuadron Alouette memperoleh status operasional menjadi unit operasional pertama di SADC. Direlokasi ke Pangkalan Udara Changi tak lama setelah Hari Tahun Baru 1972, peran utama Skuadron termasuk pencarian dan penyelamatan, penerimaan udara, keamanan internal, rappelling, trooplift dan dukungan logistik.

Sunting Penunjukan Baru

Pada 16 Desember 1973, sebutan skuadron diubah menjadi Skuadron 120 (120 SQN). Skuadron terus mengoperasikan Alouette III sampai 1977, ketika pesawat tidak lagi mampu memenuhi kebutuhan SAF yang terus meningkat. Pada tahun 1977, tiga Bell 212 dan tujuh belas UH-1H diperoleh, dan helikopter bergabung dengan skuadron masing-masing pada bulan Februari dan Agustus. [2]

120 SQN memprakarsai detasemen luar negeri permanen pertama RSAF pada September 1978, ketika tiga UH-1H dikerahkan ke Brunei untuk pertama kalinya. Peran mereka terutama untuk mendukung pelatihan hutan SAF yang dilakukan di sana.

Ditugaskan dengan tugas Pencarian dan penyelamatan udara di sekitar Singapura dan sebagian Laut Cina Selatan, Bell 212 beroperasi dari 1977 hingga 1985 ketika helikopter Super Puma dari Skuadron 125 mengambil alih tugas tersebut.

Pada tahun 1983, skuadron pindah untuk terakhir kalinya dan menetap di Pangkalan Udara Sembawang karena helikopter telah meninggalkan Changi dan menetap di Kamp Kangaw. Kangaw kemudian digunakan sebagai pangkalan artileri, meskipun sebelumnya merupakan lapangan terbang Inggris – RAF Sembawang atau lebih dikenal dengan HMS Simbang. Ketika Artileri Singapura dipindahkan ke Kamp Khatib pada tahun 1983, Kamp Kangaw diserahkan kepada RSAF dan diubah namanya menjadi Pangkalan Udara Sembawang (SBAB). Sejak itu, SBAB menjadi titik fokus operasi helikopter dan salah satu dari lima formasi di RSAF. [2]

Deployment Terkemuka Sunting

Pada 1980-an, tiga peristiwa dramatis mendorong 120 SQN menjadi berita utama. Pada bulan Oktober 1980, skuadron membintangi drama penyelamatan bertingkat tinggi di Menara Raffles yang belum selesai di Battery Road. Sebuah Bell 212 dikirim untuk menyelamatkan operator derek dari atap gedung setelah kebakaran di lantai 18 telah menjebaknya. [2]

Kemudian, pada Januari 1983, tiga orang harus ditarik ke tempat yang aman dari Kereta Gantung Singapura oleh Bell 212 setelah sebuah kapal bor secara tidak sengaja menabrak dan memutuskan kabel dari perairan World Trade Centre, Singapura. [3]

Peristiwa ketiga adalah bencana Hotel New World pada Maret 1986. Setelah hotel runtuh, 120 SQN mengerahkan tiga UH-1H ke lokasi bencana untuk menyediakan evakuasi korban sepanjang waktu. [2]

Pengakuan Lainnya Edit

Baru-baru ini pada Oktober 2002, 120 SQN mengerahkan satu detasemen empat UH-1H ke Timor Timur untuk mendukung misi penjaga perdamaian PBB di sana. [4]

Juga di antara prestasinya, 120 SQN memenangkan beberapa kejuaraan Helikopter ASEAN dan telah memenangkan SQN dukungan taktis terbaik untuk tahun 88/89, 91/92, 94/95, 95/96 dan 99/00.

  1. 8× SA316B Alouette III (1968–1978, kemudian dipindahkan ke Angkatan Udara Kerajaan Malaysia)
  2. 3× Bel 212 (1978–1985, kemudian dijual ke Angkatan Udara Sri Lanka)
  3. 24× UH-1H (1978–2005) 17× UH-1H dikirimkan pada tahun 1978 dengan 2× UH-1D lainnya (kemudian dimodernisasi menjadi standar UH-1H) dan 5× UH-1H dipasok pada tahun 1984. Pada tahun 2003, 7 badan pesawat dimodernisasi dan dijual ke Filipina Angkatan Udara dalam kesepakatan US$12 juta.
  4. 20× AH-64D (2006–sekarang) [1]

Patch bahu 120Sqn lama dengan Skylark (Alouette dalam bahasa Prancis) sebagai inti.

Helikopter pertama RSAF dalam pelayanan - Aérospatiale Alouette III (berhenti beroperasi secara bertahap pada tahun 1978) dengan putaran gaya RAF generasi pertama.

Tampilan statis RSAF AH-64D Longbow Apache selama open house.

Dua dari 120 Sqn AH-64D Apache mengawal helikopter CH-47SD Chinook 127 Sqn selama latihan untuk NDP 2006.


Tugu peringatan lapangan terbang Ballykelly diresmikan

KURATOR dan penjaga Shackleton dan Museum Penerbangan Norman Thorpe telah membuka monumen permanen untuk bagian instrumental yang dimainkan pangkalan udara Ballykelly dalam Perang Dunia Kedua.

Setelah bertahun-tahun berkampanye Norman, bersama dengan Kenneth Bannerman, Direktur Jenderal ABCT mengungkapkan batu peringatan baru di Gereja Paroki Tamlaghfinlagan, mengingat kehadiran RAF di desa 1941-1971.

Thorpe mengucapkan terima kasih kepada Claire Sugden MLA, Direktur Jenderal Kenneth Bannerman Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust, Ellen Harper Kepala Sekolah Dasar Terpadu Ballykelly Dan Caileam Gallagher Kepala Sekolah Dasar Terpadu Ballykelly yang memberikan waktu mereka untuk mendukung Peringatan RAF yang diresmikan di Gereja Paroki Tamlaghfinlagan .

Pangkalan udara Ballykelly dibangun sebagai satelit untuk Limavady di dekatnya, dibuka pada 1 Juni 1941.

Karena pembangunan tiga landasan pacu dan bangunan pendukung belum selesai, lapangan terbang awalnya sepi sampai detasemen pejuang malam dari Ballyhalbert tiba di musim gugur.

Coastal Command Development Unit (CCDU) ​​menyusul pada Desember 1941 dan menerbangkan berbagai jenis hingga pindah ke Tain pada Juni 1942.

Boeing Fortresses of No 220 Squadron dan Consolidated Liberators of No 120 Squadron melakukan sorti patroli maritim dari musim panas 1942 hingga awal 1943 ketika mereka dipindahkan ke Aldergrove.

Berbagai skuadron Armada Udara Armada menghabiskan waktu singkat di Ballykelly saat turun, sebagian besar melibatkan unit Fairey Swordfish. Skuadron No 59 dan 86 tiba dari Aldergrove pada bulan September 1943 masing-masing selama dua tahun dan enam bulan, dan Skuadron No 120 kembali pada musim semi 1944 hingga dibubarkan pada Juni 1945.

Joint Anti-Submarine School (JASS) dibentuk pada November 1945, dan bertahan sampai awal tahun 1970-an untuk taktik anti-kapal selam.

Shackleton bermarkas di Ballykelly selama periode ini dari tahun 1952, dengan Skuadron No 204 tinggal antara tahun 1954 ketika direformasi dan 1971.

Nos 203, 240 dan 269 menjadi unit Shackleton lain yang menghabiskan waktu yang signifikan di lapangan terbang yang sibuk ini, yang dirubah ke tingkat yang cukup besar selama awal 1950-an.

Berbagai skuadron Armada Udara Armada juga akan bergabung dari waktu ke waktu tetapi Ballykelly mulai mereda sejak akhir dekade berikutnya.

Unit terakhir yang berangkat adalah Skuadron No 204 pada musim semi 1971 dan lapangan terbang ditutup pada awal Juni tahun itu.

Menjadi Barak Shackleton di tangan Angkatan Darat bulan itu, situs itu digunakan seperti itu hingga 2008.

Sejumlah besar lokasi lapangan terbang tetap ada, termasuk tiga landasan pacu, salah satunya melintasi jalur kereta api.

Beberapa bangunan juga bertahan, termasuk hanggar kantilever pascaperang yang khusus dibuat pada 1960-an untuk keluarga Shackleton yang menjadi salah satu yang terbesar di Inggris, dan menara kontrol.

Situs ini sekarang dimiliki atau dikelola oleh MJM Group - membeli lapangan terbang 2016, Shackleton and Aviation Museum, dan Tamlaghtfinlagan Church of Ireland Ballykelly.


Mengingat Don O'Hearne

Itu adalah hari besar bagi anak-anak di kelas sekolah Donald O'Hearne di Edmonton: mereka mendapat kesempatan untuk melihat beberapa film bermodel baru ini, yang diambil langsung di kota mereka sendiri.

Subjeknya adalah pesawat terbang di bandar udara lokal -- dan di sana di tengah-tengah para penerbang pemberani adalah wajah teman sekelas Donald sendiri, pada saat dia seharusnya berada di sekolah.

Don lahir di Edmonton pada tahun 1916, sulung dari empat bersaudara. “Saya kira saya selalu tertarik pada pesawat terbang, dari model bangunan yang digerakkan oleh karet gelang, hingga jet.”

Ayahnya pernah bertugas di Batalyon 202 Pasukan Ekspedisi Kanada bersama seorang pemuda bernama Wilfred “Wop” May, yang kemudian bergabung dengan Royal Flying Corps, selamat dari serangan “Baron Merah” dan membuat berbagai macam sejarah penerbangan di Kanada.

Don cukup tua untuk mengingat melihat Curtiss Jenny "City of Edmonton" buatan Kanada tergantung di kasau "gudang kuda" ibukota Albert. Ketika Don jatuh sakit pada musim semi 1927, seorang teman membawakannya satu set radio kristal yang digunakan Don untuk mengikuti kemajuan penerbangan epik Charles Lindbergh melintasi Atlantik. Dia masih memiliki buku penerbangan yang dibawa orang tuanya saat itu. He found his way out to Cooking Lake, the floatplane base near Edmonton, where he saw Bellancas and Fokkers. Much nearer was Blatchford Field (now the Edmonton City Centre Airport), where he had his “butt kicked” by pioneering bush pilot Matt Berry for hanging around when he should have been in school -- hence the film incident mentioned above.

Of course, Edmonton was not immune to the Great Depression of the 1930s. Don’s father lost his job and moved to take another in Saskatoon.

Don was enrolled in 1931 in The Bridge City’s King Edward School, where another of the students was a lad named Ray Crone -- by coincidence, another buff of Canada’s aviation history.

Sadly, the second job of Don’s father disappeared, too, so the age of 16 saw Don out working to support his family. He was a delivery boy and also worked in an abattoir, then a meat market. He eventually joined the local militia (army reserve) unit, the Saskatoon Light Infantry, where the attractions included pay of 75 cents for each day training. When he became aware that the RCAF had a new auxiliary (reserve) unit at Regina, No. 120 Squadron, he wangled a transfer to it -- even though he was too far away to join other members for their weekly training sessions. He also joined the Saskatoon Flying Club, taking flying lessons under Dave Dyck and even parachuting lessons under George Bennett, who offered not only instructions, but three jumps, for $10 Don still has the crest he received for completing the course.

“As far as the parachuting goes, they [the students] were scared -- but you couldn’t back out because the others were all doing it!” he chuckled. “You HAD to go along. They said. ‘You’ll get used to it, but after the third jump, it was still pretty scary!”

Some of the other members of the Saskatoon Flying Club joined Britain’s prewar Royal Air Force, which even then was building up its strength for the looming war in Europe. When it finally arrived in the late summer of 1939, members of the SLI and No. 120 Squadron were told to report for duty. Don’s membership in these units now became important, for he was considered to be an experienced recruit.

Don, as a new member of the RCAF, soon found himself at what became the air force’s manning depot at Toronto, in the “showplace for animals” at the Canadian National Exhibition grounds.

For such an early intake of men, preparations were crude. Food was poor and “there were literally hundreds of beds, but very little else,” he recalled. Soon, though, he was transferred to the RCAF Station at Camp Borden, then to the RCAF’s new technical training school at St. Thomas, Ont. He was to train as an instructor in airframe mechanics.

St. Thomas was one of those little-known, but vital, military training facilities that made an impression on all those who passed through it. “Anyone who’s ever been there will never forget it,” he said. “We were in a former mental home -- the windows still had bars on them!”

It was also huge: 25 buildings over 487 acres -- big enough that it took 10 minutes to walk across above ground and much longer in the underground tunnel system. “Honestly, you really didn’t know where you were,” he said. “We got smart after a while and stayed out of them.”

As a future instructor, Don got pretty good treatment at St. Thomas. The quarters were “elegant” and there were extra meals and passes. “Quite a change from Toronto!” There was also considerable flexibility in passes, which explains how he was able to use a three-day leave to take a train back to Saskatoon, marry his girlfriend Frances and get back. It actually took more than three days to do all this, but strings were pulled in the right places.

Before he could instruct, Don needed some practical experience, so he was assigned as a crewman to the RCAF’s No. 4 (Bomber Reconnaissance) Squadron at Uculet, B.C., located on the southwest coast of Vancouver Island. It flew Blackburn Sharks, a couple of Northrop Deltas and several examples of magnificent old Stranraer flying boats, a huge biplane with two 875 Bristol Pegasus radial engines and an 85-foot wingspan. So many wires braced it that, “you could hear it coming for miles, screaming because of the wire,” he said.

On Don’s first shift on guard duty aboard a moored flying boat, he fell asleep. What woke him up was the sound of a small boat bringing a junior officer out. “The office cautioned me -- and didn’t do anything!”

The Stranraer was not amphibious, but a true flying boat. Beaching it -- pulling it onto shore -- meant attaching heavy beaching gear to the fuselage, which in turn required two swimmers and one more airman to guide the process. “It was very tricky with a running sea,” Don remembered. “You had to be a very good swimmer.”

The Blackburn Shark, a large single-engine biplane used for coastal patrol, was easier just a large dolly was used.

The work that these aircraft did was of patrolling “and checking on fishing boats -- time-consuming and monotonous with the continuous watching.”

“We never did see very much and I don’t know what we would have done if anyone had taken a shot at us,” he added. “One of the other crews claimed they did see a sub . we had to believe them, although it wasn’t confirmed.”

Don’s next postings was the brand new RCAF station at Coal Harbour, B.C., on the northern tip of the Queen Charlotte Islands near the site of the present-day CFS Holberg electronic eavesdropping post. Coal Harbour was on a coastal inlet about 12 miles inland from Port Hardy. “It was isolated as hell,” Don said.

“Almost nothing there, just seagulls and bears.” Getting there meant sailing to Port Hardy, then driving (or more likely walking) along the logging road to the station, which, “didn’t look that good at night -- and in the morning, it didn’t look any better.”

It was cold and muddy, with wooden “duck walks” connecting buildings. Two Stranraers sat on the inlet. Duties, initially, were mainly guard duty (“with Lewis guns -- with no ammunition”) plus “a lot of foot drill and exercise and not much else. Coal Harbour consisted of a house, a store and not much else . we really didn’t know why we were there, because nothing was ready.”

Power came from two Caterpillar tractor generators and heat from two boilers. Thus, one duty was shoveling coal and another was working in the station’s kitchen. “Every now and then, there’d be a [RCAF] Delta or Goose. We were glad when the navy came in because they had a lot of booze on board!”

Because wives and families were expected, some of the airmen decided to build a “condo” for them. They secured the services of a bulldozer and its operator and some of the construction workers on the station helped, too. Doors and windows were a problem, but the big day came when a squadron leader came to see their work. His suggestion: “To turn the plywood around so that the “GOVERNMENT” stamp couldn’t be seen!”

Finally, with Christmas 1940 approaching, an expedition was mounted to find suitable trees. Don remembers trekking through the area around the base and eventually finding a fine specimen that was cut and brought back to the apartments. Decorated, it was proudly shown to the owner of the local store and his wife they mildly commented that they’d had an identical tree growing in their backyard -- until somebody had recently cut it down!

Was there a sense of foreboding about a war with Japan during 1940 and 1941? ”I can’t honestly answer that question because we didn’t give it that much thought. We knew we were there for a reason. But as far as anything happening, I’d have to be honest and say that we didn’t really think about it.”

Don and his new wife, Frances, had left the West Coast and were at the BCATP station at Fort MacLeod, Alberta, when history intervened.

“’Where’s Pearl Harbour?” dia berkata.

“I said, ‘I don’t know where the hell Pearl Harbour is. “

“Something happened there,” Frances continued. “The Japanese bombed it.”

“Well,” said Don, “Then we were glued to the radio.”

Even bases quiet inland stations like Fort MacLeod were put on alert, though, “we were sitting there, at Fort MacLeod, with just a bunch of Ansons.”

When the Japanese rampaged throughout the Pacific and even shelled the lighthouse at Estevan Point on Vancouver Island, “we knew damned well that something was happening -- though we didn’t give it that much thought.”

But by the spring 1945, Western Canada was under actual attack. That spring saw him seconded to No. 11 SFTS at Yorkton, to which the RCAF’s 135 (Fighter) Squadron had sent three Hurricane fighters and their pilots to search for, and hopefully, shoot down Japanese balloon bombs that were then being launched over western Canada. The detachment had only about a dozen airmen, but “we used to pride ourselves on the time that we could get them off the ground. There were times when it took an hour there were other times when it took 10 minutes. It depended on when we got the call. They (whoever spotted the balloon) had to telephone and we’d have to find the pilots.”

The men operated from a “blister” or a small room on the side of one of the hangars. The Hurricanes -– one of which survives today in the collection of Gatineau’s Vintage Wings of Canada flying museum -– were kept fully armed and fuelled their pilots were supposed to sit in readiness, playing cards drinking coffee. As for the Hurricanes, “they were always armed and fueled and ready to go.”

If a call came in, “a fitter would usually start it up and have it running then the pilot would get in there -- and away they’d go. We could see the odd one (balloon) flying over, but they (the Hurricanes) could never get up there in time.”

“We had a little hut we called them blisters. Usually, the pilots would sit in there and drink coffee and play cards.” There were only about a dozen groundcrew, but they “did a helluva job”, he said.

When a balloon was spotted, a call was made to 11 SFTS, then put through to the mini-dispersal area, a klaxon would go off. “We used to make sure that we had a fitter available to start the engines.”

He heard a rumour that a Yorkton-area farmer brought in a suspicious device, supposedly from a balloon bomb. Part of the hangar was immediately blocked off. The security surrounding the entire balloon bomb operation was “so tight that a mouse couldn’t even have got there.

He recalls that 11 SFTS at Yorkton flew Mark 5 Ansons and had recently taken over all of the Cornell trainers that had been operating from the EFTS at Davidson, plus some Mark 2 or 3 Ansons.

Don remembers being at Yorkton on VE Day – the cessation of hostilities in Europe. I asked him if there was a party. “There sure as hell was! He said.

“The mayor of Yorkton wasn’t very impressed. The guys had strung toilet paper all over the town and the restaurants and hotels were just booming.”

What would be next? “We were all set we’d had our shots and had our tropical gear and we were ready to go east when they (the American armed forces) dropped the atomic bomb and, of course, they (RCAF brass) cancelled everything.”

Don remained in the postwar RCAF and, at one point just after the war headed a reserve equipment maintenance unit (REMU) team with a truck, about 15 men and a “Queen Mary”, a long, specially built trailer that could carry the fuselage of an aircraft needing repair or salvage. They went from closed BCATP base to closed base, preparing aircraft for storage or sale. He remembers presenting the team at the guardhouse of what had been Moose Jaw’s 32 SFTS, where a fiercely mustachioed British service policeman barked, “Where you going?”

Where the ground instruction building is now located, there were barracks. They were “absolutely filthy” and the men initially were billeted in the downtown Grant Hall Inn before suitable quarters were found in what had been the station’s chapel. He recalls Moose Jaw as being a collection point for RCAF Cansos, Ansons and Oxfords. For the record, he remembers Mossbank was a storage site for Cornells and Hurricanes, while Swift Current had Cranes, Ansons and Cornells, all lined up”. Some aircraft –- like those that had to be returned to the U.S. or were needed by the postwar RCAF –- were ferried away by the RCAF’s No 170 Squadron, which specialized in such work. But as for the rest, “they’d bring in the accounting people and the supply people and you could buy whatever you wanted.”

By 1951, Don was stationed at the RCAF training base at Centralia, near London, Ont., when a W/C Miles, a senior engineering officer, asked him, “How would you like to go to Moose Jaw with me?”

“He said, ‘They’re going to open up Moose Jaw for a training school.’ He said, ‘We’ve got to do some evaluation, to see what’s required.”

Thus it came to pass that Don, W/C Miles and a few others were bundled into an RCAF Expeditor and went to the site of the wartime 32 SFTS south of Moose Jaw. It was, as he recalls, November or December of 1951 and “it was cold, cold.”

Don’s impression of the state of the base was blunt: “It was a mess.”

The wartime barracks, for example, were so shabby that the evaluation team could not stay in them, so they once again headed to the Friendly City’s Grant Hall Inn.

Their work eventually done, Don and the rest of the team returned to Centralia. But in February or March of 1952, the same wing commander appeared again and told Don he was returning to Moose Jaw –- permanently. “My exact words were, ’What the hell did I do to you?’” Don remembered.

Renovations to the old 32 SFTS to convert it into RCAF Station Moose Jaw (and ready it for a new generation of pilot trainees) were by the spring of 1952 well under way -– though there were no training aircraft at the base yet. “First of all, we had to set up maintenance.“

Access to the station was via Highway 2, which went south from the east side of downtown Moose Jaw the new highway that went from the city’s west side to the base was still under construction.

No. 7 hangar (now home to the Snowbirds air demonstration team) was then occupied by civilians: specifically, charter pilot Don Walz and his family, which was living in the northern part of the hangar, while the southern half of the hangar was used to marshal passengers for a civilian flight. Don thinks it was Pacific Western Airlines, but this firm did not yet exist. But Canadian Pacific Airlines flew from Moose Jaw to Regina, Saskatoon, Prince Albert and North Battleford, eventually adding Edmonton to this route. In this period, Don’s own family remained in Centralia, while he lived in a barracks at Moose Jaw.

The mess hall was in Hangar 4 while a permanent one was being built. Hangar 5 housed supplies and CPR staff handled landline telecommunications until the RCAF’s own personnel arrived. Don’s impression of the reopened base during this perioid was, “an awful lot of mud … it was an awful mess.”

“It was just mud. Everything was under construction. When we moved into the married quarters in 1953, we had to have a bulldozer pull the moving truck down the street. It was all mud!”

The main fleet of Harvard training aircraft arrived from RCAF Station Gimli, Manitoba, in Operation GIMJAW, which spanned May and June of 1953. The station had its own small fleet of Expeditors for transport duties, such as flying the commanding officer to RCAF Training Command headquarters in Winnipeg. “They were more of communications aircraft than anything else. The CO had to go to Winnipeg? He’d go on an Expeditor. He had his own we kept it pretty well polished.”

Don stayed at RCAF Station Moose Jaw until the summer of 1957, when his family’s vacation of Waskesiu was cut short by another airman’s news: Don was being posted overseas – specifically, to the RCAF’s 2 (Fighter) Wing at Grostenquin, France. He would be working on the CF-100 all-weather fighter. Don was surprised. Putting his fingers together he said, “I knew THAT MUCH about jets”

But orders are orders, and the family soon got into action. After packing their goods, they took a train east to Toronto, where they visited Don’s parents in Toronto, then preceded to Montreal, where they boarded the ocean liner SS Hibernia. It took them and a number of other families across the Atlantic to Le Havre, where an RCAF officer met them and got them onto a train to Paris, from which they caught another train to the northern city of St. Evaux and then the base at Grostenquin.

Don’s posting was to 423 Squadron, which flew grey/green/light grey camoflauged CF-100s alongside two squadrons of Sabres. “We were armed all the time,” Don said. “We were on 24 hours readiness and the pilots slept in the hangars. When we’d get an alert – what they called a ‘yellowjacket’, and when it was yellow, they’d sit on the cockpit right in the hangar.”

Don took particular pride in the ability of RCAF personnel to work minor miracles while on deployments to other NATO bases to -– a tribute to the RCAF system of cross-training personnel in each other’s groundcrew specialties.

As for the CF-100s themselves, Don said, “we called them ‘the Clunk’ and a lot of other bad names, but they were a good airplane.”

The ‘Clunks’ were not without quirks, though. Fuel normally was carried in two places –- fuselage tanks and wing tanks -– with wingtip tanks replacing rocket pods when long flights were planned. The price of the complicated fuel system was that when maintenance personnel would pull down the CF-100’s internal gun pack of eight .50-calibre machine guns, “there would be a fuel leak”. Overall, though, “it was an easy plane to work on it wasn’t difficult. Canadians built it and it was built for ease of maintenance.”

One weak point was the CF-100's radar, which wasn’t “all that reliable –- at least that’s what the radar people would tell us.”

And aircrew had to make sure that they’d drained the fuselage tanks before emptying the wing tanks. There were, sadly, quite a few casualties, including one spectacular accident that saw two aircraft collide right over RCAF Station Grostenquin and crash into the station’s hospital, with several fatalities. There were frequent rotations to the NATO air gunnery range at Decimomannu (nicknamed “Decchi”) in Sardinia, where a deal had been struck with local fishermen: aircraft would have to be airborne by 0400h, then finish early, giving the fishermen time to work. There was a benefit, though: the Canadian airmen thus had each afternoon off and were free to go to the local beach –- which Don recalls as being superb.

Back at Grostenquin, Don recalls the dispersal for the station’s two Sabre squadrons, Nos. 421 and 430, was close to the station, while 423’s was “way out in the boondocks, as we called it.” This, and the long road to the dispersal area – which even had traffic lights controlling the passage of cars over a runway -- set the stage for an unusual incident involving Don’s wife, Frances. Two things happened on the same day: Frances needed the family car for an errand and heavy fog was blanketing the area around the station, so flying was temporarily suspended. Frances and Don drove to dispersal, whereupon Don got out and Frances departed, secure in the belief that no aircraft would be flying that day when she headed for the road that crossed the runway.

Alas, “one guy decided he’d go out and check the weather,” Don recalled. “She said the wheels rolled over the roof of the car.” I said he wasn’t THAT low, but she said it WAS – and she remembered that.”

In 1962, Don and his family were posted back to Canada. Initially, he was told he’d be going to RCAF Station Saskatoon, home of 1 Advanced Flying School. But the station was soon to close, and Don received word he’d be going back to Moose Jaw. “I went right back to Moose Jaw – and back to the same office that I’d left.”

Sumber: Will Chabun's Aug. 27, 2008 interview with Don O’Hearne, plus follow-up e-mails as well as the author's notes of Don's talk on his career to the Regina Chapter of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society (CAHS) in 1994.

Here is the second article I wrote in 2007 after interviewing Don about his work with the Vintage Aircraft Restorers group at the Western Development Museum in Moose Jaw:

The story of the Vintage Aircraft Restorers volunteer group that has operated from the Moose Jaw branch of the Western Development Museum starts only a few years after the museum itself opened in 1976.

Inside the large, new, pyramid-shaped museum building on the northern edge of Moose Jaw there was clearly display room for additional aircraft to supplement the Norseman and Swallow biplane that entered the museum right after it opened. Asked to help secure and restore additional aircraft was RCAF veteran Don O’Hearne, who had served in the RCAF as a maintenance NCO from 1939 until 1965, then joined what used to be called Canada Manpower. His team’s first project, around 1980, was overseeing the restoration of a Cessna Crane twin-engine trainer for the museum. “I took on the job and gradually took on some people and we restored the Crane,” he said 28 years later.

That led to the restoration of two Canadian-built trainers of the Second World War: an Avro Anson and a Cornell. A Stinson 108 was restored in the markings of the Saskatchewan Flying Farmers -- by the Flying Farmers themselves), a Tiger Moth, a Funk high-wing monoplane and a Piper J-3 Cub.

Also constructed by VAR members were the front section of a Tutor and Airspeed Oxford (as children’s’ hands-on displays, a scale-model dioramas of a Snowbirds formation display and the wartime No. 5 Bombing & Gunnery School at Dafoe, replica (overhead in Snowbird Gallery) and a pair of Link Trainers, the state-of-the-art air training simulators of 1940.

Being restored by the VAR in 2008 were a complete Airspeed Oxford (for Saskatchewan aircraft historian/collector Frank Thompson) and a Canadian-built Vickers Vedette used by the RCAF in the late 1920s and then by the fledgling air service of the Saskatchewan Government in the mid-1930s.


France, 1940: 1 Squadron

In October 1939, the squadron moved to Vassincourt, where it became a part of the AASF, ready for operations over the front line. This force included ten squadrons of Fairey Battle light bombers, together with the Hurricanes of 1 and 73 squadrons, which were to escort them and to provide protection.

On 30 October 1939, the squadron's Pilot Officer PWO 'Boy' Mould shot down a Luftwaffe reconnaissance Dornier 17, which was the first RAF fighter claim over France. However, opposition in the air was rare during this 'phoney war' period, and by the end of the year only four victories had been claimed.

During the spring of 1940, clashes with the Luftwaffe became more frequent as the weather improved, and by 20 April the squadron 'bag' had risen to 23, for the loss of five Hurricanes and one pilot killed.

On 10 May 1940, the great German offensive in the west (which rapidly became known as the serangan kilat, or 'lightning war') began. Wehrmacht airborne troops landed in Holland and Belgium, as German tank columns and infantry crossed the frontiers into these neutral countries. At once elements of the French northern armies and the BEF moved forward into Belgium to intercept these invasions.

Meanwhile strong formations of Luftwaffe bombers and fighters launched a series of surprise attacks on Allied airfields, catching many units on the ground. 1 Squadron was fortunate not to be one of those caught, but was swiftly in action, flying many patrols and engaging in frequent fights with opposing formations.

Although almost always outnumbered, the squadron's well trained and experienced pilots did well from the start, and by the close of 13 May had claimed some 40 German aircraft shot down, for the loss in action of nine Hurricanes, but of only one pilot - young Pilot Officer Billy Drake, who was shot down and wounded by a Messerschmitt Bf 110. He baled out of his burning Hurricane, but did not rejoin the squadron until after its return to England.

On 14 May it became clear that German forces had made their way through the Ardennnes forest - thought by the French to be virtually impassable to armoured units - and were in the Sedan area, threatening to outflank the massive fixed defences of the Maginot Line, and to tear a great hole in the Allied lines. French and RAF bombers were thrown in here in a desperate attempt to stop the rot, but huge losses were suffered to Luftwaffe fighters and flak (anti-aircraft fire).


Early life and education

George Johnson (known within the family as Leonard) was the sixth and last child born to Charles and Ellen Johnson. He was born in the village of Hameringham in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. His mother died when he was three, leaving his father, a farm foreman, to bring up the family in somewhat poor conditions. The family lived in a tied cottage, his oldest sister Lena largely being responsible for his early upbringing.

Johnson attended school in the village of Winthorpe until the age of 11. Through a bursary scheme set up for the children of agricultural workers, he was sent as a boarder to the Lord Wandsworth Agricultural College in Long Sutton, Hampshire. He was active in sport, playing football, cricket and participating in athletics, winning several events. He passed his School Certificate, leaving school in December 1939.


  • Based at RAF Lossiemouth, 120 Squadron is the RAF&rsquos first operator of the Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft (MPA)
  • 120 Squadron began its long association with anti-submarine warfare and maritime patrol when it began operating the Liberator GR.Mk I from RAF Nutt&rsquos Corner, County Antrim, in 1941
  • 120 Squadron was RAF Coastal Command&rsquos highest-scoring anti-submarine warfare squadron in World War II
  • Became the first Avro Shackleton operator
  • Flew the Nimrod from 1970

1918 &ndash 120 Squadron stood up 1 January as a Royal Flying Corps unit at RAF Cramlington, Northumberland. It disbanded in October 1919

1941 &ndash Also known as CXX Squadron, the unit began flying the Consolidated Liberator in the Battle of the Atlantic

1942 &ndash Deployed detachments to Reykjavik, Iceland and the Middle East, before relocating to Iceland in 1943

1944 &ndash Returned to Ireland, stationed at Ballykelly

1946 &ndash Re-equipped with the Avro Lancaster

1951 &ndash First squadron to operate the Avro Shackleton MPA

1970 &ndash Began operating the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod jet MPA. Disbanded, still on the Nimrod, in 2010

2017 &ndash Announced as the first Poseidon MRA1 squadron, receiving the UK's initial example in 2019

2020 &ndash Flew the first UK-based Poseidon to Kinloss Barracks while upgrade work at RAF Lossiemouth was completed


Closing the 'air gap'

Northern Ireland’s primary role in relation to the air-war was to come through its port and airfield bases, mainly as Coastal Command due to Ireland’s geographical position to the North Atlantic, with a later role being extended to facilitate United States Army Air Force Combat Crew Replacement Centres (USAAF CCRCs).

By late 1940, the Allies were in a dangerously critical position in the Battle of the Atlantic. The German U-boats were going through the ‘happy time’ with Britain’s merchant fleet suffering a casualty rate of frightening proportions. In these early days there were little signs of the forthcoming tactics of joint Naval/Coastal Command co-operation, but signs began to appear to close the gap where no air-cover from east to west existed, and that meant building airfields as far west as possible to Britain.

For this reason an airfield building programme was commenced in Northern Ireland. Convoy protection and anti-U-boat patrols were already underway with No.502 Squadron from Aldergrove, an established pre-war airfield, whilst airfields built early in the war were Limavady, for aircraft engaged in convoy escort and reconnaissance patrols, and Ballyhalbert, for fighter protection of the Belfast area deemed urgent after the German raids of April/May 1941.

There was also a need for flying boat bases which had the advantage of no runway construction. Earmarked for one such base was Lough Erne in Co Fermanagh and despite an unfavourable report of the area in December 1940, the war situation dictated otherwise and work began around the Castle Archdale estate in January 1941. Lough Erne would provide an extra 100 miles of air-cover over the squadrons currently sited at Loch Ryan in SW Scotland.

However, there was one major problem that needed to be overcome for the base to fulfill its intended use – the aircraft needing to fly straight out into the Atlantic over Donegal Bay and hence over Free State territory. Sir John Maffey, the British representative to Eire, began a series of delicate negotiations with the Taoiseach, Eamon de Valera, to ask that aircraft be allowed to fly that route. On January 21, 1941, he received permission with limited conditions. Flights were to be at good height and were not to fly over the Irish Army camp at Finner, near Ballyshannon. Later, many more concessions were granted to the Allies as de Valera’s government engaged in a policy of benevolent neutrality.

The scope of arrangements were later widened. By February 5, 1941, No 240 Squadron RAF began to use Lough Erne. No 240 Squadron had converted to Catalinas and in those early days these aircraft would leave Lough Erne at dawn, patrol the Atlantic as far as Newfoundland and return to Wig Bay at Stranraer in Scotland usually around 04:30 hours, as it was a 21-hour patrol.

Upon arrival at Wig Bay, they would rest until later that morning, then fly over to Lough Erne and fuel up for another patrol the following morning. The reason for this diversion was that landings on Lough Erne at night were, in those early days, considered unsafe owing to the mountainous nature of the district.

May of 1941 was to prove eventful for No 240 Squadron when firstly on the 16th, a Catalina depth-charged an Italian submarine. The escorting naval corvettes confirmed the kill. However it was the sighting of the battleship Bismark on the morning of May 26 by Catalina ‘Z’ flown by Flying Officer Briggs and carrying an American co-pilot, Ensign Leonard Smith, that brought Castle Archdale into the history books within months of its opening. Ensign Smith was one of a group of US Naval personnel familiarising RAF pilots with the Catalina, whilst at the same time gaining operational experience. Their presence, as the United States was still neutral, was kept a secret, as was their intention to establish a flying boat base at nearby Killideas to accommodate four Catalina squadrons. A pressing need for US Catalinas in the Pacific put that plan on ice and Killideas became an RAF Operational Training base with No.131 OTU flying Catalinas.

In February 1942, the slipway at Lough Erne was used for the first time to beach a Sunderland.

Also significant for February was that the ‘happy time’ for the U-boats was ending. With the establishment of a Western Approaches command centre in Liverpool, new convoy escorts and an intensification of coastal command patrols, a significant turning point emerged.

March 1941 saw the German U-boat command lose four boats, commanded by ‘aces’.

No 221 Squadron RAF moved to Limavady in May 1941 from Bircham Newton in Norfolk England with their ASV equipped Wellingtons, whilst No.254 Squadron whose Beaufighters had come from Sumbridge at the end of May, took over patrols from Aldergrove until December when it left for Dyce in Scotland.

No 245 Squadron, who had been at Aldergrove with Hurricanes, left on July 15 as Fighter Sector HQ was transferred to Ballyhalbert on June 28, 1941. Aldergrove was then allocated to Coastal Command and No 233 Squadron, who were also stationed there with Hudsons, shot down a long range Condor which was attacking a convoy on July 23.

Further runway construction at Aldergrove began in September 1941, but the airfield remained operational with No 206 Squadron also flying Hudsons based there. Aldergrove was one of three airfields being upgraded in terms of runway length and layout, the others being Ballykelly and Ballyhalbert.

The creation of Ballykelly was clear from the start – to base long range reconnaissance aircraft to operate out into the Atlantic to cover ‘the Mid Atlantic Gap’ - ‘The Black Gap’ – where no air-cover could be provided allowing the U-boats to track the convoys with impunity.

The answer was the American built B24 Liberator bomber! No 120 Squadron, RAF was already forming up at Nutts Corner, ten miles North of Belfast with the Mk 1, but the specialised maritime equipment needed for the conversion of this ‘bomber’ to a maritime role was still in short supply, so for the next year, until August 1942, the squadron would remain the only Liberator squadron. Two further squadrons, Nos 59 and 86 would also later operate from Aldergrove and Ballykelly flying Mk V Liberators. Ballykelly’s first operational Coastal squadron was No.220 Squadron, flying B17 flying fortresses.

The following year, in July 1942, No 120 Squadron joined No 220 at Ballykelly, as No 120 Squadron had occasionally used Ballykelly as a landing ground during their time at Nutts Corner after sweeps out into the Atlantic. (Ballykelly aircraft used Bishopscourt in Co Down in a similar way.) During the summer of 1942, later versions of the Liberator, the Mk II and Mk III were joining No 120 Squadron and they were now able to patrol out to 30 degrees west and beyond with an endurance of over 16 hours. This now ensured that the squadron would be able to encounter U-boats in the notorious ‘air gap’.

All Liberators up to the Mk III standard were equipped with ASV Mk II radar, with a range of some ten miles. Transmitter aerials were located obliquely at the front on the outer wing and looking out sideways on the rear fuselage. When a contact was picked up, the aircraft would turn on to the relevant bearing and home in with an aerial on the nose.

The Mk III aircraft retained the two .50 calibre machine guns in the rear ‘Glen Martin Turret,’ instead of the four .303 machine guns and the ‘Bolton Paul’ turret of the more extensively modified aircraft. A more important feature was the American H2X centimetric radar whose scanner was housed in the ventral ball turret position, the first Coastal Command aircraft to use the new radar operationally.

Construction standards at airfields were modified as the war developed. The largest and best equipped airfields were Cluntoe, Toome, Greencastle (all three later passing to the USAAF as CCRCs) and Bishopscourt, which were all built to 1942 Class A Bomber Standard which stipulated optimum runway length and gradients enabling operation of the heaviest aircraft then in service.

After a spell at the Dumlambert Hotel in Belfast, No 82 Group Fighter Command set up HQ in the Senate Chamber in Northern Ireland’s one-time seat of Government, Stormont Castle, with an ‘emergency’ underground HQ bunker sited at Kircubbin in Co Down. Three fighter stations were set up at Ballyhalbert, Eglinton and Kirkistown, with a fourth station Maydown earmarked for USAAF use.

Many famous Battle of Britain squadrons were to find themselves at these bases over the years, such as No 152, who whilst based at Eglinton in 1941 lost two DFC (Distinguished Flying Cross) holders in crashes, Flying Officer Williams, DFC, and Squadron Leader Bodie, DFC. They were buried in St Canin’s Church, Eglinton.

Several Polish squadrons of the RAF such as No 303 and No 315 saw service at Ballyhalbert, as did No 504 squadron, who shot down a Ju88D which was on a return leg from a photographic reconnaissance patrol on August 23, 1942. They shared the ‘downing’ with No 315 Squadron (RAF Valley) and No 152 Squadron (RAF Angle) both in Wales. At this stage of the war, German aircraft were running the gauntlet through British airspace and such flights were becoming very hazardous. The Ju88D crash-landed near Tramore, Co Waterford, and the crew survived.

By March 1943, despite the U-boats still marking up the successful sinking of British and Allied merchant shipping, there were signs of the Allies taking the upper hand in the North Atlantic. Long range aircraft had closed the gap across the Atlantic.

In May 1943, U-boat command suffered its worst setbacks of the war and would lead them to contemplate defeat. They lost 41 boats, sank in that ‘one month’. Their total loss for 1943 had totalled 237, of which 148 were credited to joint Royal Navy/RAF Coastal Command operations. The tide had turned and the hunters had now become the hunted.

Bacaan lebih lanjut:
Down in a Free State – Wartime Air Crashes and Forced Landings in Eire 1939 – 1945 (1999) by John Quinn


120 Squadron RAAF

No. 120 (Netherlands East Indies) Squadron was formed at RAAF Station Fairbairn in Canberra on 10 December 1943. As a joint Australian-Dutch unit, the Dutch authorities provided all the squadron's aircrew and aircraft while the RAAF provided its ground crew. This arrangement had been previously used for No. 18 (NEI) Squadron and the short-lived No. 119 (NEI) Squadron. It was originally intended that once formed, No. 120 (NEI) Squadron would be deployed to northern Australia and operate alongside No. 18 (NEI) Squadron. However, it was later decided to deploy the unit to Merauke, on the south coast of New Guinea, which formed part of the pre-war Netherlands East Indies (NEI).

The Squadron completed its training in early 1944. During December 1943, the No. 120 (NEI) Squadron pilots who had been trained in the United States received training at No. 2 Operational Conversion Unit to familiarise them with RAAF procedures. The squadron acquired its full complement of P-40 Kittyhawk fighters by 22 January 1944 at this time it was manned by 28 Dutch pilots and 213 RAAF personnel. In mid-March 1944 No. 120 (NEI) Squadron made an emergency deployment to 'Potshot' airfield in Western Australia in response to a feared Japanese attack on the Perth area. The squadron's aircraft began to depart Fairbairn on 9 March and returned on the 28th of the month after the crisis had passed.

More to follow. like to contribute?

We would particularly like to encourage individual historians researchers or members of unit associations to contribute to the development of a more detailed history and photographs pertaining to this unit and its members.


Tonton videonya: MARS SKUADRON 600