Kedua belah pihak babak belur di Germantown

Kedua belah pihak babak belur di Germantown

Pada tanggal 4 Oktober 1777, 11.000 Patriot di bawah Jenderal George Washington mencoba serangan pagi hari terhadap 9.000 tentara Inggris Jenderal Inggris William Howe di Germantown, Pennsylvania, lima mil di utara ibu kota Philadelphia yang diduduki Inggris.

Pasukan Kontinental Washington tidak terlatih dengan baik, tidak diberi makan dan pakaian yang buruk. Meskipun demikian, Washington menganggap mereka siap untuk berperang dan telah merencanakan untuk mengirim empat kolom ke medan perang dengan potongan kertas putih terselip di topi mereka untuk membantu mereka mengidentifikasi satu sama lain dalam kegelapan dini hari. Namun, rencana rumit Washington menjadi kacau, ketika dua kolom tersesat dalam kabut pagi yang tebal. Pukul 10 pagi, pertempuran berakhir. Meskipun Amerika dipaksa mundur, kedua belah pihak menderita kerugian besar—152 tewas, 521 terluka dan 400 ditangkap untuk Patriot dan 71 tewas, 450 terluka dan 14 hilang untuk Inggris—dan pertempuran itu menunjukkan kemampuan strategis Washington.

Setelah Germantown, Jenderal Washington memimpin pasukannya ke perbukitan terdekat yang sekarang menjadi Kotapraja Whitemarsh, utara Philadelphia, di mana mereka terlibat dalam pertempuran lebih lanjut melawan pasukan Jenderal Howe pada 6-8 Desember, sebelum melanjutkan ke tempat musim dingin di Valley Forge, Pennsylvania , pada 19 Desember.

Friedrich, Freiherr von Steuben, tiba di perkemahan Jenderal Washington di Valley Forge pada 23 Februari 1778. Perwira militer Prusia mulai melatih tentara dalam latihan jarak dekat, menanamkan kepercayaan dan disiplin baru di Angkatan Darat Kontinental yang terdemoralisasi. Atas dasar usahanya di Valley Forge, Washington merekomendasikan agar von Steuben ditunjuk sebagai inspektur jenderal Angkatan Darat Kontinental; Kongres memenuhi. Dalam kapasitas baru ini, von Steuben menyebarkan metodenya ke seluruh pasukan Patriot dengan mengedarkan “Buku Biru” miliknya, yang berjudul “Peraturan untuk Ketertiban dan Disiplin Pasukan Amerika Serikat.”

BACA LEBIH BANYAK: 11 Fakta yang Sedikit Diketahui Tentang George Washington


Perintah Umum untuk Menyerang Germantown

Pasukan bersiap untuk berbaris malam ini pada pukul enam.

Divisi Sullivan & Wayne untuk membentuk sayap kanan dan menyerang kiri musuh mereka harus berbaris menyusuri jalan Monatany1—Divisi Green & Stephen untuk membentuk sayap kiri dan menyerang kanan musuh mereka akan berbaris menyusuri jalan Skippack.2 Jenderal Conway berbaris di depan pasukan yang menyusun sayap kanan dan barisan untuk menyerang sayap kiri musuh. Jenderal McDougall berbaris di depan pasukan yang menyusun sayap kiri dan berbaris untuk menyerang sayap kanan musuh.3

Brigade Jenderal Nash & amp Jenderal Maxwell membentuk corps de reserve dan dikomandoi oleh Mayor Jenderal Lord Stirling. Cadangan Corps De untuk melewati jalan Skippack.

Jenderal Armstrong untuk melewati jalan punggungan [&] melewati kedai Leverings & mengambil pemandu untuk menyeberangi sungai Wessahiecon ke atas4 kepala bendungan pabrik John Vandeering sehingga jatuh di atas rumah baru Joseph Warners.5

Smallwood dan Forman untuk melewati jalan melalui pabrik yang sebelumnya adalah pabrik Danl Morris' dan Jacob Edges ke jalan rawa Putih di Jalan Sandy: kemudian ke Gereja rawa putih, di mana ambil jalan kiri, yang mengarah ke kedai Jenkin di jalan jalan old york, di bawah Armitages, di luar batu tujuh mil setengah mil dari mana [jalan] berbelok ke kanan, berpagar di kedua sisi, yang mengarah melalui perkemahan musuh ke rumah pasar kota Jerman.6

Jenderal McDougall untuk menyerang musuh di sisi kanan. Jenderal Smallwood & forman untuk menyerang sayap kanan di sayap & belakang. Jenderal Conway menyerang sayap kiri musuh & Jenderal Armstrong menyerang sayap kiri mereka di sayap & belakang.

Milisi yang bertindak di sayap tidak memiliki meriam.

Paket & selimut harus ditinggalkan, para pria harus membawa perbekalan mereka di tas ransel mereka, atau cara lain yang paling tidak nyaman.

Semua pionir dari setiap divisi yang fit untuk berbaris harus bergerak di depan divisinya masing-masing, dengan segala kapak yang bisa mereka kerahkan.7

Piket di sebelah kiri pabrik Vanderin akan diambil oleh Armstrong: satu di rumah Allen di Mount-Airey oleh Sullivan—Satu di Lucans Mill oleh Greene.

Setiap Kolom membuat disposisi mereka untuk menyerang piket di lintasannya masing-masing, tepatnya pada lima OClock, dengan bayonet yang diisi dan tanpa tembakan, dan kolom untuk melanjutkan serangan sesegera mungkin.

Kolom berusaha untuk mendapatkan dalam jarak dua mil dari piket musuh pada rute masing-masing dengan dua OClock dan di sana berhenti 'sampai empat dan membuat disposisi untuk menyerang piket pada waktu yang disebutkan di atas.

Kolom Lanjutan: pasukan & milisi untuk berkomunikasi satu sama lain dari waktu ke waktu dengan kuda ringan.

Pihak pengapit yang tepat harus dijauhkan dari setiap Kolom.

Letnan James McMichael dari divisi Greene menulis dalam catatan hariannya untuk 3 Oktober: “Pagi-pagi ini perintah dikeluarkan agar pasukan dilengkapi dengan perbekalan masak selama dua hari, dan setiap orang bertugas dengan empat puluh butir amunisi. Pada siang hari orang sakit dikirim ke Betlehem, yang menunjukkan bahwa serangan mendadak dimaksudkan. Pukul 6 sore seluruh tentara berbaris, dengan divisi Jenderal Greene di muka” ( (“McMichael's Diary,” deskripsi dimulai William P. McMichael. “Diary of Letnan James McMichael, dari Pennsylvania Line, 1776–1778.” Majalah Sejarah Pennsylvania dan Biografi 16 (1892): 129–59. Deskripsi berakhir 152).

Perintah umum berikut 3 Oktober, ditandatangani oleh Timothy Pickering sebagai ajudan jenderal, muncul dalam buku tertib Muhlenberg: “Dua puluh orang dari setiap Brigade yang tidak layak untuk menanggung Kelelahan Maret baik karena kekurangan Sepatu atau sebaliknya dengan Sub . dari masing-masing Brigade, untuk berparade di Taman Artileri pada pukul 5 sore ini. Dua Petugas lapangan akan berada di sana untuk mengambil Komando mereka yang akan menerima instruksi mereka dari Mayor Jenderal Hari Ini. Tiga gerbong kosong dari masing-masing Brigade dengan kuda-kuda yang bagus untuk diarak di Jalan di belakang Garis 2 dan bergerak di belakang saat Angkatan Darat berbaris.

“Seluruh Angkatan Darat yang akan berada di bawah senjata malam ini pada jam 6 mereka harus meninggalkan ransel mereka, Selimut dan segala sesuatu kecuali senjata, amunisi perlengkapan dan perbekalan yang harus mereka bawa dalam Habersack mereka, seperti yang belum dibawa Habersack. persediaan mereka di Kantong mereka, atau dengan cara lain yang paling nyaman. Semua Perintis dari setiap Divisi Regt & yang siap berbaris harus bergerak di depan Divisi masing-masing dengan semua Sumbu yang mereka bisa kumpulkan” (“Buku Tertib Muhlenberg,” deskripsi dimulai “Buku Tertib Jenderal John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, 26 Maret–20 Desember 1777.” Majalah Sejarah dan Biografi Pennsylvania 33 (1909): 257–78, 454–74 34 (1910): 21–40, 166–89, 336–60, 438–77 35 (1911) ): 59–89, 156–87, 290–303. deskripsi berakhir 35:63).

Pickering mengatakan dalam entri jurnalnya untuk 3 Oktober: “Pasukan bersiap-siap untuk berbaris, itu dimaksudkan untuk menyerang musuh keesokan paginya. Di malam hari, sekitar pukul delapan, pasukan sedang berbaris, dalam disposisi berikut: Jenderal Sullivan, memimpin sayap kanan, akan bergerak ke bawah, dengan divisinya dan Wayne, di jalan langsung ke Germantown, didahului oleh Brigade Conway, yang akan mencopot piket musuh, berbaris ke kanan, dan jatuh ke sisi kiri dan belakang musuh, sementara divisi Sullivan dan Wayne menyerang mereka di depan. Brigade Maxwell dan North Carolina [Nash] akan membentuk barisan kedua di belakang Sullivan dan Wayne. Jenderal Greene, dengan sayap kiri, akan bergerak di jalan Wales Utara untuk menyerang kanan musuh, garis depan sayap ini terdiri dari divisi Greene dan McDougall, dan baris kedua, divisi Stephen sementara Smallwood, dengan Maryland-nya, dan Forman, dengan milisi Jersey-nya, akan menyerang mereka dari sisi kanan dan belakang. Pada saat yang sama Jenderal Armstrong, dengan divisinya dari milisi Pennsylvania, akan bergerak menyusuri jalan lama Mesir atau Schuylkill, dan melepaskan piket Hessian yang ditempatkan di sana, dan menyerang sayap kiri dan belakang musuh. Serangan akan dimulai pada setiap kuartal pukul lima pagi” ( Pickering and Upham, deskripsi Life of Pickering dimulai Octavius ​​Pickering dan Charles W. Upham. The Life of Timothy Pickering . 4 jilid. Boston, 1867–1873. deskripsi berakhir , 1:166–67 untuk disposisi pasukan Amerika yang menyerang, lihat juga GW ke Hancock, 5 Okt., dan John Sullivan ke Meshech Weare, 25 Okt. 1777, di Hammond, Deskripsi Sullivan Papers dimulai Otis G. Hammond, ed. Surat dan Makalah Mayor Jenderal John Sullivan, Angkatan Darat Kontinental .3 jilid Concord, 1930-39. Dalam Koleksi Masyarakat Sejarah New Hampshire , jilid 13–15. deskripsi berakhir, 1:542–47).

Untuk melaksanakan rencana serangan empat cabang yang rumit ini, GW telah menyediakan sekitar sebelas ribu orang, di antaranya sekitar delapan ribu orang Kontinental dan sekitar tiga ribu orang adalah milisi (lihat Dewan Perang, 28 September). Kontinental terdiri dari dua kolom penyerang utama yang dipimpin oleh Sullivan dan Greene dan pasukan cadangan yang mendukung mereka. Termasuk pasukan cadangan, pasukan Sullivan, yang menyerang sayap kiri Howe di sepanjang Germantown Road, tampaknya memiliki kekuatan sekitar tiga ribu orang, dan pasukan Greene, yang menyerang sayap kanan Inggris di sepanjang Lime Kiln Road, tampaknya terdiri dari sekitar lima ribu orang. “Alasan kami mengirim begitu banyak pasukan untuk menyerang hak mereka,” tulis Sullivan pada Meshech Weare pada 25 Oktober, “adalah karena dianggap bahwa jika sayap Musuh ini dapat dipaksakan, pasukan mereka pasti telah didorong ke Sculkill atau telah dipaksa untuk Menyerah. Oleh karena itu Dua Pertiga dari Angkatan Darat Sedikitnya Dipisahkan untuk menentang Hak Musuh” (ibid., 543). Milisi ditugaskan ke dua kolom mengapit luar yang maju masing-masing di sepanjang Sungai Schuylkill sekitar dua mil sebelah barat Germantown dan Old York Road pada jarak yang sama di timur kota (lihat catatan 5 dan 6).

Pasukan Howe di Germantown telah dikuras oleh detasemen pada 26 September dari Cornwallis dengan granat Inggris dan Hessian dan dua skuadron dragoon ringan untuk menduduki Philadelphia sekitar lima mil ke tenggara dan keberangkatan tiga hari kemudian dari Resimen ke-10 dan ke-42 ke menyerang benteng Billingsport di Sungai Delaware, penyebaran yang diketahui GW dan yang mendorong keputusannya untuk menyerang pada 4 Oktober (lihat GW ke Hancock, 5 Oktober). Pada tanggal itu mungkin ada tujuh sampai delapan ribu tentara Inggris dan Hessian di sekitar Germantown, tetapi kekuatan tempur yang efektif mungkin kurang. Sebuah laporan kepada Jenderal Hessian Ditfurth mengatakan bahwa “seandainya serangan Jenderal Washington dilakukan sebaik yang telah direncanakan, tentara kita yang tidak terdiri dari lebih dari 5000 pejuang akan berada dalam posisi yang sangat kritis, karena dua belas batalyon terkuat. dipisah” (dikutip dalam McGuire, Deskripsi Kejutan Germantown dimulai Thomas J. McGuire. Kejutan Germantown, atau, Pertempuran Cliveden, 4 Oktober 1777. Gettysburg, Pa., 1994. deskripsi berakhir, 103 n.48 lihat juga ibid., 31, dan Chastellux, Deskripsi Perjalanan di Amerika Utara dimulai Marquis de Chastellux. Perjalanan di Amerika Utara pada Tahun 1780, 1781 dan 1782. Diterjemahkan dan diedit oleh Howard C. Rice, Jr. 2 jilid Chapel Hill, NC, 1963. uraian berakhir, 1:137).

Namun, pasukan Howe ditempatkan dengan baik di medan yang sangat disukai para pembela. Germantown terdiri dari serangkaian rumah batu yang sebagian besar tersebar sekitar dua mil di sepanjang Germantown Road, yang membentang ke barat laut dari Philadelphia menuju Reading. Sebagian besar rumah menghadap ke jalan, dan di belakangnya terbentang banyak ladang dan kebun tertutup yang dibagi oleh tembok, pagar, pagar, dan jalur yang tegak lurus dengan jalan utama. Setiap serangan di sepanjang Germantown Road pasti akan terganggu oleh kebutuhan untuk melintasi rintangan buatan tersebut serta banyak anak sungai, jurang, dan bukit rendah di daerah itu (peta 4).

Garis pertahanan utama Howe, terletak tidak jauh dari tenggara alun-alun pasar kota, juga terletak di sudut kanan ke Germantown Road. Sayap kiri, yang dikomandoi oleh Jenderal Knyphausen, memanjang ke barat daya sejajar dengan School House Lane dari Germantown Road ke Sungai Schuylkill, di mana Hessian jägers milik Letnan Kolonel Wurmb menempati benteng kecil di Manatawny Road dekat muara Wissahickon Creek. Sisa sayap Knyphausen terdiri dari brigade Hessian Jenderal Stirn dan Brigade 3d dan 4 Inggris yang masing-masing dikomandoi oleh jenderal Charles Gray dan James Agnew. Sayap kanan, yang dipimpin oleh Jenderal James Grant, sejajar dengan Church Lane, yang membentang ke timur laut dari alun-alun ke Luken's Mill dekat persimpangan dengan Lime Kiln Road. Itu terdiri dari korps penjaga Jenderal Edward Mathew, enam resimen reguler Inggris, dan dua skuadron dragoon ringan. Keamanan luar ke utara dan barat disediakan oleh Queen's Rangers di Old York Road, Batalyon Infanteri Ringan 1 di Jalan Lime Kiln, dan Batalyon Infanteri Ringan 2 dan Resimen ke-40 Letnan Kolonel Thomas Musgrave di Germantown Road. 2d Light Infantry berada di Mount Pleasant, sebuah bukit kecil sekitar dua mil barat laut dari alun-alun pasar, dengan piket yang dipasang tidak jauh dari Germantown Road di Mount Airy, kursi pedesaan mantan kepala pengadilan Pennsylvania William Allen, Senior. Resimen ke-40, yang berkemah di dekat kawasan pedesaan Benjamin Chew, Cliveden, sekitar setengah jalan antara Gunung Pleasant dan alun-alun, berada dalam posisi untuk mendukung salah satu batalyon infanteri ringan jika diperlukan (lihat Howe to Germain, 10 Oktober 1777, di Davies , Documents of the American Revolution description dimulai KG Davies, ed. Documents of the American Revolution, 1770–1783 (Colonial Office Series) .21 jilid. Shannon and Dublin, 1972–81. deskripsi berakhir , 14:202–9 John Eager Howard kepada Timothy Pickering, 29 Januari 1827, di Md. Mag. deskripsi dimulai Maryland Historical Magazine . Baltimore, 1906–. deskripsi berakhir, 4:314–20 dan McGuire, Surprise of Germantown deskripsi dimulai Thomas J. McGuire. The Surprise of Germantown , atau, Pertempuran Cliveden, 4 Oktober 1777. Gettysburg, Pa., 1994. deskripsi berakhir, 15–16).

Untuk catatan Pertempuran Germantown pada 4 Oktober, lihat GW untuk Hancock, 5 Oktober, dan catatan untuk dokumen itu lihat juga Anthony Wayne untuk GW, 4 Oktober, dan GW untuk Benjamin Harrison, 5 Oktober.

1 . Kolom ini, yang dikomandoi oleh Sullivan, bergerak ke tenggara di Skippack Road dan menyerang sayap kiri Inggris di sepanjang Germantown Road. Manatawny atau Ridge Road, yang membentang di sepanjang Sungai Schuylkill kira-kira sejajar dengan Germantown Road sekitar dua mil ke barat daya, digunakan oleh milisi Pennsylvania pimpinan Jenderal John Armstrong untuk menyerang ujung paling kiri posisi Inggris (lihat catatan 5).

2 . Kolom ini, yang dikomandoi oleh Greene, tampaknya bergerak ke tenggara menyusuri Morris Road, yang membentang sejajar dengan Skippack Road sekitar dua mil ke timur laut, dan kemudian menyerang sayap kanan Inggris di sepanjang Lime Kiln Road.

3 . Di akhir salinan pesanan ini di McDougall Papers, McDougall menulis: “Jalan yang sama saat kami Datang sekitar 4 Mil ke Markey's, lalu Jalan kiri pertama ke Shulers Sworts⟩ atau Stouffers di Jalan ward⟩ Utara, lalu Jalan Pendek ke Jalan Baptis di Jalan Bethlem dekat Neshaminy.”

5 . Jenderal John Armstrong, yang memimpin milisi Pennsylvania, menulis kepada Horatio Gates pada 9 Oktober bahwa dalam rencana penyerangan ke Germantown, “Takdir saya melawan orang asing, bukan untuk mengalihkan daripada dengan Milisi melawan tubuh Superior mereka, bagaimanapun kami berusaha keduanya” (Gates Papers, NHi). Pabrik John Vanderen, yang terletak di Wissahickon Creek dekat pertemuannya dengan Sungai Schuylkill dan di samping jembatan di mana Manatawny atau Ridge Road melintasi sungai, berada di ujung paling kiri dari jalur utama Inggris di mana jger Hessian ditempatkan (lihat Ewald, Deskripsi buku harian dimulai Johann Ewald. Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal. Diterjemahkan dan diedit oleh Joseph P. Tustin. New Haven dan London, 1979. deskripsi berakhir, 91, 93). Kedai tampaknya berada di dekat Levering's Ford di Schuylkill, tidak jauh dari barat laut pabrik Vanderen.

6 . Mayor Asher Holmes dari Resimen 1 Monmouth County, NJ, milisi menulis kepada istrinya Sarah Watson Holmes pada 6 Oktober: “Milisi Jersey dan Mantel Merah di bawah Jenderal Forman, dan Milisi Maryland, dengan beberapa 'Pasukan terdaftar di bawah Jenderal Smallwood, berada di sayap kiri seluruh pasukan” ( NJ Hist. Soc. Deskripsi Proceedings dimulai Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society . 84 vols. Newark, NJ, 1845–1966. description ended , new ser., 7 :34–35). "Mantel Merah" Forman tampaknya adalah tentara yang telah terdaftar untuk resimen Kontinental tambahannya dan mengenakan seragam Inggris yang ditangkap.

Rute berbelit-belit Forman dan Smallwood tampaknya mengharuskan mereka untuk berbaris ke tenggara di Morris Road ke Bethlehem Road dan kemudian ke selatan di jalan itu ke persimpangannya dengan Skippack Road di Whitemarsh. Pabrik Daniel Morris dan Jacob Edge berada di Wissahickon Creek dekat pertemuannya dengan Sandy Run tidak jauh di utara Whitemarsh. Gereja Episkopal St. Thomas di Whitemarsh diduduki oleh kedua pasukan di berbagai waktu selama perang. Dari Whitemarsh, rute menuju ke tenggara di Church Road ke kedai minuman di Old York Road milik William Jenkins (w. 1778) dan kemudian ke selatan di Old York Road melewati kedai Benjamin Armitage ke persimpangan dengan Church Lane, di mana sayap kanan tentara Howe telah diposting.


Nama "Germanna", dipilih oleh Lt. Gubernur Alexander Spotswood, mencerminkan baik imigran Jerman yang berlayar melintasi Atlantik ke Virginia dan Ratu Inggris, Anne, yang berkuasa pada saat pemukiman pertama di Germanna. Meskipun dia akan mati hanya beberapa bulan setelah Jerman tiba, namanya terus menjadi bagian dari daerah tersebut.

Sebagai bagian dari serangkaian hibah tanah yang diberikan kepada pemukim untuk membuat penyangga melawan Prancis, Dewan Penasihat memberikan Spotswood 86.000 acre (350 km 2 ) di Spotsylvania County yang baru dibuat pada tahun 1720, di mana saluran Germanna adalah yang pertama, sementara dia adalah Letnan Gubernur dan kepala eksekutif sebenarnya dari pemerintah Virginia. Dia bertugas dalam kapasitas ini antara tahun 1710 dan 1722 dan, pada tahun 1716, dia melakukan Ekspedisi Sepatu Kuda Emas yang terkenal dan mempromosikan banyak reformasi dan perbaikan.

Spotswood digantikan sebagai letnan gubernur oleh Hugh Drysdale beberapa waktu pada tahun 1722. Sejarawan menyarankan pemindahannya mungkin merupakan hasil dari ketidakharmonisan selama bertahun-tahun antara dirinya dan Dewan, serta ketika dia menerima begitu banyak tanah, yang dia tunjukkan mengabaikan kebijakan Crown yang menyatakan bahwa tidak ada satu orang atau keluarga dapat mengklaim lebih dari seribu hektar tanah Virginia. [ kutipan diperlukan ]

Spotswood mendirikan koloni imigran Jerman di saluran Germanna pada tahun 1714, sebagian untuk pertahanan perbatasan tetapi terutama untuk mengoperasikan pabrik besinya yang baru dikembangkan. Germanna adalah pusat dari Spotsylvania County 1720-1732. Spotswood mendirikan rumah megah dan, setelah Jerman pindah ke Germantown, melanjutkan pekerjaan besi dengan tenaga kerja budak. Di tahun-tahun terakhirnya ia menjabat sebagai Wakil Kepala Kantor Pos Umum untuk Koloni.

Koloni Germanna terutama terdiri dari Koloni Pertama yang terdiri dari empat puluh dua orang dari daerah Siegerland di Jerman yang dibawa ke Virginia untuk bekerja di Spotswood pada tahun 1714, dan Koloni Kedua yang terdiri dari dua puluh keluarga dari daerah Palatinate, Baden dan Württemberg di Jerman yang dibawa pada tahun 1717 , tetapi juga termasuk keluarga Jerman lainnya yang bergabung dengan dua koloni pertama di kemudian hari. Meskipun banyak keluarga Germanna kemudian bermigrasi ke selatan dan ke barat dari Piedmont Virginia, bukti silsilah menunjukkan bahwa banyak keluarga menikah selama beberapa generasi, menghasilkan warisan silsilah yang kaya.

Situs pemukiman pertama, Fort Germanna, terletak di Orange County saat ini di sepanjang tepi Sungai Rapidan, dengan pemukiman Jerman berikutnya didirikan di lokasi di wilayah Culpeper dan Spotsylvania saat ini. Banyak keluarga Germanna memainkan peran dalam peristiwa penting dalam sejarah Amerika awal seperti Revolusi Amerika dan migrasi ke barat ke Kentucky dan sekitarnya.

Situs Fort Germanna sebagian besar merupakan lahan terbuka dengan semak belukar di antara kayu-kayu pertumbuhan kedua. Situs Fort Germanna terdaftar di Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Nasional pada tahun 1978. [1] Jejak teras rumah besar Spotswood yang kemudian dikenal sebagai "Kastil Terpesona" masih dapat dilihat. Yayasan Germanna sedang melakukan eksplorasi arkeologi situs Benteng Germanna, Hutan Siegen, dan Salubria yang dimilikinya di Kabupaten Orange dan Culpeper.

Germanna Foundation memiliki tanah di semenanjung Germanna yang asli, di kedua sisi Germanna Highway, State Route 3, di dekat lokasi Fort Germanna yang asli, yang pernah menjadi pos terdepan di Virginia kolonial. Germanna Foundation mengoperasikan Pusat Pengunjung Brawdus Martin Fort Germanna di sisi Hutan Siegen di Germanna Highway, 15 mil (24 km) timur Culpeper dan 20 mil (32 km) barat Fredericksburg, Virginia. Yayasan juga memiliki sebuah rumah abad ke-18 di dekatnya, Salubria, yang pernah menjadi rumah janda Gubernur Spotswood. Pada Oktober 2000, Salubria disumbangkan oleh keluarga Grayson ke Germanna Foundation untuk pelestarian sejarah. [3] Yayasan memelihara perpustakaan penelitian, taman peringatan, dan merencanakan jalur jalan kaki interpretatif ke berbagai situs bersejarah dan arkeologi. Selain itu, Yayasan menerbitkan buku-buku sejarah dan silsilah, buletin, menawarkan program pendidikan pada Konferensi Sejarah Tahunan dan Reuni dan kepada masyarakat, dan menawarkan perjalanan kelompok ke Jerman yang disesuaikan dengan asal-usul keluarga Germanna.

Koloni pertama Sunting

Koloni pertama terdiri dari nama keluarga: Albrecht, Brombach/Brumback, Fischbach/Fishback, Hager, Friesenhagen, Heide/Heite/Hitt, Heimbach, Hofmann, Holzklau/Holtzclaw, Huttmann, Kemper/Camper, Cuntze/Koontz, Merdten/Martin , Otterbach/Utterback, Reinschmidt, Richter/Rektor, Spielmann, Weber/Weaver [4] <ref>Willis M. Kemper dan Harry Linn Wright, Silsilah Keluarga Kemper di Amerika Serikat: Keturunan John Kemper dari Virginia (Chicago: Geo. K Hazlitt & Co., 1899), 31, 40, 51. <ref>William J. Hinke, “The First German Reformed Colony in Virginia: 1714-1750” (Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society (1901-1930), Vol. 2, 2, 1903), 2, 8. <ref>Charles Herbert Huffman, Editor Dr. Benjamin C. Holtzclaw, Kisah Keturunan Germanna dalam Reuni di Hutan Siegen Virginia (Virginia: Yayasan Peringatan Koloni Germanna di Virginia, Inc. 1960 ), 22. <ref>Charles Herbert Huffman, Editor Dr. Benjamin C. Holtzclaw, The Germanna Record, G ermanna Catatan No. 1: Hitt, Martin, Weaver (Culpeper, Virginia: Yayasan Memorial Koloni Germanna di Virginia, Inc. 1961), 5-42. <ref>Dr. Benjamin C. Holtzclaw, Leluhur dan Keturunan Imigran Nassau-Siegen ke Virginia, 1714-1750 (Virginia: Yayasan Peringatan Koloni Germanna di Virginia, Inc. 1964), 185-192. <ref>Dr. Lothar Irle, Siegerlander Personlichkeiten- und Geschlechter-Lexicon (Siegen: Selbstverlag des Siegerlander Heimatvererins, 1974), 131.

  • 1710 18 Mei Pendirian Perusahaan George Ritter di London sebuah perusahaan saham gabungan untuk menjalankan bisnis selama 20 tahun. Mitra termasuk Christoph de Graffenreid dan Franz Ludwig Michel. Agen untuk Perusahaan George Ritter adalah Johann Justus Albrecht, dikirim ke Siegerland untuk merekrut penambang di Carolina atau Virginia.
  • 1711 15 Agustus Johann Justus Albrecht menandatangani kontrak dengan Menteri Siegen
  • 1711 Sep 5 Hermannus Otterbach meminta izin ke Imigrasi
  • 1712 12 Mei Johann Justus Albrecht menyusun Buku Serikat untuk Perusahaan George Ritter
  • 1713 Jul 12 Pendeta Knabenschuh pergi ke Oberfischbach untuk menemukan bahwa Pendeta Haeger telah pergi dan Guru Sekolah, Hans Jacob Holtzklau "juga bersedia untuk bepergian."

<ref>Staatsarchiv Munster, Furstentum Siegen Landesarchiv 24, No. 76 <ref>Salinan surat asli dari Pastor Knabenschuh ditemukan oleh Emil Flender saat meneliti Arsip Siegen untuk Dr. BC Holtzclaw, Emil Flender mengirimkannya ke Dr. Holtzclaw bersama dengan terjemahan yang ditemukan di Pusat Pengunjung Yayasan Germanna dalam makalah Dr. Holtzclaw.

  • 1713 Juli 17: Jacob Holzklau meminta izin untuk berimigrasi. Hermann Otterbach meminta izin untuk berimigrasi pada 5 Sep 1711, kelompok pertama yang melakukannya.

<ref>Staatsarchiv Munster, Furstentum Siegen Landesarchiv 11, No. 28 BS2.

<ref>Staatsarchiv Munster, Furstentum Siegen Landesarchiv 11, No. 28 BS2.

  • Musim panas 1713: orang-orang tiba di London
  • Januari 1714: mereka berangkat ke Virginia dengan kapal yang tidak dikenal
  • Akhir Maret 1714: Spotswood pertama kali mengetahui dari Kolonel Nathaniel Blakiston, agen Virginia di London, bahwa orang Jerman akan datang
  • April 1714: Jerman tiba di Virginia
  • 1714: mendirikan gereja Reformasi Jerman pertama di benua itu, yang berfungsi ganda sebagai benteng pertahanan
  • 1716: mereka memulai operasi penambangan di tambang perak--Perlu membuktikan ini!
  • 1718, di awal tahun: mereka diperintahkan untuk mencari besi
  • 1720 Mei 17: Johann Justus Albrecht mengajukan pernyataan mengenai "sebelas pekerja yang bekerja di Pertambangan atau Penggalian di atau dekat Germanna dan kami mulai bekerja Maret Seribu Tujuh Ratus 15/16 dan seterusnya sampai Desember Seribu Tujuh Ratus & Delapan Belas ."

Pada Desember 1718, Spotswood mengatakan dia menghabiskan sekitar 60 pound untuk upaya itu sehingga tidak ada tungku besi. <ref>Essex County, Virginia Buku Akta No. 16, hlm. 180.

  • Januari 1719-20: Pendeta Haeger dan anggota Koloni Pertama pindah ke Stafford County, Virginia yang sekarang menjadi Fauquier County, Virginia. Tiga anggota kelompok yang dinaturalisasi, John Fishback, John Hoffman dan Jacob Holtzclaw, mengamankan 1.805 hektar untuk dibagikan kepada kelompok untuk dibagi rata.

<ref>Spotsylvania County Akta Buku A, hal. 165--Naturalisasi Jacob Holtzclaw <ref>


Komentar terbaru (lihat semua 9 komentar)

Ini adalah "grande dame" teater Germantown. Itu benar-benar permata pada zamannya, sangat mewah dan elegan. Itu dibuka sebagai rumah vaudeville dengan panggung yang dalam yang dapat (dan) digunakan untuk produksi panggung dan konser. Itu juga digunakan untuk memutar film. Pada tahun 1930-an, ½ waktu itu digunakan untuk memutar film. Pada 1950-an, kecuali untuk konser sesekali, sebagian besar digunakan sebagai gedung bioskop. Itu ditutup dan dihancurkan pada tahun 1967. Toko ritel sekarang berada di lokasi Orpheum lama.

Berikut ini tautan ke tampilan thumbnail Orpheum lama. Saya punya fotonya dan akan mengunggahnya ketika saya bisa.

Terletak di 42 West Chelten Avenue, ini adalah permata arsitektur, di dalam dan luar, dan berisi detail yang sangat rumit dan rumit. Itu adalah teater yang sangat elegan dan mewah pada zamannya. Catatan yang ditemukan menunjukkan bahwa Orpheum memiliki kapasitas tempat duduk 1.706, tetapi catatan awal menunjukkan bahwa Orpheum memiliki kapasitas tempat duduk awal lebih dari 2.000. Dibangun pada tahun 1913 sebagai rumah vaudeville, itu juga digunakan untuk produksi panggung, konser dan film. Itu memiliki panggung yang dalam, lubang orkestra besar, organ besar, banyak ruang ganti di belakang panggung, balkon dan kotak individu di kedua sisi auditorium. Auditorium didekorasi dengan rumit dan memiliki langit-langit mural. Lobi utama yang elegan dihiasi lampu gantung dan disepuh emas. Itu memiliki tangga besar di kedua sisi lobi utama yang mengarah ke lobi lantai dua. Ini juga merupakan lobi besar, tepat di luar area balkon dan memiliki jendela gambar besar yang menghadap ke Chelten Avenue yang ramai.

Dikatakan bahwa, pada masa awal Orpheum, 15.000 hingga 20.000 orang setiap hari menghadiri berbagai teater di Germantown. Ini menjadi sumber utama hiburan mereka. Masuk ke Orpheum kembali pada hari-hari awalnya hanya 5 atau 10 sen dan program mereka berubah setiap hari. Ketika vaudeville mati, Orpheum menjadi lebih dari sebuah bioskop, tetapi masih menampilkan produksi panggung, band besar, dan konser lainnya selama tahun 1940-an. Pada 1950-an, Orpheum hanya digunakan sebagai bioskop. Seperti teater independen lainnya di Philadelphia dan di seluruh negeri, Orpheum menjadi korban semakin populernya televisi. Faktor lain dalam kehancurannya adalah penurunan distrik komersial Germantown & Chelten Avenues yang dulu ramai. Membuang biaya tinggi untuk memelihara teater besar seperti Orpheum, lonceng kematiannya terlihat jelas. Itu ditutup pada tahun 1967 dan dihancurkan untuk memberi jalan bagi beberapa toko ritel.

Ini adalah satu-satunya teater Germantown yang pernah saya kunjungi, namun hanya sedikit yang mengingatnya. Saya hanya tidak menghargai pada saat itu permata arsitektur yang merupakan teater tua ini.

Orpheum adalah &ldquogrande dame&rdquo teater Germantown&rsquos. Tapi, Germantown dan daerah sekitarnya memiliki lebih banyak teater dan beberapa teater besar yang direncanakan, tetapi tidak pernah dibangun. Singkatnya, Germantown memiliki 10 teater &ndash Orpheum, Walton, Chelten, Allen, The Lyric (alias Manheim dan Lirik Baru), Kolonial (alias Kolonial Nixon), Vernon (alias Germantown), Bandbox, Istana Vernon (berumur pendek) dan Teater Wayne Avenue. Ada 4 teater tambahan untuk sekitar Germantown & Chelten, tetapi tidak pernah dibangun karena depresi. Ada bioskop yang sangat besar ke-5 yang direncanakan di mana Chelten Avenue &ldquobends&rdquo (Chelten Ave bertemu Wister St & Wyncote Ave). Ini tidak pernah dibangun karena kabar bocor tentang niat dan pemilik tanah setempat menaikkan harga tanah mereka). Kemudian, ketika Anda memperhitungkan teater Mt. Airy &ndash the Rialto (alias Tulpehocken), Upsal (alias Pelham) dan Segwick, bersama dengan Chestnut Hill&rsquos satu teater &ndash the Hill (alias Bevedere), itu banyak teater di dan sekitar Germantown. Bagi sebagian orang, bangunan itu masih ada, hanya digunakan untuk tujuan lain. Tapi, sebagai teater, semua hanyalah kenangan dan menjadi bagian dari sejarah Germantown.

Sebelumnya, dalam tanggapan saya ke teater Vernon, saya menyebutkan dibawa ke teater Germantown ini di tahun 40-an oleh orang tua saya. Saya ingat Orpheum menjadi yang paling elegan dari semuanya. Jika saya ingat dengan benar, ayah saya akan &ldquomenelepon dulu&rdquo untuk kursi yang dipesan, dan kami akan mengambil tiket di box office. Kami kemudian akan diantar ke lorong ke kursi yang kami pesan. In the 40s and early 50s going to the movies was a big event, and we would always dress up for the occasion &mdash especially when going to some place as fine as the Orpheum. I recently saw a photo of a 1940s movie audience, and all the women were dressed up and the men were all wearing suits and ties. A different world.

I saw my first film, &ldquoBabes in Toyland&rdquo in the Orpheum when I was just 4 years old. I cried when they tore down this beautiful old theater.


Pertempuran Germantown

Place of the Battle of Germantown: North of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States of America.

Combatants at the Battle of Germantown: The American Continental Army against the British and Hessian forces

Generals at the Battle of Germantown: General George Washington against Major-General Sir William Howe

Size of the armies at the Battle of Germantown: 11,000 Americans against 8,000 British and Hessians.

Uniforms, arms and equipment at the Battle of Germantown:

The British wore red coats, with bearskin caps for the grenadiers, tricorne hats for the battalion companies and caps for the light infantry. The Highland Scots troops wore the kilt and feather bonnet.

The two regiments of light dragoons serving in America, the 16 th and 17 th , wore red coats and crested leather helmets.

Grenadier of the British 40th Regiment of Foot: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The Hessian infantry wore blue coats and retained the Prussian style grenadier mitre cap with brass front plate.

The Americans dressed as best they could. Increasingly as the war progressed infantry regiments of the Continental Army mostly took to wearing blue or brown uniform coats. The American militia continued in rough clothing.

Both sides were armed with muskets. The British and German infantry carried bayonets, which were in short supply among the American troops. Many men in the Pennsylvania and Virginia regiments carried rifled weapons, as did other backwoodsmen. Both sides were supported by artillery.

Winner: The British won the battle, but failed to follow up the success, permitting Washington to withdraw and reform his army behind fortified positions.

British Regiments at the Battle of Germantown: The British Regiments that can be identified at the battle are: Light Dragoons (not clear which regiment 16 th or 17 th ), two composite battalions of grenadiers, two composite battalions of light infantry, two composite battalions of Foot Guards (1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd Guards), 5 th Foot, 25 th Foot, 27 th Foot, 40 th Foot and 55 th Foot.

American Units at the Battle of Germantown:
Colonel Bland’s 1 st Dragoons, Wayne’s Pennsylvania Brigade, Weeden’s Virginia Brigade, Muhlenburg’s Virginia Brigade, Maxwell’s Light Infantry, Stephen’s Division, Stirling’s Division, Pennsylvania Militia, Maryland Militia and New Jersey Militia.

British Queen’s Rangers: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

Background to the Battle of Germantown:

Following the British capture of Philadelphia after the Battle of Brandywine, Howe’s troops encamped in Germantown to the North of the city. The camp stretched in a line astride the main northern road.

Washington determined to surprise the British army in camp. His plan required a strong column under Major-General Nathaniel Greene, with McDougall, Muhlenberg, Stephen and Scott, to attack the right wing of the British army, which comprised Grant’s and Donop’s troops. The second column, which Washington commanded, with Stirling and Sullivan, would advance down the main Philadelphia road and attack the British centre. Forces of American militia would attack each wing of the British force, formed of the Queen’s Rangers on the right, and, on the left near the Schuylkill River, Hessian Jägers and British Light Infantry.

Washington’s plan required the four attacks to be launched “precisely at 5 o’clock with charged bayonets and without firing”. The intention was to surprise the whole British army in much the way the Hessians had been surprised at Trenton.

Map of the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: map by John Fawkes

Account of the Battle of Germantown:

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Thomas Musgrave commanding 40th Foot at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The American columns started along their respective approach roads on the evening of 3 rd October 1777. Dawn found the American forces well short of their start line for the attack, and there was an encounter with the first British piquet which fired its guns to warn of the attack. The outpost was supported by a battalion of light infantry and the 40 th Foot, under Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Thomas Musgrave. It took a substantial part of Sullivan’s division to drive back the British contingent.

General Howe rode forward, initially thinking the advanced force was being attacked by a raiding party, his view impeded by a thickening fog that clouded the field for the rest of the day.

During the fighting, Musgrave caused six companies of the 40 th to fortify the substantial stone house of Chief Justice Chew, Cliveden House situated on the main road, and use it as a strong point. The American advance halted, while furious attacks were launched against the house, aided by an American artillery barrage.

Hearing the firing, Major-General Adam Stephen, heading the other main American column, ignored his orders to continue along the lane to attack the British right wing, swung to his right and made for the Chew House. His brigade joined the attack on the house, which was assailed for a full hour by the infantry and guns of several American brigades.

British 40th Foot occupying the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Xavier della Gatta

The rest of Greene’s division launched a savage attack on the British line as planned and broke through, capturing several British troops.

In the meantime, Sullivan and Wayne continued past the Chew House and began their attack. In the fog, Wayne’s brigade encountered Stephen’s brigade and the two American brigades exchanged fire. Both brigades broke and fled.

American guns fire on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

Sullivan’s brigade was attacked on both flanks, on his left by Grant with the British 5th and 55th Regiments of Foot, and on his right by Brigadier Grey. Sullivan’s brigade broke. The British then turned on Greene’s isolated division, capturing Colonel Matthews and his 9th Virginia Regiment.

Attacked by the British Guards and the 25 th and 27 th Foot, Greene withdrew up the main road to the north west, assisted by the efforts of Muhlenberg’s brigade. As the American army retreated, its condition deteriorated and Washington was forced to withdraw some sixteen miles, harried by the British light dragoons.

The American attack on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

The American militia forces did not develop their attacks and finally retreated.

Casualties at the Battle of Germantown:
500 British were killed, wounded or captured in the battle. 1,000 Americans were killed, wounded or captured in the battle.

50 Americans were killed attacking the Chew House.

The American attack on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Edward Lamson Henry

Follow-up to the Battle of Germantown:
It is said that the Battle of Germantown was a profound influence in convincing the French Court that the American cause was worth supporting with war on England. The French were more impressed by the ability of the Americans to raise their army and deliver an attack on the British than by its lack of success.

A noteworthy feature of the battle was the failure of the British to exploit their battlefield success by pursuing and destroying the defeated American force.

The American attack on the Chew House at the Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War (the uniforms portrayed are late 18th Century)

Anecdotes and traditions from the Battle of Germantown:

American Continental soldier: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

  • General Stephen was discovered by the American authorities at the end of the battle incapably drunk. He was cashiered and his command given to Lafayette.
  • Major-General Adam Stephen (or Steven) was another American officer who began his military career commanding a Virginian company under General Edward Braddock in 1755 (see Defeat of Braddock Part 6).
  • The Americans suffered at the Battle of Germantown from the perennial difficulty of 18 th Century armies to re-supply their troops. Many of the American regiments ran out of ammunition during the battle.
  • General Sir George Osborn, the colonel of the 40 th Regiment of Foot, caused a medal to be struck to commemorate the defence of the Chew House by the regiment at the Battle of Germantown. Silver medals were awarded to the officers and copper medals to the soldiers: an early example of a campaign medal.

40th Regiment Medal obverse: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

References for the Battle of Germantown:

History of the British Army by Sir John Fortescue

The War of the Revolution by Christopher Ward

The American Revolution by Brendan Morrissey

The Philadelphia Campaign Volume II Germantown and the Roads to Valley Forge by Thomas J. McGuire

The previous battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Paoli

The next battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Saratoga

Chief Justice Chew’s Cliveden House: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

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Early Indigenous History Edit

The area that is currently known as Germantown was originally occupied by the Mohicans. In the early eighteenth century, Hendrick Aupaumut recorded the movement of his people that brought them to settle along the rivers that would later be named the Delaware and Hudson. Those who had continued north settled in the valley of the river they named the Mahicannituck, meaning the Waters That Are Never Still. They named themselves the Muh-he-con-neok after the river, a name that eventually evolved to the present day Mohican or Mahican.

The Mohicans settled in the valley, building wigwams and longhouses. The river and woodlands were abundant with life and food, which they supplemented with the corn, beans, and squash they grew. Mohican women were usually in charge of this agriculture, along with the homes and children, while men traveled to fish, hunt, or serve as warriors. [2] [3] [4]

During this time, Mohican territory extended from Manhattan to Lake Champlain, on both sides of the Mahicannituck, east to Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Vermont, and west to Scoharie Creek.

Colonization and European-Mohican Relations Edit

In September 1609, Henry Hudson, a trader for the Dutch, sailed up the Mahicannituck. The valley was rich with the beavers and otters whose fur the Dutch coveted, and in 1614 a trading post was established. As the fur trade expanded, making desired furs harder to find, tensions arose between the Mohicans and the Mohawk, who each sought to maintain their share in the fur trade and relations with European allies. Wars and their effects contributed to the loss of Mohican land to the point where territory in the Hudson Valley dwindled almost completely by the end of the seventeenth century. Mohicans were especially affected by European wars such as King Philip’s War where soldiers from Massachusetts and Connecticut attacked Mohicans. In general after war, Mohicans sold land to the Dutch in exchange for needed resources lost in the destruction of indigenous farming and preserved resources. As more and more Europeans arrived and settled on the land, the Mohicans’ self-reliance and reliance on the land was eroded by increased dependency on the settlers and their provisions. Settlers began dividing the land, establishing fences and boundary lines. Eventually, the Mohicans were driven from their territory west of the Mahicannituck and continued to move further east in the early 1700s. [5]

Robert Livingston, a Scots immigrant, bought thousands of acres from the Native Americans. In 1683, Mohicans sold the first land parcel along the Roelof Jansen Kill to Livingstone in exchange for goods as well as rights to hunting and fishing in the area. While Livingstone received a Mohican deed to the Tachkanick settlement in 1685, he only built his house in 1689. These exchanges were the beginning of a trade relationship that lasted through 1768. [6] He owned a total of 160,240 acres (64,850 ha) at what became Livingston Manor.

Moravian-Mohican Relations Edit

In the summer of 1740, the first Moravian mission was established in the Mohican village of Shekomeko. Before that, Moravian missionary Christian Henry Rauch approached two Mohican leaders, Maumauntissekun (AKA Shabash) and Wassamapah who were sojourning in NYC. Rauch wanted them to help bring Christianity to Mohican settlements. Maumauntissekun had a vision in 1739 where he and his Indian brethren laid dead in the woods. Because they suffered from alcoholism, he believed in the need for religion and temperance. Maumauntissekun agreed to bring Rauch to his town, Shekomeko. Initially, many Mohicans were skeptical of Rauch’s presence because Mohican land had been bought in such great quantities by Europeans. Nevertheless, Maumauntissekun was among the first three Shekomeko residents to be baptized on Feb 11, 1742. Maumauntissekun then became known as Abraham of Shekomeko. [7]

The Moravians lived among Mohicans in Dutchess County and Connecticut’s Housatonic Valley. Many Moravians missionaries learned Mohican languages, while often in areas of strong English and German influence, they did not. Children of Mohican converts learned to read and write in Moravian schools. By the mid-eighteenth century, much of Mohican territory was divided by colonial powers, leaving many without much semblance of spatial surroundings as they had a century before. Although many Mohicans were divided on the matter, there were Mohicans who adapted to a new way of life by converting to Christianity. Families often sent their children to be baptized and raised at Moravian headquarters in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania due to high mortality rates of children from European diseases and war. [8]

In the 1740s there were regional Indian raids on European settlements in New York and Massachusetts. Settlers believed that the French in Canada supplied Indians with weapons. Moravian missionaries were perceived as both allies to Canada and Indians and were thus accused of disloyalty for fomenting the uprisings. The last straw was drawn in early 1744 when Moravian missionaries refused to enter colonial militias. The New York government issued a September 1744 order that discontinued Moravian missionary activities in New York. [9]

Mohican-Settler Land Disputes Edit

In the 1720s, white settlers began to survey Dutchess County land that they claimed according to exchanges originating from the Great Nine Partners Patent. The latter was a landholding of between 8 and 10 miles in width from East of the Hudson almost to Connecticut at Oblong Patent. It was granted to white settlers in May of 1697 and the result of negotiations with Indians in eight grants from the Little Nine Partners Patent signed in April of 1706. [10]

Abraham of Shekomeko (formerly known as Maumauntissekun or Shabash) protested the claims but was still willing to sell some land. His grievance was based on Mohican tradition: land that was not used is open for his people to continue hunting and fishing in the area. The Dutchess County territory being surveyed was unoccupied by white settlers for over four decades, making European claims de jure. The Mohicans, on the other hand, had been hunting and farming on the land for over two decades. According to a missionary memorandum recorded in 1743, Abraham went to New York City in 1724 where the governor promised to pay for Mohican land and leave them with a square mile for Mohican settlement. In September of 1743 that square mile was divided by white settlers. In response, Abraham wrote to the governor disputing the unlawful claims. He tried to prove Mohican ownership by producing witnesses to the Little Nine Partners and even sent a petition around Shekomeko. In the end, the land was divided, and Abraham moved from the village site while Shekomeko was claimed by a proprietor. [11]

Founding of Germantown Edit

In 1710, Robert Livingston sold 6,000 acres (2,400 ha) of his property to Anne, Queen of Great Britain, for use as work camps and resettlement of Palatine German refugees. [12] Some 1,200 persons were settled at work camps to manufacture naval stores and pay off their passage as indentured labor. [13] Known as "East Camp", the colony had four villages: Hunterstown, Queensbury, Annsbury, and Haysbury. [14] The area was later renamed "Germantown". In 1775 Germantown was formed as a "district". [15] Germantown was one of the seven original towns of Columbia County established by an act passed March 7, 1788. (The others were: Kinderhook, Canaan, Claverack, Hillsdale, Clermont, and Livingston). [16]

In March 1845, a boat-load of people from East Camp, who had been to Hudson to make purchases, was run over first by a scow, and then by the steamboat Amerika Selatan. All nine individuals were lost. [17]

Removal Edit

During the Revolution the Mohicans supported the colonists but after the war concluded it became apparent that the Mohicans were not welcome in their village. The Oneida offered them a portion of land and in the mid-1780s they began to move to New Stockbridge. Although the community thrived and the population grew steadily, land companies, hoping to make a profit from the land inhabited by Indigenous communities, proposed that New York State remove all Native Americans from within its borders. In 1822 agents from New York, missionaries, and commissioners from the War Department negotiated with the Menominee and Ho-Chunk communities of Wisconsin for a tract of land on which to relocate the indigenous tribes of New York. In the following years, members of the community was relocated to Wisconsin and settled on the reservation land. [18] [19] [20]

Today, the community is still located on the reservation in Shawano County, Wisconsin where they were forcibly relocated to in the mid-1800s, but enrolled members live throughout the state, the United States, and the world. 1,500 people, most of whom live in Wisconsin, trace their ancestry back to the people who first inhabited the Hudson Valley and are part of the Stockbridge-Munsee Mohican Nation. Some of the community members live on trust land in Wisconsin assigned for their use. Other members of the nation live on privately owned lands within the boundaries of the reservation.

The community has grown mobile homes, apartments, and permanent homes have been added to the original housing, a family center and a health and wellness center have been built, and the Pine Hills Golf Course has expanded. The nation has established The North Star Mohican Casino. They have also set up a Tribal Historic Preservation Office on the campus of the Sage Colleges in Albany to increase their presence in the Hudson Valley. [21] Members of the Nation continue to visit the Hudson Valley, to gather historical information from local libraries and archives, and visit sacred sites. [22] [23]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 13.9 square miles (36.1 km 2 ), of which 12.1 square miles (31.3 km 2 ) is land and 1.8 square miles (4.7 km 2 ), or 13.07%, is water. The west town line, marking the center of the Hudson River, is the border of Greene and Ulster counties.

Populasi historis
Sensus Pop.
1820891
1830967 8.5%
1840969 0.2%
18501,023 5.6%
18601,353 32.3%
18701,393 3.0%
18801,608 15.4%
18901,683 4.7%
19001,686 0.2%
19101,649 −2.2%
19201,424 −13.6%
19301,462 2.7%
19401,427 −2.4%
19501,418 −0.6%
19601,504 6.1%
19701,782 18.5%
19801,922 7.9%
19902,010 4.6%
20002,018 0.4%
20101,954 −3.2%
2014 (est.)1,906 [24] −2.5%
U.S. Decennial Census [25]

As of the census [26] of 2000, there were 2,018 people, 831 households, and 546 families residing in the town. The population density was 166.0 people per square mile (64.1/km 2 ). There were 984 housing units at an average density of 81.0 per square mile (31.3/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the town was 96.93% White, 1.14% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.40% from other races, and 0.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.29% of the population.

There were 831 households, out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the town, the population was spread out, with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, and 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $42,195, and the median income for a family was $50,885. Males had a median income of $36,806 versus $26,250 for females. The per capita income(which is also known as income per person) for the town was $22,198. About 5.0% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.

Germantown Library Edit

The library was first founded in 1948 by the Germantown Garden Club and Emily Finger Lappe in the town hall across from the current post office. It was run by volunteers for two years. [27] In 1950 the town hired their first librarian Bessie Muller-Babcock and she was paid $100 a year. When the town hall moved in 1980 the library moved with it until it became apparent that the library had outgrown the space.

In February of 2008, the library moved to its new permanent space. This building included dedicated spaces for children, young adults, media, and adults. At the same time, the Hover Room opened to the public for library programs, classes, and town meetings. In 2015 a makerspace area was added to the library, the first of its kind in Columbia County. [28] Just three years later the makerspace had to be expanded due to popularity. It was moved to the lower level where it occupies half of the floor.

When Covid hit and the library was forced to shut its doors all of their programs went online. Patrons were able to apply for and instantly get a library card online in order to access materials. Hoopla was added to the litany of services the library offers to give patrons more online choices. [29] In addition to Hoopla the library also offers Kanopy, Overdrive, Libby, Mango Languages, RB Digital Magazines, online Newspapers, and many other things. Free wifi can be accessed 24/7 and special senior citizen hours are available on Tuesdays and Fridays. [30]


The Battle of Germantown

In early October, Washington conceived a bold plan of attack on Howe's 9,000 troop garrison stationed in Germantown. It called for the simultaneous advance of four different units of troops &mdash moving by night. Saat fajar, empat kolom akan berkumpul tidak jauh dari markas Jenderal Howe dan mengejutkan Inggris.

The morning (October 4, 1777) started well for the Americans who had the British retreating. Tapi rencana Washington menjadi kacau ketika salah satu dari empat kolomnya kehilangan arah dalam kabut tebal dan asap tebal. Kolom lain gagal berkoordinasi secara efektif.

Henry Knox
Charles Willson Peale, 1783, Portrait Gallery (Second Bank)

Pertahanan Inggris sangat kuat di sebuah rumah besar Germantown bernama Cliveden di mana puluhan tentara berlindung. Waktu yang berharga hilang sementara Amerika di bawah Henry Knox membombardir rumah itu. Mereka yang berada di dalam tidak menyerah karena mereka takut anak buah Anthony Wayne, yang masih marah atas Pembantaian Paoli, akan tetap membunuh mereka.

Pada akhirnya, nasib buruk dan waktu yang buruk memaksa Washington mundur ke Whitemarsh dengan pengejaran Inggris.

Pertempuran adalah kekalahan Amerika tetapi berfungsi untuk meningkatkan moral dan kepercayaan diri. Mereka percaya kekalahan itu adalah hasil dari nasib buruk, bukan taktik yang buruk.

Amerika menderita 152 kerugian, 521 terluka, dan lebih dari 400 ditangkap. Korban Inggris berjumlah 537 ditambah 14 ditangkap.


Andre, Major John, Letter Regarding the Battle of Germantown

Born May 2, 1750 in London, England to a French mother and Swiss father, John André was educated in Geneva and spoke four languages: English, French, German and Italian. Though seemingly limited by his family's modest finances, André joined the British army in 1771, was commissioned lieutenant and sent for training in Germany. In 1774, André was deployed to Canada with the Royal English Fusiliers and was captured by American forces at the defense of St. Johns in 1775. In the winter of 1776, André was involved in a prisoner exchange that saw him sent to New York, where General William Howe promoted him to captain and assigned him to the command of Major General Charles Grey, whom he served as a personal aide.

Under Grey, André took part in the Philadelphia campaign of 1777-1778, which included the occupation of Philadelphia. During the nine months that André was in Philadelphia, he took up residence at Benjamin Franklin's home, and earned himself a reputation as a man of intelligence and superior social grace. Upon the British evacuation of Philadelphia, however, André shocked many of his local acquaintances by plundering Franklin's house, taking books, a painting of Franklin and several other items, apparently under the orders of General Grey. In November 1778, André was promoted to major and travelled with the retreating British army to New York, where he was placed in charge of British intelligence activities. In May 1779 he was introduced to the American general Benedict Arnold.

After cultivating his relationship with Arnold for over a year, the men put a plan into motion to turn over the American fortress at West Point over to the British, effectively severing the New England colonies from the southern colonies. The plot was uncovered by three American militiamen on the morning of September 23, 1780, and André was arrested and brought to Tappan, New York, for trial. After being convicted by a military court of being behind American lines "under a feigned name and in a disguised habit," André was hung on October 2, 1780, at the age of 29. André earned the respect of both sides of the conflict during the trial for refusing to pass blame for the events onto Arnold. Mourned by friend and foe alike, André was initially buried at Tappan, but his body was exhumed and reinterred in the Nave at Westminster Abbey. A fitting epitaph is provided by none other than George Washington, who wrote that André was, "more unfortunate than criminal," and "an accomplished man and gallant officer."

Works Cited: "Major John Andre". Asosiasi Balai Kemerdekaan. 1997-2010. http://www.ushistory.org/march/bio/andre.htm (Retrieved 1/29/2010).

George Washington to John Laurens, October 13, 1780, http://memory.loc.gov/mss/mgw/mgw3h/002/110109.jpg (Retrieved 1/29/2010).

The collection consists of an eight-page letter written by Major John André during the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War, as identified by historian and author Thomas J. McGuire. Written in Germantown in 1777, the letter chronicles the Philadelphia campaign from the British landing at Head of Elk, Maryland, in August 1777, through the Battle of Germantown, on October 4, 1777. Five of the pages were written on September 28, 1777, with the remaining three written on October 8, 1777.

The letter describes the conduct and aftermath of several battles of the American Revolution, including the Battle of Brandywine, the Battle of Paoli (also known as the Paoli Massacre) and the Battle of Germantown. It illustrates the participation in these battles of many well-known and important figures of the American Revolution, including American generals George Washington and Anthony Wayne, as well as British officers General Sir William Howe and Major General Charles Grey, and Hessian general Wilhelm von Knyphausen. Also recounted are the deaths of two of André's friends at the Battle of Germantown, Brigadier General James Agnew and Lieutenant Colonel John Bird, the latter of whom André calls, "a veteran of the greatest merit, & most estimable character."

The letter also demonstrates André's firm grasp of not only the conduct of the Philadelphia campaign and the disposition of the enemy, but also the attitudes and physical abilities of his own troops, adding to the narrative of André as a professional soldier, rather than just a spy, as he is more widely remembered. The letter was a gift of Robert L. McNeil, Jr., in 2006.


4 Jon Moxley And Kenny Omega

A lot of laughs were recently had at the expense of AEW over the end of their exploding barbed wire deathmatch at Revolution 2021. It didn't quite go the way they had hoped, though the performances of both Jon Moxley and Kenny Omega in the match were quite admirable. But their previous encounter was far more memorable.

The two men had a Non-Sanctioned match at Full Gear 2019 that left each of them with their own injuries and scars. That was a bout that fans are still talking about, one that savaged Moxley and Omega alike.


Sejarah kita

The German Society of Pennsylania
Since its founding in 1764, The German Society of Pennsylvania has served Philadelphia's German community. Between the 1680s and the American Revolution, the majority of an estimated 100,000 German-speaking immigrants coming to North America settled in Pennsylvania, making up a third of Philadelphia's population by the 1760s. These immigrants often arrived in a miserable state after long sea voyages known for unhealthy conditions. In response to their plight, on December 26, 1764, sixty-five prominent German colonists established an organization "for the relief of distressed Germans." Over the course of its 250-year history, the Society has evolved with the changing needs of the German-American population of Philadelphia. During the 1800s, the Society continued its support for immigrants in need while also increasingly sponsoring activities to preserve and promote German traditions and customs. Today, the Society's membership and programs are open to anyone with an interest in the German language and culture.

Amal
Initially, the Society focused its activities on helping Germans who arrived in Philadelphia under the indenture system, which required them to work off the cost of their voyage. In 1765, the Society successfully lobbied for legislation that protected these immigrants from exploitative contracts or abusive employers. It also provided newcomers with interpreters, financial assistance, and legal aid. A spike in German immigration in the late 1840s caused the Society to establish the Agentur (relief agency), which helped applicants with medical care, shelter, transportation, cash, and employment referrals. When the Women’s Auxiliary was founded in 1900, the Agentur shifted its focus to assisting single men find employment, while the Auxiliary helped entire families. With the outbreak of World War I, the Society and the Women’s Auxiliary expanded their relief efforts to include displaced Germans in Europe – an outreach that was repeated during World War II and the postwar years. Today, the Women’s Auxiliary leads the Society’s charitable mission by raising funds for a variety of Philadelphia-area non-profits.

Pendidikan
Education has been an important focus of the German Society for much of its existence. Beginning in the 1780s, the Society provided financial assistance to young German men attending the University of Pennsylvania. In 1817, the Society established a Volksbibliothek, a lending library that offered members general interest and educational reading materials both in German and English. Today, the library holds the largest non-university collection of German materials in the United States, ranging from language primers to popular novels. An estimated 20% of these books cannot be found at other American libraries. In the 1860s, the Society launched a lecture series on German-American topics, and it started an Abendschule (night school) offering English language instruction for German speakers. As demand for English classes for recent immigrants waned over the course of the 20 th century, the Society’s educational offerings shifted to German language classes, both for adults and children. In addition, since the 1970s, it has provided over 250 scholarships for students from the tri-state area studying German in college.

Promoting German Culture
As the 19 th century progressed, the Society became more active in the promotion of German culture in Philadelphia. The mid-century spike in immigration became the impetus behind not only the Agentur, but also the Society’s involvement in celebrating events like Friedrich Schiller’s 100 th birthday in 1859 and the 200 th anniversary of the founding of Germantown in 1883. The library started to collect German-American publications, many of which, like the Demokrat dan Freie Presse newspapers, were printed in Philadelphia. Today, its collections document the breadth of German cultural life in the city, such as large-scale celebrations of German-American Day as well as regional and national competitions for gymnastics (Tukang bubut), rifle clubs (Schützenvereine), and singing associations (Sängerbünde). Many of these events were held at the Society’s current home at 611 Spring Garden Street, built in 1888 in what was then the heart of Philadelphia’s German community. By the end of the century, the Society had emerged as a major cultural institution and promoter of Deutschtum, or “Germanness.”

Challenges and Opportunities
At the beginning of the 20 th century, World War I, Prohibition, and the Great Depression presented the German Society and Philadelphia’s large German community with serious challenges. Following American entry into the war, the Society responded to strong anti-German sentiments by purchasing Liberty Bonds and organizing fundraising efforts for the Red Cross. Still, the fear of being identified as “un-American” caused a sharp drop in membership. After 1919, Prohibition devastated the local German brewing industry and ended many of the social customs that German-Americans had enjoyed. These factors, combined with restrictive immigration laws and the Great Depression, resulted in a decline of the Society’s status and influence. The outbreak of World War II continued the downward trend, although the remaining members mounted impressive war-related fundraising campaigns. After 1945, a surge in immigration from Germany reinvigorated the Society and completed its transformation into a cultural heritage organization.

The German Society Today
During the 1950s and 60s, the Society became an important focal point for the effort to re-establish the German-American presence in Philadelphia, culminating in the 200th Anniversary festivities of 1964. At the same time, German-Americans participated in the overall trend to leave city neighborhoods for the suburbs, making the building on Spring Garden less attractive for socializing. Many discussions were held about relocating to areas closer to where the Society members lived, but in the end, nobody wanted to give up the auditorium, with its superb setting for concerts, or the library, which at 70,000 volumes would have been much too large to take along. Simultaneously, the approaching 300th anniversary of the 1683 arrival of the first German settlers in Philadelphia sparked renewed interest on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean in the Society and its library, in the end allowing the Society to embark on an ambitious renovation project in the 1990s, funded by German and American government agencies and foundations as well as the Society itself. Since then, the library serves as a research center for German-American studies, and an expanding language program as well as new social events like a popular Bierfest have made it possible to gain new members from the region as a whole, not only its German-American community. At the beginning of the 21st century, the German Society is well poised to offer cultural, social, and educational experiences to a variety of audiences, whether they are recent immigrants, longstanding inhabitants of the area, or anybody interested in the German language and culture. None of this would be possible without the dedicated volunteers that have kept the Society going for over 250 years, a tradition that will hopefully continue for a very long time!

Every week, something fun is happening. Lectures, Panel Discussions, Movies, German soccer broadcasts, and music fill our home on Spring Garden Street in Philadelphia.


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