Hak Asasi Manusia Barbados - Sejarah

Hak Asasi Manusia Barbados - Sejarah

Wanita

Pemerkosaan dan Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga: Undang-undang mengkriminalisasi pemerkosaan terhadap perempuan, dan hukuman maksimalnya adalah penjara seumur hidup. Undang-undang terpisah membahas pemerkosaan laki-laki. Ada perlindungan hukum terhadap perkosaan suami-istri bagi perempuan yang memegang surat keputusan perceraian, surat cerai, atau surat perintah non-penganiayaan yang dikeluarkan oleh pengadilan.

Undang-undang melarang kekerasan dalam rumah tangga dan memberikan perlindungan kepada semua anggota keluarga, termasuk laki-laki dan anak-anak. Hukum berlaku sama untuk pernikahan dan hubungan hukum umum. Undang-undang memberi wewenang kepada polisi untuk melakukan penangkapan setelah menerima pengaduan, mengunjungi tempat tersebut, dan memiliki jaminan bahwa suatu kejahatan telah dilakukan.

Hukuman tergantung pada beratnya dakwaan dan berkisar dari denda untuk pelanggar pertama kali (kecuali cederanya serius) hingga hukuman mati untuk kasus yang mengakibatkan kematian korban. Korban dapat meminta perintah penahanan, yang sering dikeluarkan oleh pengadilan. Pengadilan dapat menghukum pelanggar ke penjara karena melanggar perintah semacam itu.

Kekerasan dan pelecehan terhadap perempuan terus menjadi masalah sosial yang signifikan. Polisi memiliki unit pendukung korban, tetapi laporan menunjukkan bahwa layanan yang diberikan tidak memadai.

Ada layanan konseling publik dan swasta untuk korban kekerasan dalam rumah tangga, pemerkosaan, dan pelecehan anak. Pemerintah menyediakan dana untuk tempat penampungan, bagi perempuan yang menghadapi kekerasan. Shelter ini juga melayani korban perdagangan manusia dan bentuk-bentuk kekerasan berbasis gender lainnya.

Biro Urusan Gender mengutip kurangnya informasi spesifik dan aktivis hak asasi manusia yang tidak memadai mencatat penurunan jumlah kasus pemerkosaan yang dilaporkan di mana korban tidak mengenal pelaku. Mereka juga memuji program pemerintah dan mencatat peningkatan nyata dalam sikap dan upaya masyarakat untuk meningkatkan pelaporan.

Pelecehan seksual: Tidak ada undang-undang yang memuat hukuman khusus untuk pelecehan seksual kecuali di tempat kerja. Aktivis hak asasi manusia melaporkan pelecehan seksual terus menjadi perhatian serius.

Pemaksaan dalam Pengendalian Penduduk: Tidak ada laporan tentang aborsi paksa, sterilisasi paksa, atau metode pengendalian populasi paksa lainnya. Perkiraan kematian ibu dan prevalensi kontrasepsi tersedia di: www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality-2015/en/.

Diskriminasi: Hukum memberikan status dan hak hukum yang sama bagi perempuan dan laki-laki, kecuali bahwa perempuan Barbados yang tidak lahir di Barbados tidak mengalihkan kewarganegaraan kepada anak-anak mereka. Perempuan secara aktif berpartisipasi dalam semua aspek kehidupan nasional dan terwakili dengan baik di semua tingkat sektor publik dan swasta, meskipun beberapa diskriminasi tetap ada. Undang-undang tidak mengamanatkan upah yang sama untuk pekerjaan yang sama, dan laporan menunjukkan bahwa perempuan memperoleh pendapatan yang jauh lebih rendah daripada laki-laki untuk pekerjaan yang sebanding.

Anak-anak

Pendaftaran Kelahiran: Kewarganegaraan diperoleh dengan kelahiran di dalam negeri atau orang yang lahir di luar negeri dari orang tua Barbados. Ada pencatatan kelahiran universal.

Pelecehan Anak: Undang-undang tidak melarang kekerasan atau pelecehan terhadap anak-anak, dan pelanggaran semacam itu tampaknya meningkat. Pejabat pemerintah berpartisipasi dalam kampanye yang disponsori UNICEF untuk menyadarkan masyarakat tentang pelecehan seksual anak. Sebuah hotline telepon tersedia untuk melaporkan pelecehan anak.

Dewan Penitipan Anak memiliki mandat untuk perawatan dan perlindungan anak, yang melibatkan penyelidikan pusat penitipan anak dan tuduhan pelecehan anak atau pekerja anak, serta menyediakan layanan konseling, penempatan tempat tinggal, dan pengasuhan anak.

Pernikahan Dini dan Dipaksa: Usia minimum yang sah untuk menikah adalah 18 tahun. Orang yang berusia antara 16 hingga 18 tahun dapat menikah dengan persetujuan orang tua.

Eksploitasi Seksual Anak: Undang-undang mengatur perlindungan anak dari eksploitasi dan pelecehan seksual dan membuat pornografi anak ilegal. Usia minimum untuk seks konsensual adalah 16 tahun. Kementerian Sosial, Pemberdayaan Daerah Pemilihan, dan Pengembangan Masyarakat mengakui prostitusi anak terjadi; namun, tidak ada statistik resmi untuk mendokumentasikan masalah tersebut. Laporan surat kabar menunjukkan jumlah gadis remaja yang terlibat dalam seks transaksional meningkat.

Penculikan Anak Internasional: Negara ini bukan pihak pada Konvensi Den Haag 1980 tentang Aspek Sipil Penculikan Anak Internasional. Lihat Departemen Luar Negeri Laporan Tahunan Penculikan Anak oleh Orang Tua Internasional di travel.state.gov/content/childabduction/en/legal/compliance.html.

Anti-Semitisme

Komunitas Yahudi sangat kecil. Tidak ada laporan tentang tindakan anti-Semit.

Penyandang Disabilitas

Undang-Undang Ketenagakerjaan (Pencegahan Diskriminasi) 2017 mengatur nondiskriminasi bagi semua orang. Undang-undang tersebut melarang diskriminasi terhadap penyandang disabilitas dalam pekerjaan, tetapi tidak mencakup pendidikan atau penyediaan layanan negara lainnya. Undang-undang terpisah mengatur pemberi kerja untuk memastikan keselamatan dan kesehatan penyandang disabilitas.

Pemerintah dan dewan menawarkan layanan bus gratis untuk anak-anak penyandang disabilitas; meskipun demikian, kesulitan transportasi di sekolah umum terus menjadi perhatian serius.

Dewan Penyandang Disabilitas Barbados, Organisasi Nasional Penyandang Disabilitas Barbados, dan LSM lainnya mengindikasikan bahwa transportasi tetap menjadi tantangan utama yang dihadapi penyandang disabilitas.

Meskipun banyak area publik tidak memiliki ramp, pagar, parkir, dan penyesuaian kamar mandi yang diperlukan untuk mengakomodasi penyandang disabilitas, dewan menerapkan inisiatif Barbados yang Dapat Diakses Sepenuhnya, yang berhasil meningkatkan aksesibilitas. Departemen Perencanaan Kota dan Negara menetapkan ketentuan untuk semua bangunan publik untuk memasukkan aksesibilitas bagi penyandang disabilitas. Akibatnya sebagian besar bangunan baru memiliki landai, parkir khusus, dan kamar mandi yang dapat diakses.

Tindak Kekerasan, Diskriminasi, dan Pelecehan Lainnya Berdasarkan Orientasi Seksual dan Identitas Gender

Undang-undang tersebut mengkriminalisasi aktivitas seksual sesama jenis konsensual antara orang dewasa, dengan hukuman hingga penjara seumur hidup, tetapi tidak ada laporan tentang hukum yang ditegakkan sepanjang tahun. Undang-undang tidak melarang diskriminasi terhadap seseorang berdasarkan orientasi seksual atau identitas gender yang nyata atau yang dirasakan dalam pekerjaan, perumahan, pendidikan, atau perawatan kesehatan.

Bukti anekdot menunjukkan bahwa orang-orang LGBTI menghadapi diskriminasi dalam pekerjaan, perumahan, dan akses ke pendidikan dan perawatan kesehatan. Aktivis mengklaim bahwa sementara banyak individu menjalani gaya hidup LGBTI yang terbuka, ketidaksetujuan polisi dan diskriminasi masyarakat membuat orang-orang LGBTI lebih rentan terhadap ancaman, kejahatan, dan perusakan properti. LSM mengklaim bahwa perempuan LGBTI sangat rentan terhadap diskriminasi dan perlindungan yang tidak setara di bawah hukum.

Stigma Sosial HIV dan AIDS

Pemerintah melanjutkan kampanye media di seluruh negeri untuk mencegah diskriminasi terhadap orang yang terinfeksi HIV/AIDS dan orang lain yang tinggal bersama mereka, dan melaporkan bahwa kampanye tersebut telah mengurangi stigma sosial terhadap HIV/AIDS. Meskipun tidak ada diskriminasi sistematis, orang yang terinfeksi HIV/AIDS umumnya tidak mengungkapkan kondisi tersebut karena kurangnya penerimaan sosial.


EDITORIAL - HAM di masa pandemi

Manusia adalah hewan sosial yang secara alami mendambakan kontak antarpribadi, tetapi meningkatnya tantangan nasional terhadap pandemi virus corona mengharuskan negara untuk mengekang beberapa aspek interaksi manusia. Hal ini memerlukan pemberlakuan pembatasan pada sejumlah hak yang telah kami terima sebagai kebutuhan untuk kongres sosial dan yang secara konstitusional dijamin oleh negara sebagai hal mendasar.

Pelaksanaan hak-hak mereka yang tidak dibatasi oleh orang-orang seperti kebebasan berserikat, bergerak, berkumpul, hati nurani, kebebasan dan berekspresi semuanya menimbulkan ancaman bagi manajemen efektif pandemi yang sedang berlangsung dan dengan demikian sekarang mungkin harus diringkas dalam kepentingan publik yang lebih besar.

Akan tetapi, sebagaimana kebebasan ini terkenal tidak mutlak, demikian pula hak negara untuk melanggarnya dan teks-teks konstitusi memperjelas hal ini, apakah pembatasan itu dirumuskan sebagai keharusan yang wajar untuk kepentingan pertahanan, keamanan umum, ketertiban umum, moralitas atau kesehatan masyarakat (Barbados) atau, kecuali sejauh ketentuan undang-undang atau, tergantung kasusnya, segala sesuatu yang dilakukan di bawah wewenangnya terbukti tidak dapat dibenarkan secara wajar dalam masyarakat demokratis (Antigua & amp Barbuda) atau, sebagai Piagam Hak dan Kebebasan Jamaika menyatakan sebaliknya, harus sedemikian rupa sehingga hanya dapat dibuktikan dibenarkan dalam masyarakat yang bebas dan demokratis”.

Oleh karena itu, undang-undang mensyaratkan bahwa setiap pelanggaran harus sebanding dengan penikmatan hak, yaitu, bahwa tindakan yang diambil harus dirancang dengan hati-hati untuk mencapai tujuan yang bersangkutan, dan tidak boleh sewenang-wenang, tidak adil atau berdasarkan pertimbangan yang tidak rasional. Sebaliknya, “mereka harus terlebih dahulu terhubung secara rasional dengan tujuan kedua, bahkan jika secara rasional terhubung dengan tujuan dalam pengertian pertama, mereka harus merusak sesedikit mungkin hak atau kebebasan yang bersangkutan dan ketiga, harus ada proporsionalitas antara efek dari tindakan yang bertanggung jawab untuk membatasi hak atau kebebasan dan tujuan yang telah diidentifikasi sebagai cukup penting ... "

Karena alasan inilah kami baru-baru ini mengutuk penolakan otoritas Trinidad & Tobago untuk mengizinkan sejumlah warga negaranya untuk pulang sebagai pelanggaran yang tidak proporsional terhadap hak sipil mereka untuk memasuki kembali tanah asal mereka.

Mengingat sifat hukum masyarakat modern, ada sedikit keraguan bahwa beberapa tindakan yang diadopsi oleh yurisdiksi regional akan ditentang secara hukum pada tahap tertentu. Memang, sudah ada litigasi seperti itu di Guyana di mana seorang ayah mengajukan permohonan habeas corpus terhadap negara untuk menjamin pembebasan putranya dari karantina institusional yang diamanatkan dalam kondisi yang dianggap kurang dari kondisi yang menguntungkan. Dia mendasarkan klaimnya pada pelanggaran hak putranya atas kebebasan pribadi, kebebasan bergerak dan tidak menjadi sasaran hukuman yang tidak manusiawi dan merendahkan martabat.

Tentu saja, tindakan tersebut gagal baik pada tingkat pertama maupun pada tingkat banding, pengadilan terakhir berpendapat bahwa undang-undang tersebut condong mendukung pembatasan hak-hak dasar demi kepentingan kesehatan masyarakat untuk mendeteksi, mencegah, menahan, dan menghilangkan penyakit menular.

Sehubungan dengannya, kami memuji administrasi pemerintahan lokal atas kehati-hatian dan kesabarannya, yang berbeda dari yang lain, dalam memperlakukan hak-hak orang Barbados selama keadaan darurat saat ini. Jika ada, kami percaya bahwa kadang-kadang terlalu akomodatif dalam menghadapi keengganan nakal oleh beberapa orang untuk mematuhi pedoman jarak fisik yang disarankan secara medis dan terlalu siap untuk membuat pengecualian untuk apa yang seharusnya menjadi periode karantina nasional yang diberlakukan secara ketat. .


Bagaimana Anda Memulai: Kode Budak dan Patroli Budak

Berasal dari Virginia dan Maryland, kode budak Amerika mendefinisikan budak dari Afrika sebagai properti daripada sebagai manusia (Robinson 2017) yaitu, tanpa hak. Kode budak Amerika berakar pada kode budak Barbados. Menurut Dr. Robinson (2017), Inggris menetapkan Kode (hukum) Budak Barbados “untuk membenarkan praktik perbudakan dan melegalkan perlakuan tidak manusiawi para pekebun terhadap orang Afrika mereka yang diperbudak.” Pemolisian Amerika di Selatan akan dimulai sebagai sebuah institusi—patroli budak—yang bertanggung jawab untuk menegakkan hukum tersebut (Turner et al., 2006), karena pemberontakan budak merupakan ancaman bagi tatanan sosial dan ketakutan kronis pemilik perkebunan.

Patroli budak pertama didirikan di Amerika Serikat bagian selatan, khususnya koloni Carolina (Reichel, 1992), pada awal 1700-an. Pada akhir abad ini, setiap negara budak memiliki patroli budak. Menurut Dr. Potter (2013), patroli budak mencapai beberapa tujuan: menangkap budak yang melarikan diri dan mengembalikannya kepada pemiliknya melepaskan teror untuk mencegah pemberontakan budak potensial dan mendisiplinkan budak di luar hukum karena melanggar aturan perkebunan. Dijelaskan oleh Turner et al. (2006), patroli budak adalah "kekuatan yang disponsori pemerintah [sekitar 10 orang] yang terorganisir dengan baik dan dibayar untuk berpatroli di area tertentu untuk mencegah kejahatan dan pemberontakan oleh budak terhadap komunitas kulit putih" di selatan sebelum perang. Tanpa surat perintah atau izin, patroli budak dapat memasuki rumah siapa pun—hitam atau putih—yang dicurigai melindungi budak yang melarikan diri. (Di zaman modern, ini jelas merupakan pelanggaran terhadap Amandemen Keempat dan merupakan pencarian ilegal.) Setelah Perang Saudara berakhir, patroli budak berkembang menjadi departemen kepolisian selatan. Bagian dari tugas awal polisi pasca-Perang Saudara adalah untuk memantau perilaku budak yang baru dibebaskan, banyak dari mereka, jika tidak diberikan tanah mereka sendiri, akhirnya bekerja di perkebunan yang dimiliki oleh orang kulit putih dan untuk menegakkan kebijakan segregasi sesuai dengan era baru. Kode dan hukum Jim Crow.

Kode Hitam pertama disahkan pada tahun 1865, tak lama setelah ratifikasi Amandemen Ketigabelas yang melarang perbudakan. Kode adalah undang-undang yang menentukan bagaimana, kapan, dan di mana budak yang dibebaskan dapat bekerja dan berapa banyak mereka akan dibayar. Pada dasarnya, Black Codes mempertahankan struktur de facto perbudakan tanpa secara formal menyebutnya “perbudakan.” Kode Hitam lainnya membatasi hak orang kulit hitam untuk memilih, mendiktekan bagaimana dan di mana mereka dapat bepergian, dan di mana mereka dapat tinggal. Karena banyak mantan tentara Konfederasi telah beralih bekerja di kepolisian atau di tempat lain dalam sistem peradilan (misalnya, sebagai hakim), sistem peradilan, termasuk penegakan hukum, melanggengkan penindasan orang Afrika-Amerika.

Pada tahun 1880-an, bentuk-bentuk baru Kode Hitam yang dikenal sebagai hukum Jim Crow diberlakukan di seluruh negara bagian selatan. Berlaku hingga tahun 1965, undang-undang baru ini melarang orang kulit hitam dan kulit putih berbagi ruang publik, seperti sekolah, perpustakaan, kamar mandi, dan restoran. Kesulitan hidup bagi orang Afrika-Amerika di Jim Crow South (Mississippi, khususnya) adalah fokus dari sebuah buku terbaru oleh Jim Sturkey, Hattiesburg: Kota Amerika dalam Warna Hitam Putih. Mungkin gambar yang paling terkenal dari era ini adalah air mancur terpisah tetapi "sama" untuk orang kulit putih versus orang kulit berwarna, diambil pada tahun 1950 oleh Elliot Erwitt di North Carolina (lihat di sini). Orang kulit hitam yang melanggar hukum atau melanggar norma selama periode Jim Crow sering menghadapi kebrutalan di tangan polisi (Robinson, 2017).

Maju cepat ke tahun 1960-an dan akhir formal era Jim Crow. Undang-Undang Hak Memilih dan Undang-Undang Hak Sipil muncul selama satu dekade banyak pergolakan sosial dan politik. Oposisi terhadap Perang Vietnam dan gerakan protes lainnya—untuk hak-hak sipil, hak perempuan, hak korban, hak tahanan—menandakan bahwa Amerika telah memasuki era baru tantangan status quo. Pada Juli 1964, aktivis hak-hak sipil Malcolm X mengecam apa yang disebutnya sebagai "taktik menakut-nakuti langsung" polisi New York dalam menanggapi ketegangan rasial di kota itu. Selama masa pergolakan ini, polisi bertindak sebagai penegak status quo. Itu bukan lagi tentang menumpas pemberontakan budak. Memang, protes warga dan respons polisi terhadap protes itu tidak hanya terjadi di negara-negara bekas budak tetapi di seluruh negeri. Menurut Dr. Victor Kappeler (2014) dari Eastern Kentucky University, polisi sekarang ditugaskan untuk menanggapi siapa pun yang melawan struktur sosial, politik, dan ekonomi Amerika yang ada—yang tampaknya merugikan orang miskin dan orang kulit berwarna. Selama musim panas akhir 1960-an, kerusuhan ras pecah di kota-kota di seluruh negeri, khususnya pada tahun 1967 dan setelah pembunuhan tahun 1968 pemimpin hak-hak sipil Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Polisi kadang-kadang menanggapi dengan keras kerusuhan dengan menggunakan anjing, api selang, dan gas air mata.

Selain itu, perlu disebutkan bahwa kepolisian tidak sendirian dalam sistem peradilan pidana yang memiliki masalah dengan rasisme dan diskriminasi institusional. Bagian lain dari sistem—termasuk pengadilan dan koreksi—juga terpengaruh. Dua kata: keyakinan yang salah. Miniseri Netflix Ava DuVernay yang luar biasa Ketika Mereka Melihat Kami menggambarkan cobaan yang memilukan dari para pria—Korey Wise, Kevin Richardson, Raymond Santana, Antron McCray, dan Yusef Salaam—yang dikenal sebagai Central Park Five. Beberapa dekade sebelumnya muncul keyakinan yang salah dari remaja yang dikenal sebagai Scottsboro Boys. Mereka juga dituduh memperkosa dua wanita kulit putih. Ini bukan insiden yang terisolasi.


Bagian 2. Penghormatan terhadap Kebebasan Sipil, Termasuk:

A. Kebebasan Berbicara dan Pers

Konstitusi memberikan kebebasan berekspresi, termasuk untuk pers, dan pemerintah pada umumnya menghormati hak ini. Pers yang independen, peradilan yang efektif, dan sistem politik demokrasi yang berfungsi digabungkan untuk mempromosikan kebebasan berekspresi, termasuk untuk pers.

Sensor atau Pembatasan Konten: Pers banyak memberitakan isu korupsi. Perwakilan masyarakat sipil menyampaikan kekhawatiran bahwa tuntutan hukum pencemaran nama baik dapat menyebabkan swasensor dalam beberapa kasus.

KEBEBASAN INTERNET

Pemerintah tidak membatasi atau mengganggu akses ke internet atau menyensor konten online, dan tidak ada laporan yang kredibel bahwa pemerintah memantau komunikasi online pribadi tanpa otoritas hukum yang sesuai. Menurut International Telecommunication Union, 82 persen warga menggunakan internet pada tahun 2017.

KEBEBASAN AKADEMIK DAN ACARA BUDAYA

Tidak ada batasan pemerintah pada kebebasan akademik atau acara budaya.

B. Kebebasan Berkumpul dan Berserikat Secara Damai

Konstitusi memberikan kebebasan berkumpul dan berserikat secara damai, dan pemerintah pada umumnya menghormati hak-hak ini.

C. Kebebasan beragama

Lihat Departemen Luar Negeri Laporan Kebebasan Beragama Internasional di 2017-2021.state.gov/religiousfreedomreport/.

D. Kebebasan Bergerak, Pengungsi Internal, Perlindungan Pengungsi, dan Orang Tanpa Kewarganegaraan

Undang-undang memberikan kebebasan pergerakan internal, perjalanan ke luar negeri, emigrasi, dan repatriasi, dan pemerintah pada umumnya menghormati hak-hak ini.

Pemerintah menunjukkan kesediaan untuk bekerja sama dengan Kantor Komisaris Tinggi PBB untuk Pengungsi dan organisasi kemanusiaan lainnya dalam membantu pengungsi, pencari suaka, atau orang lain yang menjadi perhatian, tetapi undang-undang tidak mengatur pemberian suaka atau status pengungsi, dan pemerintah belum menetapkan sistem untuk memberikan perlindungan kepada pengungsi.

PERLINDUNGAN PENGUNGSI

Akses ke Suaka: Undang-undang tidak mengatur pemberian suaka atau status pengungsi, dan pemerintah belum menetapkan sistem untuk memberikan perlindungan kepada pengungsi. Departemen Imigrasi bertanggung jawab untuk mempertimbangkan klaim pengungsi atau suaka.


Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia Rastafari Berlanjut Di Barbados

“Untuk merendahkan nyawa sekelompok pria mana pun, merendahkan nyawa semua pria, bahkan nyawa kita sendiri. Ini adalah hukum psikologi manusia, atau sifat manusia. Dan itu tidak akan dicabut oleh keinginan kita, juga tidak akan mengasihani kebutaan kita.”
William Pickens

Di Barbados, penggunaan ganja untuk tujuan sakramental oleh komunitas Rastafari telah naik ke landasan moral yang tinggi dari hak asasi manusia, ketaatan dan pelanggarannya. Argumen yang berkaitan dengan hukuman sebelumnya telah dibuat di parlemen oleh beberapa menteri pemerintahan Barbados, termasuk Perdana Menteri dan Jaksa Agung. Dalam upaya untuk mengatasi situasi ini, dan menyelamatkan diri dari aib karena ditantang di pengadilan, oleh komunitas Rastafari atas hak asasi manusianya untuk menggunakan ganja dalam perayaan spiritual mereka, pemerintah Barbados telah buru-buru menyusun RUU Cannabis Sakramental, dan membawanya ke parlemen yang disahkan Jumat lalu.

Apa yang seharusnya menjadi tindakan historis yang diambil oleh pemerintah Barbados untuk secara resmi mengakui dan menangani hak asasi manusia komunitas Rastafari, sebenarnya adalah sesuatu yang sama sekali berbeda. Apa yang telah diajukan dan disahkan di parlemen sebagai RUU Ganja Sakramental, sebenarnya merupakan kelanjutan dari pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang sama yang dikatakan pemerintah sedang berusaha untuk ditangani. RUU yang dipermasalahkan yang dengan bangga dibuat oleh pemerintah, sebenarnya sangat menyinggung hampir setiap pria dan wanita Rastafari di Barbados. Ini telah menempatkan batasan yang tidak masuk akal pada keyakinan dan cara hidup Rastafari. Bagian dari undang-undang yang ofensif dan tidak bijaksana ini juga mencoba untuk menempatkan irisan antara pengguna ganja Rasta dan non-Rasta. Rastafari telah dari melompat diwakili untuk pengembangan dan pemberdayaan semua orang. Jadi upaya untuk mengizinkan penggunaan ganja oleh Rastafari sambil menolak akses orang lain ke pabrik dengan undang-undang yang tidak adil tidak dapat diterima. Dalam bentuk kolonial lama yang sebenarnya, Pemerintah mencoba memecah belah dan mengontrol.

Tampaknya bagi saya, sebagaimana dicatat di akhir paragraf terakhir, bahwa pemerintah menggunakan taktik lama untuk membagi dan memerintah/menaklukkan di dan di dalam komunitas Rastafari itu sendiri. Tuntutan pertama pada komunitas Rastafari oleh pemerintah ini adalah agar komunitas itu diwakili oleh satu organisasi. Rastafari adalah cara hidup yang memiliki komponen religi. Seperti halnya pengelompokan agama dan sosial, di dalam Rastafari terdapat beberapa pengelompokan yang berdaulat di dalam dirinya. Jadi memiliki satu entitas Rastafari yang mewakili seluruh komunitas terbukti bermasalah. Ini tidak akan terjadi jika komunitas Rastafari memiliki di dalam dirinya sendiri kelompok kolektif yang mewakili keseluruhan. Sayangnya tidak. Mengadakan pertemuan dengan perwakilan dari berbagai entitas Rastafari dalam satu pertemuan sangat berbeda dengan pertemuan dengan satu organisasi yang menyatakan mewakili keseluruhan.

Namun pemerintah telah melihat cocok untuk berurusan dengan satu entitas Rastafari sebagai perwakilan untuk keseluruhan. Dengan ini ia dapat dengan lantang menyatakan ketika berbicara tentang hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan ganja bahwa komunitas Rastafari dikonsultasikan dan bahwa mereka berbicara dengan mereka. Percakapan ini belum tercermin dalam undang-undang ganja apa pun yang telah muncul di parlemen sejauh ini. RUU Industri Ganja Obat 2019 adalah contoh utama dari ini, dan RUU Ganja Sakramental tidak berbeda.

Gambar terbaru dari Rastafari pada perjalanan yang disponsori pemerintah ke Afrika di media sosial memiliki efek yang bervariasi di masyarakat. Baru tadi malam saya didatangi oleh seorang saudara Rastafari yang menuduh saya menjual komunitas. Argumennya adalah bahwa kami (saya dan organisasi tersebut di atas) menghadiri semua pertemuan yang diadakan oleh pemerintah, dan pada akhirnya masyarakat tidak lebih baik. Pada titik ini pria lain melompat masuk dan berkata 'Rasta di Afrika memeluk Perdana Menteri dan kembali ke rumah sebuah tagihan sedang disiapkan yang tidak menghormati Rasta'. Pria ini bukan Rasta. Beberapa orang bergabung dengan argumen yang semuanya mengambil posisi bahwa pemerintah memainkan Rasta untuk orang bodoh. Seorang wanita muda, bukan Rasta, mengatakan ” Simba, jika Rasta mengadakan aksi protes dan mendapatkan penghibur dan semua berbagai kelompok yang terlibat, pemerintah akan mendengarkan”. Aku diam mendengarkan semua yang dikatakan.

Selanjutnya saya baru-baru ini menghadiri sebuah nalar (pertemuan) Nyahbinghi di mana seorang sesepuh mengatakan, setiap organisasi Rastafari yang bertemu dengan pemerintah tentang masalah undang-undang sakramen ganja untuk masyarakat, harus merasa malu untuk terlibat dalam hal seperti ini. Semua yang hadir termasuk saya setuju. Selain itu, saya telah menerima banyak pesan dari saudara dan saudari Rastafari, bersama dengan orang lain yang menyatakan jijik terhadap RUU yang menjadi fokus. Banyak juga yang berpendapat bahwa protes ganja diperlukan.

Pengacara – di – Law yang sedang bersiap untuk menantang pemerintah di pengadilan mewakili Rastafari dan hak konstitusional mereka untuk menggunakan ganja, di media sosial mengatakan “ Ganja legal di bawah Undang-Undang Narkoba (Pencegahan dan Pengendalian) yang ada dan 1993 Peraturan. Pemerintah telah menggunakan Undang-undang ini untuk menambahkan Ganja ke formularium obat. Dua tagihan ganja sebelum senat. Mereka berdua memiliki beberapa masalah yang masih perlu ditangani. Di situlah tantangan datang… setelah penggunaan pribadi (hak untuk menggunakan di rumah Anda … untuk alasan apa pun) maka tidak perlu ada referendum. Penggunaan pribadi adalah tindakan komunitas. Ini mendahului referendum dengan membiarkan satu hakim memutuskan apakah orang-orang Barbados bisa menggunakannya di rumah atau tidak. (Di tempat umum lain yang ditunjuk) Sudah menjadi niat saya untuk menantang…jika perlu. Sekarang perlu!!”

Seperti komunitas lainnya, ada masalah bermasalah yang sedang dikerjakan Rastafari secara internal. Pemerintah harus tahu bahwa kita tidak akan terpecah belah oleh partai politik. Sangat menarik bagi saya, bahwa Perdana Menteri Mottley dapat melakukan perjalanan jauh ke Afrika, membawa kembali air sungai, berbicara secara mendalam tentang hubungan kita dengan benua itu, dan kemudian dapat dengan napas yang sama menyangkal mereka yang sejak awal memperjuangkan masalah reparasi. dan repatriasi dalam konteks Afrika, hak asasi mereka yang adil, seperti yang dilakukan penjajah lama.

Frantz Fanon berkata, “Terkadang orang memegang keyakinan inti yang sangat kuat. Ketika mereka disajikan dengan bukti yang bertentangan dengan keyakinan itu, bukti baru tidak dapat diterima. Ini akan menciptakan perasaan yang sangat tidak nyaman, yang disebut disonansi kognitif. Dan karena sangat penting untuk melindungi keyakinan inti, mereka akan merasionalisasi, mengabaikan, dan bahkan menyangkal apa pun yang tidak sesuai dengan keyakinan inti.” Banyak Barbados termasuk pemerintah memiliki Cannabis Cognitive Dissonance. Hal ini terbukti karena sebagian besar masih melihat tanaman sebagai obat, yang berbahaya pada saat itu, yang membutuhkan pengawasan terus-menerus dan peraturan yang tidak masuk akal.

Beberapa orang mengatakan RUU ini oleh pemerintah menunjukkan kedewasaan. Ini mungkin begitu, tetapi pertanyaannya adalah, menjadi dewasa dalam hal apa?

“Ketidaksiapan kelas terpelajar, kurangnya hubungan praktis antara mereka dan massa rakyat, kemalasan mereka, dan, boleh dikatakan, kepengecutan mereka pada saat yang menentukan perjuangan akan menimbulkan kecelakaan tragis.”
Frantz Fanon,


Diperlukan pihak netral

Panggilan telah dibuat untuk Komisaris Hak Asasi Manusia atau Ombudsman di Barbados, yang dapat berfungsi sebagai pihak independen untuk menyelidiki pengaduan tentang pelanggaran hak asasi manusia dan dugaan kesalahan lain yang dilakukan di negara tersebut.

Telepon datang baru-baru ini dari Jaksa Lalu Hanuman, ketika ia mencatat bahwa Komisaris Hak Asasi Manusia harus menjadi orang yang melakukan penyelidikan atas kematian Gua Shaquon, yang dikatakan meninggal dalam tahanan polisi lebih dari setahun yang lalu, tetapi menjawab masih akan datang. Dia mencatat bahwa hal-hal seperti ini dan hal-hal lain yang membutuhkan penyelidikan harus diberikan kepada pihak independen, bahkan ketika dia mempermasalahkan anggota Kepolisian Kerajaan Barbados yang melakukan penyelidikan mereka sendiri atas masalah tersebut.

“Ada kebutuhan di Barbados untuk proses investigasi yang transparan. Ini adalah pelanggaran keadilan alam yang berlaku, untuk memiliki peran polisi dalam penyelidikan diri mereka sendiri. Di bawah Otoritas Pengaduan Polisi Barbados, Komisaris Polisi diberikan peran tertentu dan dengan demikian, ini berarti bahwa siapa pun yang secara objektif melihat proses investigasi itu akan agak tertantang untuk mengatakan bahwa itu benar-benar transparan dan independen, mengingat ada peran untuk Kapolri,” kata Hanuman.

Berbicara langsung kepada ayah Shaquon, Andrew Cave dan ibu Trudy Chow selama konferensi pers baru-baru ini yang diadakan oleh Gerakan Karibia untuk Perdamaian dan Integrasi, Hanuman berkata, “Saya harap kematian putra Anda tidak sia-sia. Tidak ada yang bisa menggantikannya dan menggantikan rasa sakit dan penderitaan yang Anda rasakan, tetapi jika ada, saya pikir sebagai sebuah kelompok kita harus dengan tulus mengagitasi semacam Komisaris Hak Asasi Manusia independen seperti yang mereka lakukan di Selandia Baru atau Ombudsman Hak Asasi Manusia seperti yang mereka lakukan di beberapa tempat. seperti Slovenia, untuk memastikan bahwa ada penyelidikan yang tulus, transparan, objektif, tidak bias, netral, tidak hanya untuk masalah seperti ini, tetapi juga masalah umum.”

“Jadi masyarakat yang punya keluhan terhadap pemerintah terkait masalah HAM, bisa mendatangi Kombes HAM atau Ombudsman HAM dan orang itu kemudian bisa mengusut dan menerbitkan laporan. Saya pikir inilah yang harus kita kampanyekan di Barbados dan saya pikir ini juga cukup tepat untuk saat ini,” tegas sang pengacara.

Menunjukkan bahwa Barbados akan menjadi Republik pada bulan November tahun ini, dia menambahkan, “Ini adalah kesempatan besar untuk mengubah Konstitusi kita. Pasal itu dapat dimasukkan ke dalam Konstitusi baru, Konstitusi Republik, untuk memastikan bahwa ada Komisaris Hak Asasi Manusia atau Ombudsman Hak Asasi Manusia.”


Hak Asasi Manusia Barbados - Sejarah

Dirilis oleh Biro Demokrasi, Hak Asasi Manusia, dan Perburuhan, 30 Januari 1997.

Barbados, anggota Persemakmuran Bangsa-Bangsa, adalah demokrasi konstitusional dengan bentuk pemerintahan parlementer multipartai. Ratu adalah Kepala Negara dan diwakili oleh Gubernur Jenderal yang ditunjuk. Perdana Menteri Owen Arthur adalah Kepala Pemerintahan dan memerintah dengan Kabinet yang ditunjuk.

Kepolisian Royal Barbados bertugas menjaga ketertiban umum. Relawan kecil Barbados Defense Force (BDF), yang bertanggung jawab atas keamanan nasional, dapat dipekerjakan untuk menjaga ketertiban umum pada saat krisis, keadaan darurat, atau kebutuhan khusus lainnya. BDF telah membantu polisi sejak 1993 dengan patroli kawasan wisata tertentu dalam menanggapi peningkatan kejahatan. Secara keseluruhan, polisi menghormati ketentuan konstitusional dan hukum yang melindungi hak asasi manusia, tetapi laporan insiden penggunaan kekuatan berlebihan oleh polisi terus berlanjut.

Ekonomi didasarkan pada pariwisata, jasa, manufaktur ringan, dan pertanian, yang membuatnya rentan terhadap perkembangan ekonomi eksternal. Produk domestik bruto per kapita melebihi $6.000 per tahun. Barbados telah mengalami pemulihan moderat setelah resesi di awal 1990-an. Pada tahun 1996 ekonomi diharapkan tumbuh lebih dari 4 persen, terutama didasarkan pada peningkatan pariwisata.

Warga negara menikmati berbagai hak dan kebebasan, dan Pemerintah menghormati ketentuan konstitusional mengenai hak asasi manusia. Masalah hak asasi manusia yang utama terus menjadi kekerasan sosial terhadap perempuan dan anak-anak dan kadang-kadang contoh penggunaan kekuatan yang berlebihan oleh polisi.

Bagian 1 Menghormati Integritas Orang, Termasuk Kebebasan dari:

A. Pembunuhan Politik dan Ekstrayudisial Lainnya

Tidak ada laporan tentang pembunuhan politik atau pembunuhan di luar hukum lainnya.

Tidak ada laporan tentang penghilangan bermotif politik.

C. Penyiksaan dan Perlakuan atau Hukuman Lain yang Kejam, Tidak Manusiawi, atau Merendahkan

Konstitusi secara khusus melarang penyiksaan dan perlakuan atau hukuman yang kejam, tidak manusiawi, atau merendahkan martabat. Namun, Jaringan Hak Asasi Manusia Karibia dan pers lokal melaporkan banyak tuduhan pengakuan paksa. There continued to be credible reports that law enforcement officials sometimes used force during detention to extract confessions from detainees.

Police procedures provide that the police may question suspects and other persons they hold only at a police station, except when expressly permitted by a senior divisional officer. An officer must visit detainees at least once every 3 hours to inquire about the detainees' condition. After 24 hours, the detaining authority must submit a written report to the deputy commissioner. The authorities must approve and record all movements of detainees between stations. The Caribbean Human Rights Network is satisfied that the authorities generally adhere to these basic principles, although officials occasionally used excessive force.

Barbados is in the forefront of an initiative to standardize police procedures throughout the English-speaking Caribbean region. The authorities issued firearms to special units and some foot patrols in high-crime areas in response to the 1993 shooting death of a policeman and a rise in gun- and drug-related crime. Aside from this development, the police force is still mainly unarmed, in keeping with its British traditions.

The only prison is overcrowded, with over 800 inmates in a structure built for 350 inmates, and has very antiquated equipment. The Caribbean Human Rights Network has publicly urged the establishment of a detention and rehabilitation center for students and first offenders. The Government reported that it investigated the 1995 allegation of a gang rape of a young prisoner by other inmates and determined it to be without foundation.

The Government allows private groups to visit prisons to ascertain conditions.

D. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile

The Constitution prohibits arbitrary arrest and imprisonment and requires detainees to be brought before a court of law within 72 hours of arrest. The Government generally respects these provisions in practice. Criminal defendants have the right to counsel, and attorneys have ready access to their clients. The authorities do not use exile as a punishment or means of political control.

e. Denial of Fair Public Trial

The judiciary acts independently and is free of intervention by other branches of government. The Constitution provides that persons charged with criminal offenses be given a fair public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial

court, and the Government respects this right in practice. The judicial system provides for the right of due process at each level. The law presumes defendants innocent until proven guilty. The Government provides free legal aid to the indigent with the exception of a 1,000 pounds sterling cap on expenses incurred for appeals by death row prisoners to the Privy Council in London. Two inmates are suing the Government on the grounds that this limitation deprives them of their right to due process.

There were no reports of political prisoners.

F. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

The Constitution prohibits arbitrary entry, search, or seizure, and the law requires warrants to be issued before privately owned property may be entered and searched.

The Government does not routinely interfere in the private lives of its citizens. Nonetheless, there continued to be credible reports that, in response to increased drug-related crime, the police resorted to searches of homes in certain neighborhoods, sometimes without warrants. The Government does not censor mail. However, the Government restricts the receipt of foreign publications deemed to be pornographic. Other foreign publications of a non-prurient nature are allowed without restriction.

Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

A. Freedom of Speech and Press

The Constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press, and the authorities respect these rights in practice. There are two independent daily newspapers, both of which present opposition political views. The Government regularly comes under attack in the newspapers and on daily call-in radio programs. There are five radio stations, two of which are owned by the Government. The Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) television service (the only television source, excluding direct satellite reception) is government owned. Though CBC is a state enterprise, it regularly reported views opposing government policies. Although critics allege that the Government sometimes uses its influence to discourage media reporting on sensitive issues, the press remained vigorously critical of the Government on a broad span of issues. The Government prohibits the production of pornographic materials.

The Government does not restrict academic freedom.

B. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

The Government observes the constitutional provisions for peaceful assembly and private association in practice. Political parties, trade unions, and private organizations function and hold meetings and rallies without hindrance.

The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government respects this right in practice.

D. Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation

Citizens and legal residents move freely within Barbados and leave and enter the country without restriction.

The Government has not formulated a policy regarding refugees, asylees, or first asylum. The issue of the provision of first asylum did not arise. There were no reports of forced expulsion of anyone having a valid claim to refugee status. However, government practice remains undefined.

Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government

Citizens have this right in law and exercise it in practice. Political parties freely compete in fair elections by secret ballot at least every 5 years. In the most recent election in September 1994, the Barbados Labour Party won a decisive victory, gaining a 19-to-8 majority over the Democratic Labour Party. The New Democratic Party won one seat, its first ever in Parliament. There are no impediments to participation in the political process, and all citizens over age 18 may vote. The Prime Minister exercises executive power along with the Cabinet of Ministers he appoints, balanced by the bicameral Parliament and the judicial system.

Women are well represented at all levels of government and politics. After the September 1994 elections, Prime Minister Arthur appointed women to several cabinet-level portfolios. The Deputy Prime Minister is a woman (she also serves concurrently as Foreign Minister), and the Ministries of Health and Education are also headed by women.

Section 4 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights

Local groups involved with human rights operate freely and without Government hindrance. The Caribbean Human Rights Network, a Caribbean-wide human rights organization which has its headquarters and a small staff in Barbados, investigates and reports on allegations of human rights violations throughout the region.

Section 5 Discrimination Based on Race, Sex, Religion, Disability, Language, or Social Status

The Constitution provides for equal treatment under the law, regardless of race, religion, or sex. The Government respects these rights in practice.

Women actively participate in all aspects of national life and are well-represented at all levels of both the public and private sectors. They form a large percentage of heads of household and are not discriminated against in public housing or other social welfare programs. However, violence against women and children continued to be a significant social problem. Women's rights groups reported that the known incidence of sexual assaults, domestic violence, incest, and rape increased, despite the fact that there is still some reluctance on the part of victims to report such incidents. There are public and private counseling services for domestic violence, rape, suicide, and child abuse.

The 1992 Domestic Violence Law specifies the appropriate police response to domestic violence, intended to protect all members of the family, including men and children. It applies equally to marriages and to common law relationships. Criminal penalties for violent crimes are the same, regardless of the sex of the offender or the victim. The courts heard a number of cases of domestic violence against women involving assault or wounding. Victims may request restraining orders, which the courts often issue. The courts can sentence an offender to jail for breaching such an order. Human rights monitors continued to criticize the inconsistency in sentencing for rape, incest, and statutory rape, which is often left to the discretion of the judge. They noted that the lack of sentencing guidelines resulted in longer sentences for persons convicted of petty theft than for incest and lesser sentences for incest than for rape or sexual assault of nonfamily members.

The Government is committed to children's human rights and welfare, although violence against children remains a serious problem. The Child Care Board is the key agency responsible for monitoring and responding to the critical welfare needs, interests, and rights of children.

The law does not prohibit discrimination against the physically disabled in employment, education, or the provision of other state services. The Labour Department, which is responsible for finding jobs for the disabled, unsuccessfully advocated the introduction of such legislation in the 1980's. Similarly, there is no legislation mandating provision of accessibility to public thoroughfares or public or private buildings. Interest groups have lobbied for this type of legislation from time to time, but without success.

A. The Right of Association

Workers freely exercise their right to form and belong to trade unions and to strike. There are two major unions and several smaller ones, representing various sectors of labor. The public service union, the National Union of Public Workers, is independent of any political party or the Government. The largest union, the Barbados Workers' Union (BWU), was historically closely associated with the Barbados Labour Party prior to 1954. After 1954, officers of the BWU became personally associated with the Democratic Labour Party.

The law accords full protection to trade unionists' personal and property rights. Another law prohibits strikes against public utilities. All private and public sector employees are permitted to strike, but essential workers may strike only under certain circumstances and after following prescribed procedures. There were no major strikes or long-term work stoppages, except for a strike in July by junior doctors at the main hospital that disrupted clinical services for 1 week.

Trade unions are free to form federations and are in fact affiliated with a variety of regional and international labor organizations. The Caribbean Congress of Labor has its headquarters in Barbados. A new Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations was inaugurated in August 1995. Most unions belong to this organization.

B. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively

The law provides for the right to organize and bargain collectively, and authorities respected it in practice. Recent losses of jobs in the economy resulted in a reduction in union membership to about 20 percent of the working population. Normally, wages and working conditions are negotiated through the collective bargaining process, but a tripartite prices and incomes policy accord signed in the summer of 1993 established a 2-year wage freeze. The revised (second) protocol makes provision for negotiated increases in basic wages and increases based on productivity. The new accord covers 1995-1997, and was noted by Parliament on January 16.

Employers have no legal obligation to recognize unions under the Trade Union Act of 1964, but most do so when a majority of their employees signify a desire to be represented by a registered union. While there is no specific law prohibiting antiunion discrimination, the courts provide a method of redress for employees alleging unfair dismissal. The courts commonly award monetary compensation but rarely order reemployment.

There are no manufacturing or special areas where collective bargaining rights are legally or administratively impaired. There are no export processing zones.

C. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor

The Constitution prohibits forced or compulsory labor, and there were no reports of its use.

D. Minimum Age for Employment of Children

The legal minimum working age of 16 is generally observed. Compulsory primary and secondary education policies, which require school attendance until age 16, reinforce minimum age requirements. The Labour Department has a small cadre of labor inspectors who conduct spot investigations of enterprises and check records to verify compliance with the law. These inspectors may take legal action against an employer who is found to have underage workers.

e. Acceptable Conditions of Work

The law sets and the authorities establish minimum wages for specified categories of workers. Only two categories of workers have a formally regulated minimum wage--household domestics and shop assistants (entry level commercial workers). Household domestics receive a minimum wage of about $32.50 (bds $65.00) per week, although in actual labor market conditions, the prevailing wage is almost double that amount. There are two age-related minimum wage categories for shop assistants. The adult minimum wage for shop assistants is $1.87 (bds $3.75) per hour the juvenile minimum wage for shop assistants is $1.62 (bds $3.25) per hour. There is a minimum wage in place for workers (for example, sugar plantation workers) but the wage actually paid is a negotiated rate much higher than the legislated rate. This is a matter of practice but not of law.

The minimum wage for shop assistants is marginally sufficient to meet minimum living standards most employees earn more. In 1992 an International Labor Organization (ILO) Committee of Experts (COE) cited Barbados for not adhering to the ILO convention on equal remuneration in its wage differentials in the sugar industry. The COE admonished the Government to ensure the application of the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value to male and female workers in the sugar industry or to provide further information on job descriptions which might justify such wage distinction. This case was not resolved by year's end.

The standard legal workweek is 40 hours in 5 days, and the law requires overtime payment for hours worked in excess. Barbados accepts ILO conventions, standards, and other sectoral conventions regarding maximum hours of work. However, there is no general legislation that covers all occupations. Employers must provide workers a minimum of 3 weeks' annual leave. Unemployment benefits and national insurance (social security) cover all workers. A comprehensive, government-sponsored health program offers subsidized treatment and medication.

The Factories Act of 1983 sets out the officially recognized occupational safety and health standards. The Labour Department enforces health and safety standards and follows up to ensure that problems cited are corrected by management. The Factories Act requires that in certain sectors firms employing more than 50 workers set up a safety committee. This committee can challenge the decisions of management concerning the occupational safety and health environment. Trade unions have called on the Government to increase the number of factory inspectors in order to enforce existing and proposed safety and health legislation more effectively, and to follow up to ensure that problems cited are corrected by management. Government-operated corporations in particular were accused of doing a "poor job" in health and safety. The Government has promised to undertake inspections of government-operated corporations and manufacturing plants as a priority. Workers have a limited right to remove themselves from dangerous or hazardous job situations without jeopardizing their continued employment.


The International Federation of Business and Professional Women (BPW International) was founded by Dr. Lena Madesin Phillips in 1930. BPW International has become one of the most influential international networks of business and professional women with affiliates in 95 countries in five continents. BPW has consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and participatory status with the Council of Europe. Its members include influential women leaders, entrepreneurs, business owners, executives, professionals and young career women.

BPW International develops the professional, leadership and business potential of women on all levels through advocacy, mentoring, networking, skill building and our economic empowerment programs and projects around the world.

The Business & Professional Women’s Club of Barbados (Est. 1966), is a “status-of-women” organisation and a chapter of the International Federation of Business and Professional Women, represented in over 100 countries. It is a registered charity comprised of volunteers. BPW Barbados focuses on elevating the status of women, through training & development, business & entrepreneurship, improvements in health & freedom from violence.

The objectives of BPW International are:-

  • To work for high standards of service in business and the professions.
  • To encourage women and girls to acquire education, occupational training and advanced education, and to use their occupational capacities and intelligence for the advantage of others as well as themselves.
  • To stimulate and encourage in women, awareness and acceptance of their responsibilities to the community, locally, nationally and internationally.
  • To work for equal opportunities and status for women in the economic, civil and political life in all countries, and to work for the removal of all discrimination.
  • To promote world-wide friendship, co-operation and understanding between business and professional women.

About BPW Barbados Projects, Programmes & Alliances

BPW Barbados has implemented several social, political and economic development programmes over the years to encourage the advancement of women and girls, respect of their human rights, protection of the vulnerable and to promote empowerment to improve their quality of life in all spheres.

Gender-Based Violence

For almost 30 years, BPW Barbados has played a tremendous role in the development of Gender-Based Violence policies and programmes in Barbados, having a significant role in the Human Rights landscape of the country. BPW Barbados operates a Shelter for Battered Women, a 24-Hour Crisis Hotline and in 2014 and a new walk-in Crisis & Resource Centre as part of a Reduce Gender-Based Violence and HIV Project. The BPW Shelter is the organisation’s flagship project, through which safe house and crisis intervention services are offered to women and children victims of domestic violence, human trafficking and other forms of Gender-Based Violence. BPW Barbados is also a member of the National Task Force on Human Trafficking. In recent times, due to economic constraints and major reductions in Government subventions (the Government, being the main donor since the inception of the Shelter), the project has been challenged for the first time in its history. However, closing the facility is not an option and the thought of women and children having nowhere to go when fleeing from violence represents regression and denial of a basic human need – safe shelter. BPW Barbados continues to seek funding and put measures in place to keep the doors of their flagship project open and salutes it staff members who report to work amidst months of delays in payment of salaries. BPW Barbados commends staff, volunteers and members of the organization who work tirelessly to keep the project afloat.

Capacity Building

Capacity Building is a major part of the work of the organization, as sharing knowledge for development and improvement of skills is a key element of empowerment. Such is evidenced in the annual personal development programme “Educate to Eradicate Poverty and Abuse” for young mothers and the recently completed Breakfast Club Empowerment Programme for Differentl-Abled Women. BPW Barbados leads in Gender-Based Violence capacity building for its stakeholders in law enforcement, the legal community, medical fraternity, social services and other entities.

Partnerships: Local, Regional & International Stakeholders & Collaborations

Partnerships are an important part of the work that BPW Barbados executes. In addition to the work with the Government of Barbados through the Bureau of Gender Affairs, BPW Barbados has partnered with several NGOs to improve the status of several communities, including women and children in the areas of social and economic development. Recent partnerships include work with the National Organization of Women, the Caribbean HIV Alliance, the Soroptimist International of Bridgetown, Dance4Life, Women of Purpose Ministries and the National Council of the Diabled, providing several education, prevention and empowerment programmes to various populations including the youth, some who are housed juvenile detention facilities. The international donors and embassies are key stakeholders in the work of the organization. BPW Barbados continues to collaborate with the US Embassy of Barbados & the Eastern Caribbean to host educational events, consultations and other interactions on gender, human rights issues and pertinent NGO issues. BPW Barbados has collaborated with UNWomen, UNFPA, UNDP and other UN agencies for consultations in areas of human rights, women, sexual and domestic violence, HIV, policy development and more. BPW Barbados is a key stakeholder in the European Union’s Gender-Violence Committee.

Human Rights

BPW Barbados, through the Bureau of Gender Affairs, reports on several human rights conventions that the country of Barbados has signed on to. These include the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Declaration to End Violence Against Women (DEVAW), Belem Do Para, the Beijing Platform for Action and others. Members of the organization have been recognized for their significant contributions to education, HIV prevention, politics and governance and other areas of national development.

Some of our other activities and accomplishments include:-

2014: Walk-in Crisis & Resource Centre as part of a Reduce Gender-Based Violence and HIV Project – a multi-stakeholder approach to mitigating GBV and HIV.

2014: Senior BPW Barbados Member Dame Maizie Barker-Welch awarded the Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her work in women’s rights and development locally, regionally and internationally recipient of the “Power to Make A Difference” Award at the BPW International Congress, South Korea.

2013: Awarded USA PEPFAR-GBV/ HIV Grant Awarded HR Development Grant by EU-NSA to conduct capacity building in Gender Based Violence & other areas.

2013: Formed alliance with Family Conflict Intervention Unit of the Royal Barbados Police Force to tackle issues of Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence in Barbados

2012: Appointed to National Task Force on Human Trafficking facilitated local NGO-capacity building by FAVACA Collaboration with the Team Mikey Charity & the UN’s UNiTE Campaign to promote gender-based violence awareness & prevention through “edutainment”.

2011: Implementation of Children’s Counselling & Intervention Programme at the BPW Shelter: individual and group therapy for children accompanying their mothers in the Shelter.

2008: Recipient of the Lady Mongella Award for work in Gender-Based Violence at the BPW International Congress, Mexico.

2005: Partnered with the Bureau of Gender Affairs & International Organisation on Migration for an island-wide Human Trafficking Awareness Campaign.

2003: Initiation of annual collaboration with the Albert Schweitzer Institute, Quinnipiac University, Connecticut, USA to host faculty and graduate students for volunteer outreach & capacity building seminars with local law enforcement, social workers, crisis intervention workers and NGOs in pertinent areas of Gender and Development.

1998: Shelter for Battered Women opened with the assistance of the Barbados Government..

1997: Crisis Centre is created in response to the need for further community outreach, education & interventional services in the area of Gender Based Violence.

1986: Crisis Hotline established for victims of rape. Today it is a 24-hour hotline for victims of all forms of violence.

1970s – 1980s: Young Career Women Competitions & Career Showcase

BPW Contributions to Legislation:

2014, 2012 & 1992 Review of Domestic Violence Act 1992 review of Sexual Offences Act

Constitution Review Committee – made strident representation for foreign-born husbands of Barbadian women to be able to live & work in Barbados Education Act Review Draft Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Act supported the call of National Organisation of Women for a Minimum Wage Bill


Barbados Constitution

Her Majesty, by virtue and in exercise of the powers vested in Her by section 5 of the Barbados Independence Act 1966 and of all other powers enabling Her in that behalf, is pleased, by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, as follows:

Citation commencement and construction

1. 1. This Order may be cited as the Barbados Independence Order 1966.

2. This order shall come into operation on 30th November 1966 (in this Order referred to as "the appointed day"):

Provided that the Governor may at any time after 22nd November 1966 exercise any of the powers conferred upon the Governor General by sections 4(3) and 10(1) of this Order and sections 60(1), 89(2), 90(1) and 91(1) of the Constitution set out in the Schedule to this Order (in this Order referred to as "the Constitution") to such extent as any, in his opinion, be necessity or expedient to enable the Constitution to function as from the appointed day.

3. For the purposes of the exercise by the Governor under the proviso to subsection (2) of the powers conferred by the said sections 89(2), 90(1) and 91(1), the references therein to the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition shall be construed as if they were references respectively to the Premier and to the Leader of the Opposition as defined for the purposes of Schedule 2 to the Barbados (Letters Patent Consolidation) Order 1964(b) and the other powers referred to in that proviso shall be exercised by the Governor acting in accordance with the advice of the Premier.

4. Save where the context otherwise requires, expressions used in sections 1 to 12 of this Order have the same meaning as in the Constitution and the provisions of section 117 of the Constitution shall apply for the purposes of interpreting those sections as they apply for the purposes of interpreting those sections as they apply for the purposes of interpreting the Constitution.

Revocations and Amendments

2. 1. The Barbados (Letters Patent Consolidation) Order 1964 (in this Order referred to as "the existing Order") is revoked but the revocation of the existing Order shall not affect the operation on and after the appointed day of any law made or having effect as if made in pursuance of the existing Order and having effect as part of the law of Barbados immediately before the appointed day (including any law made before the appointed day and coming into operation on or after that day).

2. The British Caribbean Court of Appeal Order in Council 1962(a) (as amended by the British Caribbean Court of Appeal (Amendment) (No. 2) Order in Council 1962(b)) is amended by the deletion of the words "and the Chief Judge and other judges of the Island of Barbados" in paragraph (b) of article 3(1) (which specifies the judges of which the Court consists):

Provided that, if provision is made by an order paragraph (b) of section 10(1) or by any other law for the continuance on or after the appointed day before the British Caribbean Court of Appeal of any such pending appeals as are mentioned in that paragraph, the, for the purposes of such appeals, Barbados shall continue to be a Territory for the purposes of the first mentioned Order and the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court of Barbados shall be members of the Court ex officio.

3. The West Indies (Dissolution and Interim Commissioner) Order in Council 1962(c) is amended by the deletion of sub-paragraph(b) (which specifies Barbados) of the definition of "the territories" in article 2(1) but nothing in this subsection shall affect the operation on and after the appointed day of any law having effect as part of the law of Barbados immediately before that day by virtue of the provisions of article 15 or 16 of that Order.

Establishment of Constitution

3. Subject to the provisions of this Order, the Constitution shall come into effect on the appointed day.

4. 1. Subject to the provisions of this section, the existing laws shall be construed with such modifications, adaptations, qualifications unawed exceptions as may be necessary to bring them into conformity with the Barbados Independence Act 1966 and this Order.

2. Where any matter that falls to be prescribed or otherwise provided for under the Constitution by Parliament or by any other authority or person is prescribed or provided for by or under an existing law (including any amendment to any such a law and under this section) or is otherwise prescribed or provided for immediately before the appointed day by or under the existing Order, that prescription or provision shall, as from that day, have effect (with such modifications, adaptations, qualifications and exceptions as may be necessary to bring it into conformity with the Barbados Independence Act 1966 and this Order) as if it had been made under the Constitution by Parliament or, as the case may require, by the other authority or person.

3. The Governor General may by order made at any time before 30th November 1967 make such amendments to any existing law as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for bringing that law into conformity with the provisions of the Barbados Independence Act 1966 and this Order or otherwise for giving effect to or enabling effect to be given to those provisions.

4. An order made by the Governor-General under subsection (3) shall have effect from such day, not earlier than the appointed day, as may be specified therein.

5. The provisions of this section shall be without prejudice to any powers conferred by this Order or by any other law upon any person or authority to make provision for any matter, including the amendment or repeal of any existing law.

6. In this section "existing law" means any law having effect as part of the law of Barbados immediately before the appointed day (including any law made before the appointed day and coming into operation on or after that day).

5. 1. The persons who immediately before the appointed day are members of the Senate established by the existing Order (in this section referred to as "the existing senate"), having been appointed as such under sub-paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) respectively of paragraph 10(2) of Schedule 2 to that Order, shall as from the appointed day be members of the Senate established by the Constitution as if they had been appointed as such under subsections (2), (3) and (4) respectively of section 36 of the Constitution and shall hold their seats as Senators in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

2. The persons who immediately before the appointed day are President and Deputy President of the existing Senate shall as from the appointed day be President and Deputy President respectively of the Senate established by the Constitution as if they had been elected as such under section 40 of the Constitution and shall hold office in accordance with the provisions of that section.

3. The persons who immediately before the appointed day are members of the House of Assembly the established for Barbados (in this section referred to as "the existing Assembly") shall as from the appointed day be members of the House of Assembly established by the Constitution as if elected as such in pursuance of section 41(2) of the Constitution and shall hold their seats in that House in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

4. The persons who immediately before the appointed day are Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the existing Assembly shall as from the appointed day be Speaker and Deputy Speaker respectively of the House of Assembly established by the Constitution as if elected as such by that House in pursuance of any provisions in that behalf.

5. Any person who is a member of the Senate or the House of Assembly established by the Constitution by virtue of the preceding provisions of this section and who, since he was last appointed or elected as a member of the existing Senate of the existing Assembly before the appointed day, has taken the oath of allegiance in pursuance of paragraph 21 of Schedule 2 to the existing Order shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of section 59 of the Constitution relating to the taking of the oath of allegiance.

6. The Standing Orders of the existing Senate and the existing Assembly as in force immediately before the appointed day shall, except as may be otherwise provided in pursuance of section 50(1) of the Constitution, be three Standing Orders respectively of the Senate and the House of Assembly established by the Constitution, but they shall be construed with such modifications, adaptations, qualifications and exceptions as may be necessary to bring them into conformity with the Constitution.

7. Notwithstanding anything contained in section 61(3) of the Constitution (but subject t the provisions of subsections (4) and (5) of that section) Parliament shall, unless sooner dissolved, stand dissolved on the expiration of five years from the first sitting of the existing Assembly after the general election of members of the Assembly last preceding the appointed day.

Ministers and Parliamentary Secretaries

6. 1. The person who immediately before the appointed day holds the office of premier under the existing Order shall, as from the appointed day, hold office as Prime Minister as if he had been appointed thereto under section 65(1) of the Constitution.

2. The person (other than the Premier) who immediately before the appointed day hold officers Ministers under the existing Order shall, as from the appointed day, hold the like offices as if they had been appointed thereto under section 65(2) of the Constitution.

3. Any person holding the office of Prime Minister or other Minister by virtue of subsection (1) or (2) who immediately before the appointed day was charged with responsibility for any subject or department of government shall, as from the appointed day, be deemed to have been assigned responsibility for the corresponding business or department of the Government under section 72 of the Constitution.

4. The persons who immediately before the appointed day hold office as Parliamentary Secretaries under the existing Order shall, as from the appointed day, hold the like offices as if they had been appointed thereto under section 73(1) of the Constitution.

5. Any person who holds office as Prime Minister or other Minister or Parliamentary Secretary as from the appointed day by virtue of the provisions of this section shall be deemed t have complied with the requirements of section 69 or section 73(2), as the case may be, of the Constitution relating to the taking of oaths

Leader of the Opposition

7. The person who immediately before the appointed day is the Leader of the Opposition (as defined for the purposes of Schedule 2 to the existing Order) shall, as from the appointed day, hold office as Leader of the Opposition as if he had been appointed thereto under section 74 of the Constitution.

8. The persons who immediately before the appointed day are members of the Privy Council established by the existing Order, having been appointed as such under clause 3 of the Barbados Royal Instructions 1964(a), shall, as from the appointed day, hold office as members of the privy Council established by the Constitution as if they had been appointed thereto under section 76(1) of the Constitution:

Provided that for the purposes of subsection (3) of that section the date of appointment of any such person shall be the date on which the period of his last appointment under the said clause 3 commenced or was deemed to have commenced for the purposes of that clause.

Existing judges and public officers

9. 1. Every person who immediately before the appointed day holds or is acting in a public office shall, as from the appointed day, hold or act in that office or the corresponding office established by the Constitution as if he had been appointed to do so in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution:

Provided that any person who under any existing law would have been required to vacate his office on the attainment of any age or on the expiration of any period shall vacate his office on the attainment of that age or at the expiration of that period.

2. The provisions of subsection (1) shall apply in relation to the office of a Judge as if that office were a public office.

3. Any person who, by virtue of the provisions of this section, holds or is acting in the office of the Director of Public Prosecutions or a Judge as from the appointed day shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of section 79(7) or, as the case may be, section 83 of the Constitution relating to the taking and subscribing of oaths.

4. In this section "existing law" has the same meaning as in section 4.

Pending legal proceedings

10. 1. The Governor General may by order make such provision as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for:

A. the continuance on or after the appointed day before the High Court of Appeal established by the Constitution of any proceedings pending immediately before that day before the Supreme Court of Barbados

B. the continuance on or after the appointed day before the said Court of Appeal or the British Caribbean Court of Appeal or the abetment of any appeal pending immediately before that day before the British Caribbean Court of Appeal from the Supreme Court of Barbados

C. the enforcement of any judgment of the Supreme Court of Barbados or the British Caribbean Court of Appeal given but not satisfied before the appointed day and

D. the enforcement of any judgment of the British Caribbean Court of Appeal given on or after that day by virtue of provision made in pursuance of paragraph (b).

"appeal" includes a case stated or question of law reserved

"judgment" includes a decree, order, ruling, sentence or decision

"the Supreme Court of Barbados" includes the Full Court of that Court.

3. The provisions of this section shall be without prejudice to the provisions of section 4 and to any powers conferred by this Order or by any other law upon any person or authority to make provision for any of the matters referred to in subsection (1).

Appeals to Her Majesty in Council

11. Until Parliament otherwise provides, an appeal shall lie under section 88(1) of the Constitution from decisions of the Court of Appeal established by the Constitution to her Majesty in Council in the cases mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) of section 3 of the British Caribbean (Appeal to Privy Council) Order in council 1962(a) as if references therein to the British Caribbean Court of Appeal were references to the Court of Appeal established by the Constitution.

Alteration of this Order

12. 1. Parliament may alter any of the provisions of this Order in the same manner as it may alter any of the provisions of the Constitution:

Provided that section 3, section 5(1) and (7), section 9 and this section may be altered by Parliament only in the same manner as the provisions specified in section 49(2) of the Constitution.

2. Section 49(5) of the Constitution shall apply for the purpose of construing references in this section to any provision of this Order and to the alteration of any such provision as it applies for the purpose of construing references in the said section 49 to any provision of the Constitution and to the alteration of any such provision.


Muslim-only housing development in Barbados. No Christians or Jews allowed to purchase homes in new community.

Muslim Association says “Barbadians have nothing to fear.” (What a statement!)

Is this what we want for our Barbados?

It’s not a real sign, but it might as well be!

One can only imagine the howls of outrage if a construction company announced that only Christians would be allowed to purchase new homes in a brand new Bajan subdivision… and rightly so. Can you imagine on a sign “No Muslim Buyers Allowed” .

Yet this is exactly what our political class has agreed to in relation to Bajan Christians and Jews when it issued building permissions to the Muslim organisations involved in building Barbados’ newest housing development.

After hundreds of years of slavery, and then another hundred years of colonisation, exclusion and segregation based upon race, skin colour and class, ordinary Barbadians do not take kindly to being told they are not eligible to purchase a home because they are not of the proper religion. Bajans do not like being told that they are second class citizens in their own country.

The message from the Muslim spokespersons that “Barbadians have nothing to fear” is a statement that these people consider themselves to be outside of the wide and inclusive Barbados citizenship and community. Is this what we want for our Barbados?

Muslims wish to self-enclave, to not be part of the wider Bajan community

Muslim schools in Barbados teach our young people that “Hijab is compulsory… hide woman’s beauty as protection from rape” and “Beheading, chopping off your hands, severe beatings are Islamic rules, nothing wrong in it” (See BFP’s article about the Muslim Girls School.)

There can be no debate that these Islamic values and teachings are anti-Bajan, and destructive to our national character. They are against everything that this country stands for. Muslim teaching about the value of women is stuck somewhere before the dark-ages, but for some reason liberals excuse the fact that the Koran not only allows, but instructs, husbands to physically discipline their wives.

Yet, our so-called political leadership has agreed to allow the establishment of a community that excludes ordinary Bajans and upholds values that are foreign and destructive to our nation.

This is a dangerous precedent that weakens Barbados and undermines everything we have struggled for in the past 150 years. By all means, let people believe what they want to believe no matter how vile or outrageous. Freedom and democracy demands tolerance. But we draw the line when our government gives approval and support to an exclusionary enclave based upon religion and values that are in total opposition to the Bajan culture and national character.

I wonder: what would Bussa think of this?

From The Nation newspaper. We have to reprint it all because that newspaper has a habit of revising history:

HOUSING VENTURE

A new community exclusively for Muslims has been started at Clermont, St James. Continue reading &rarr


Tonton videonya: Sejarah Hak Asasi Manusia