Kereta Pemakaman Abraham Lincoln

Kereta Pemakaman Abraham Lincoln



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Pada tanggal 21 April 1865, sebuah kereta api yang membawa peti mati Presiden Abraham Lincoln yang terbunuh meninggalkan Washington, DC dalam perjalanannya ke Springfield, Illinois, di mana ia akan dimakamkan pada tanggal 4 Mei. Kereta yang membawa tubuh Lincoln melakukan perjalanan melalui 180 kota dan tujuh negara bagian di perjalanan ke negara bagian Lincoln di Illinois. Perhentian terjadwal untuk kereta pemakaman khusus diterbitkan di surat kabar.

Di setiap pemberhentian, peti mati Lincoln diturunkan dari kereta, diletakkan di atas mobil jenazah yang ditarik kuda dengan dekorasi yang rumit dan dipimpin oleh prosesi khidmat ke gedung umum untuk dilihat. Di kota-kota sebesar Columbus, Ohio, dan sekecil Herkimer, New York, ribuan pelayat berbondong-bondong untuk memberikan penghormatan kepada presiden yang terbunuh. Di Philadelphia, tubuh Lincoln disemayamkan di sayap timur Independence Hall, tempat yang sama di mana Deklarasi Kemerdekaan ditandatangani. Surat kabar melaporkan bahwa orang harus menunggu lebih dari lima jam untuk melewati peti mati presiden di beberapa kota.

Kereta pemakaman Lincoln dijuluki "The Lincoln Special." (Potretnya ditempelkan di bagian depan mesin di atas penjaga ternak.) Sekitar 300 orang menemani jenazah Lincoln dalam perjalanan sejauh 1.654 mil, termasuk putra sulungnya Robert. Juga di kereta adalah peti mati berisi tubuh putra Lincoln Willie, yang meninggal pada tahun 1862 pada usia 11 tahun karena demam tifoid selama tahun kedua Lincoln menjabat. Tubuh Willie telah dipisahkan dari plot di Washington, D.C. setelah kematian Lincoln sehingga dia bisa dimakamkan bersama ayahnya di plot keluarga di Springfield.

Pada tahun 1911, kebakaran padang rumput di dekat Minneapolis, Minnesota, menghancurkan gerbong kereta yang telah begitu terkenal membawa tubuh Lincoln ke tempat peristirahatan terakhirnya.


1.700 Miles of Mourners: Kereta pemakaman Abraham Lincoln melintasi tujuh negara bagian

Tugas Serius: Lokomotif tampan "Nashville" dari Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad dihiasi dengan tirai duka hitam dan gambar Abraham Lincoln. Mesin itu menarik kereta pemakaman dari Cleveland ke Columbus, Ohio.

Wendy J.Sotos
OKTOBER 2018

“Saya terus berjalan sampai saya tiba di Ruang Timur … di depan saya ada sebuah catafalque yang merupakan bentuk yang dibungkus dengan jubah pemakaman. Di sekelilingnya ditempatkan tentara…ada kerumunan orang…menangis dengan sedih. 'Siapa yang mati di Gedung Putih?' Saya menuntut ... 'Presiden ... dibunuh oleh seorang pembunuh ...' Ledakan kesedihan yang keras ... membangunkan saya dari mimpi saya.
Abraham Lincoln, menceritakan mimpi sesaat sebelum pembunuhannya pada tahun 1865.

Karena telegraf, berita tentang penembakan Presiden Abraham Lincoln pada 14 April 1865, dan kematian pada tanggal 15 menyebar dengan cepat, dan negara—baik di Utara maupun Selatan—terguncang. Bangsa dan pemerintah beralih ke Sekretaris Perang Edwin Stanton, yang setuju untuk menjalankan negara sampai Wakil Presiden Andrew Johnson dilantik. Dia bertemu dengan majelis dari Illinois yang memohon agar Lincoln dimakamkan di Springfield, "rumah angkatnya" di negara bagian pertama yang mengakui "kebesarannya". Stanton kemudian menunjuk Komite Pengaturan (terdiri dari warga negara Illinois) untuk menentukan transportasi jenazah Presiden Lincoln dari Washington, D.C., ke tempat peristirahatan terakhir mereka.

Bingung, Mary Todd Lincoln juga berpaling ke Stanton dan bangsa untuk pemakaman suaminya. Satu-satunya permintaannya adalah agar Willie Lincoln, yang telah meninggal di Gedung Putih pada tahun 1862, pada usia 12 tahun, diputus dan melakukan perjalanan pulang bersama ayahnya dan dimakamkan di sampingnya.

George Harrington, asisten sekretaris Perbendaharaan, bertanggung jawab atas persiapan pemakaman, dimulai dengan pembangunan catafalque—platform yang ditinggikan di mana orang yang telah meninggal dibaringkan. Tanpa memperhitungkan biaya, Komisaris Bangunan Umum Benjamin B. French merancang catafalque dan mendirikannya di Ruang Timur Gedung Putih.

Seperti yang diramalkan dalam mimpinya, Lincoln dibaringkan di Ruang Timur rumah presiden sampai upacara pemakaman resmi untuk keluarga dan pejabat pemerintah. Di antara mereka yang menghadiri kebaktian itu adalah kavaleri pribadi presiden yang mengawal para pemimpin Angkatan Darat dan Angkatan Laut Utara—Lt. Jenderal Ulysses S. Grant dan Laksamana David Farragut anggota Kabinet dan Presiden Mahkamah Agung Johnson dan mantan Wakil Presiden Hannibal Hamlin. Mary Lincoln dan Menteri Luar Negeri William Seward, dalam pemulihan dari percobaan pembunuhan juga pada 14 April, tidak hadir.

Pada akhir pemakaman 19 April, Lincoln meninggalkan Gedung Putih untuk terakhir kalinya.

Secara bersamaan di seluruh negeri, baik Utara maupun Selatan, 25 juta pelayat akan mendengar khotbah tentang Lincoln yang disampaikan oleh para menteri setempat.

Korps Cadangan Veteran, yang terdiri dari orang-orang yang secara fisik tidak lagi mampu bertugas di posisi garis depan, menjabat sebagai pengusung peti mati resmi untuk peti mati Lincoln hingga mencapai tempat peristirahatan terakhirnya. Para prajurit mengangkat peti mati yang terbungkus bendera dan meletakkannya di atas peti yang ditarik kuda. Diatur oleh orang kepercayaan Lincoln, Ward Hill Lamon, prosesi terakhir presiden yang terbunuh itu dipimpin oleh kuda putih dan satu detasemen Pasukan Berwarna Amerika Serikat. Itu berjalan ke Pennsylvania Avenue ke Capitol "di tengah lonceng berdentang dan tembakan senjata kecil." Seekor kuda tanpa penunggang mengikuti peti mati dengan sepatu bot terbalik di sanggurdi. Ini adalah pemakaman presiden pertama yang menampilkan kuda seperti itu, dan itu melambangkan seorang pejuang yang tidak akan pernah menunggang kuda lagi. Peti mati itu dibawa menaiki tangga Capitol, di bawah tempat di mana enam minggu sebelumnya Lincoln menyampaikan Pidato Pelantikan Kedua yang terkenal dan menginspirasi. Setibanya di Capitol, layanan singkat diberikan. Kemudian Lincoln milik rakyat. Dia adalah presiden pertama yang dibaringkan di Rotunda.

Pada 21 April, pukul 7 pagi, seorang penjaga kehormatan mengawal peti mati Lincoln dan Willie ke stasiun kereta. Sekitar pukul 12:30, kereta sembilan gerbong berhenti, tidak pernah melaju di atas 20 mil per jam untuk memberikan martabat pada perjalanan menyedihkan ke Springfield.


A New Nation: Sekelompok tentara dan warga sipil, baik hitam maupun putih, berbaris di Pennsylvania Avenue di Washington, D.C., untuk menyaksikan peti mati Presiden Lincoln lewat. (Perpustakaan Kongres)

Washington

Pada hari Jumat, 21 April 1865, Lincoln Special—sebutan untuk kereta api itu—terbungkus karangan bunga hitam dan ditemani oleh pengawal kehormatan, meninggalkan depot Kereta Api Baltimore & Ohio di Washington, D.C., menuju Baltimore, 38 mil jauhnya. Itu didahului oleh mesin pilot, untuk memastikan jalurnya jelas dan untuk mengumumkan kedatangan kereta Lincoln. Kedua mesin memiliki potret Lincoln yang melekat pada penangkap sapi mereka.

Baltimore

Di Baltimore, hujan deras turun saat sekitar 10.000 orang memberi penghormatan kepada tubuh Lincoln di Merchant Exchange Building selama tiga jam untuk melihat publik.


Pemberhentian Pertama di Negara Bagian Keystone: Kereta pemakaman Lincoln berhenti di stasiun Kereta Api Pennsylvania di Harrisburg. (MG-218, Koleksi Foto Umum/Courtesy of Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Arsip Negara Bagian Pennsylvania)

Meja panitera dan stan pembicara di gedung negara bagian Pennsylvania dibalut warna hitam sebagai persiapan untuk kedatangan peti mati presiden. (C. Sejarah Gambar Burnite/Newscom)

Harrisburg

Badai petir yang dahsyat membatalkan prosesi pemakaman di ibu kota Pennsylvania pada 21 April, dan Lincoln dibawa ke rumah negara bagian untuk menonton malam. Pengamatan juga dilakukan keesokan paginya. Sekitar 25.000 orang melihat peti mati di Harrisburg, dan kerumunan 40.000 orang menyaksikan mobil jenazah dibawa kembali ke depot.


Deklarasi Duka: Peti mati Lincoln yang ditarik kuda hampir tidak bisa berjalan dari stasiun kereta api ke Independence Hall melalui kerumunan yang mencekik Broad Street di Philadelphia. (Perpustakaan Kongres)

Philadelphia

Lebih dari 30.000 pelayat melihat jenazah presiden di sayap timur Aula Kemerdekaan, di mana Deklarasi Kemerdekaan telah ditandatangani. Penayangan malam pertama hanya dengan undangan, dan ketika tamu istimewa pergi, pelayat sudah berkumpul untuk menonton umum. Bagi sebagian orang, penantian berlangsung hingga lima jam.

Penerimaan Sedih: Meskipun sebagian besar penduduk Kota New York memiliki simpati Selatan selama perang, spanduk dan dekorasi berkabung di Balai Kota menunjukkan publik bersatu dalam kesedihan. (Courtesy of the George Eastman Museum, Gift of Frederick Hill Merserve)

Kota New York

Jam di stasiun kereta di Jersey City, NJ, telah dihentikan pada pukul 07:20—perkiraan waktu kematian Lincoln—tetapi kereta tiba sesuai jadwal pada pukul 10 pagi Senin, 24 April. Peti mati itu diangkut dengan feri melintasi Sungai Hudson ke Kota New York dan dibawa ke Balai Kota. Pengamatan dimulai pukul 1 siang, dan lebih dari 50.000 orang mengantri untuk melihat sekilas sisa-sisa Lincoln. Selama empat jam pada sore berikutnya, 16 kuda menarik mobil megah sepanjang 14 kaki yang membawa peti mati melalui jalan-jalan, sementara 75.000 warga berbaris dengan khidmat di belakang. Jendela di sepanjang rute disewa untuk dilihat dengan biaya hingga $100 per orang, dan Theodore Roosevelt yang berusia 6 tahun menonton bersama kakeknya dari salah satu jendela di dekat Union Square.

Penayangan Lain Berakhir: Para pelayat mengalami terik matahari—dan, seperti di banyak kota lain di sepanjang rute, gerombolan pencopet yang agresif—saat enam kuda menarik tubuh Lincoln kembali ke stasiun kereta Buffalo. (Sejarah Gambar/Newscom)

Albania

Saat kereta berjalan menyusuri Lembah Sungai Hudson ke Albany, 141 mil dari New York City, obor dan lentera menerangi rel kereta. Seluruh penduduk kota-kota kecil berkumpul, tidak peduli jam berapa, untuk mengucapkan selamat tinggal dan bernyanyi untuk presiden tercinta mereka saat keretanya lewat. Setelah tiba di Albany, peti mati dipindahkan ke rumah negara untuk dilihat publik, di mana penduduk setempat memberikan penghormatan terakhir mereka. Keesokan paginya, surat kabar memberitakan bahwa pembunuh John Wilkes Booth telah dilacak dan dibunuh pada 26 April.

Kerbau

Di Buffalo, peti mati diangkut ke St. James Hall dengan catafalque yang ditarik oleh enam kuda putih dengan tali kekang hitam. Mantan Presiden Millard Fillmore dan calon Presiden Grover Cleveland termasuk di antara 100.000 pelayat yang harus melewati peti mati. Berbeda dengan pemberhentian sebelumnya, tidak ada prosesi formal yang dilakukan karena kota telah melakukan upacara pemakaman dan prosesi tiruan pada 19 April, tanpa mengetahui bahwa Kerbau akan menjadi pemberhentian yang dijadwalkan.


Enam Kuda Putih: Gambar di atas peti mati Lincoln di Cleveland's Monument Square memberikan pemandangan yang bagus dari enam kuda tampan dengan tali kekang hitam yang menarik peti mati Lincoln di sebagian besar kota di sepanjang rute. Cleveland memiliki paviliun yang dibangun secara tegas untuk membantu penduduk memberi penghormatan kepada Lincoln. (Dari Koleksi Lincoln Financial Foundation, Courtesy of the Allen County Public Library dan Indiana State Museum)

Cleveland

Ketika peti mati Lincoln tiba di Cleveland pada 28 April, sudah seminggu penuh sejak Lincoln Special mengucapkan selamat tinggal pada Washington. Itu dibawa dari Euclid Street Station ke Public Square, dan tempat terbuka memungkinkan para pemimpin Cleveland untuk mendirikan paviliun penglihatan. Meskipun hujan deras, 180 pelayat per menit melewati tubuh Presiden Lincoln. Seorang pengunjung yang telah menghadiri setiap pemakaman sejauh ini mengklaim bahwa pemakaman di Cleveland adalah “yang paling megah.” Sama seperti kota-kota kecil dalam perjalanan ke Albany, kota-kota di seluruh Ohio juga menghadirkan pemandangan yang menyentuh dan menyentuh. Mengenang satu akun surat kabar: “Aliran api unggun, obor, dan lentera adalah hal biasa…orang-orang keluar secara massal…dengan kepala terbuka dan dengan wajah sedih, menatap dengan kagum ke atas kereta…sebagian besar lampu gerbong dan lampu mobil yang sedang tidur padam, tetapi mobil pemakaman menyala penuh...menembus malam yang lewat.”


Namun, catafalque kota itu unik, dan bendera pertempuran ditambahkan ke tirai hitam khas yang menghiasi Balai Kota. (Lelang Warisan, Dallas)

Lalu Lintas Berat: Di Indianapolis, diperkirakan 155 orang per menit melewati peti mati Lincoln selama periode menonton publik. (Dari Koleksi Lincoln Financial Foundation, Courtesy of the Allen County Public Library dan Indiana State Museum)

Colombus

Di Columbus, kereta berhenti tepat pada pukul 07:30 pada hari Sabtu, 29 April. Seperti biasa, peti mati diturunkan dari kereta untuk prosesi dan tontonan umum. Pengamatan di Columbus berada di rotunda di dalam ibukota negara bagian. Katafalque berbeda dari yang lain dalam perjalanan karena tidak memiliki kolom dan kanopi. Alih-alih berbaring di beludru hitam, itu tenggelam ke tempat tidur bunga dan lumut rendah. Selain itu, karpet menutupi lantai untuk meredam "seret dan klik sepatu kulit". Menjelang malam, kereta telah berangkat dari Ohio, menuju Indianapolis.

Indianapolis

Hujan deras mengguyur Lincoln Special setibanya di Indianapolis, memaksa pejabat pemerintah untuk membatalkan prosesi yang dijadwalkan dan mencurahkan seluruh hari pada tanggal 30 April untuk menonton di Gedung Negara Bagian Indiana. Sore hari kereta berangkat ke Chicago.


'A Martyr for Justice': Pada tanggal 1 Mei, mobil jenazah Lincoln, disertai dengan prosesi "wanita-wanita muda berbaju putih," lewat di bawah lengkungan melintasi 12th Street Chicago. Di antara upeti di lengkungan adalah "Pertama dalam Perdamaian," "Jiwa Mulia," dan "Seorang Martir untuk Keadilan." (Perpustakaan Kongres)

Chicago

Pada tanggal 18 Mei 1860, Lincoln berada di Chicago ketika ia memenangkan nominasi untuk presiden. Ketika tubuhnya kembali hampir lima tahun kemudian, perpisahan Chicago sebanding dalam ukuran, panjang, dan kemegahannya dengan New York City. Prosesi di sepanjang jalan yang padat mengelilingi gedung-gedung paling terkemuka di Chicago, tiba di gedung pengadilan empat jam kemudian. Pukul 6 sore pintu dibuka untuk umum untuk dilihat sepanjang malam dan keesokan harinya. Sekitar 7.000 orang melewati peti mati per jam. Pada pukul 8 malam, dengan penerangan 3.000 obor, delapan kuda hitam menarik mobil jenazah kembali ke depot.


Kembali ke Rumah: Prosesi pemakaman di Springfield melewati rumah Lincoln, di mana teman dan rekan keluarga memberikan penghormatan. (Perpustakaan Kepresidenan Abraham Lincoln & Museum)

Springfield

Pada 4 Mei, presiden ke-16 negara itu akhirnya akan dimakamkan di kota kelahirannya yang tercinta. Sehari sebelumnya, ia telah berbaring dalam keadaan di kamar rumah negara bagian yang sama di mana ia telah membacakan pidato abadi "Rumah Terbagi" pada bulan Juni 1858. Sesaat sebelum jam 10 pagi, pintu dibuka untuk umum. Yang lain berkumpul di rumah presiden, di mana kudanya, Bob Tua, dan anjingnya, Fido, telah dibawa dari Washington.

Untuk pemakaman, kota St. Louis meminjamkan Springfield mobil jenazah yang indah (atas), dengan finishing emas, perak, dan kristal. Mayor Jenderal Joseph Hooker memimpin prosesi terakhir ke Pemakaman Oak Ridge, di mana peti mati Lincoln akan diletakkan di atas lempengan marmer di dalam makam, bersama dengan mendiang putranya Willie.

Putra tertua Lincoln, Robert, dan sepupunya John Hanks mewakili keluarga presiden. (Mary, di Washington, D.C., masih terlalu bingung untuk hadir.) Uskup Simpson menyampaikan pidato pemakaman yang fasih dan Pendeta Dr. P.D. Gurley membaca doa itu. Di akhir kebaktian, gerbang besi makam dan pintu kayu berat dikunci, dengan Robert diberikan kuncinya.


Solemn Tribute: Prosesi kereta pemakaman Abraham Lincoln meninggalkan Washington, D.C., pada 21 April 1865, tiba pada 2 Mei di tujuan akhir Springfield, Illinois—tempat Lincoln akan dimakamkan bersama putranya yang telah meninggal, Willie. Kereta, yang disebut Lincoln Special, pada dasarnya mengikuti rute yang dilalui Lincoln pada Februari 1861 dari Springfield ke Washington untuk pelantikan pertamanya. Termasuk pemberhentian dalam perjalanan pulang sepanjang 1.700 mil yang suram, adalah ibu kota dari enam dari tujuh negara bagian yang dilalui. (Dari Koleksi Lincoln Financial Foundation, Courtesy of the Allen County Public Library dan Indiana State Museum)

Misteri Kereta Pemakaman Abraham Lincoln Dipecahkan oleh Chemist

Sebelum Presiden Abraham Lincoln dimakamkan, sebuah kereta api membawa jenazahnya dalam prosesi pemakaman selama dua minggu melintasi negara bagian AS Utara pada tahun 1865. Pelayat dari New York ke Illinois berkumpul untuk melihat kereta dan memberikan penghormatan terakhir, tetapi meskipun menarik jutaan dolar. penonton, satu detail dari acara yang banyak dipublikasikan itu dianggap telah hilang dari sejarah: Warna gerbong presiden.

Sekarang, dalam kasus penyelidikan sejarah, Wayne Wesolowski, seorang ahli kimia di University of Arizona di Tucson, telah mengumpulkan potongan teka-teki yang hilang.

Dengan menganalisis serpihan cat kecil dari salah satu dari hanya beberapa artefak yang masih hidup dari kereta, Wesolowski menemukan bahwa warna sebenarnya dari gerbong bersejarah itu adalah warna merah kecoklatan yang ia gambarkan sebagai "merah marun gelap".

"Sungguh luar biasa mengetahui apa warna aslinya," kata Wesolowski kepada LiveScience. "Itu adalah peristiwa yang sangat besar dan penting, dan kami tahu banyak detail teknis tentang gerbong, tetapi warnanya menjadi misteri." [Buka: 6 Mitos Perang Saudara]

Tetapi memecahkan misteri itu adalah latihan kesabaran.

Lama datang

Sebelum pindah ke Arizona, Wesolowski memegang jabatan mengajar di Universitas Benediktin dekat Chicago selama 10 tahun. Saat berada di sana, ia mengarahkan Proyek Kereta Lincoln, yang bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan informasi sejarah dan membuat pameran museum keliling tentang prosesi pemakaman bertingkat. Sebagai bagian dari proyek, Wesolowski menyelesaikan model skala kereta pemakaman, berukuran 15 kaki (4,6 meter), pada tahun 1995.

Hampir 20 tahun kemudian, Wesolowski dihubungi oleh penyelenggara proyek berbasis di Chicago yang disebut Kereta Pemakaman Lincoln 2015. Organisasi tersebut sedang membangun replika ukuran penuh mobil pemakaman Lincoln, dan mereka bermaksud menggunakannya untuk menelusuri kembali jalur prosesi sebagai bagian dari perayaan ulang tahun ke-150 pada tahun 2015.

Penyelenggara proyek ingin tahu warna apa yang akan digunakan untuk melukis replika tersebut.

Wesolowski meneliti bahan sumber dan catatan sejarah, mencari petunjuk tentang warna gerbong presiden. Karena tidak ada foto berwarna, litograf, atau lukisan kereta api kontemporer, Wesolowski harus bergantung pada artikel surat kabar dan catatan tertulis lainnya, yang sebagian besar kontradiktif.

"Saya tidak menemukan catatan warna di surat kabar, dan banyak deskripsi lainnya ditulis lama setelah Perang Saudara," jelas Wesolowski. "Beberapa menggambarkan mobil itu sebagai warna cokelat yang kaya, dan yang lain mengatakan itu lebih seperti claret, atau anggur merah. Tapi sangat sulit untuk menggambarkan warna dengan kata-kata, dan nama cat saat ini memiliki arti yang sangat berbeda."

Misalnya, cokelat batangan tidak ada pada tahun 1865, jadi "cokelat cokelat" lebih mengacu pada cokelat Belanda, yang, karena cara pembuatannya, berwarna lebih gelap, cokelat lebih merah daripada yang kita bayangkan hari ini, jelas Wesolowski.

Keluar dari kayu

Setelah prosesi pemakaman, gerbong itu dijual di lelang dan akhirnya dibeli oleh serangkaian pemilik pribadi. Pada tahun 1911, gerbong hancur dalam kebakaran.

Namun, melalui penelitiannya, Wesolowski bertemu dengan seorang pria dari Minnesota yang mewarisi sepotong bingkai jendela gerbong. Sampel itu mungkin satu-satunya artefak kayu eksterior yang selamat dari kebakaran, kata Wesolowski.

Untuk menentukan warna gerbong, Wesolowski menganalisis potongan kecil jendela di bawah mikroskop bertenaga tinggi di laboratorium kimia universitas. Para peneliti kemudian pergi ke departemen seni dan dengan hati-hati mengikis serpihan cat mikroskopis dan mencoba mencocokkannya dengan catatan pigmen dan standar warna nasional yang tercatat.

"Kami memperbesar sampel warna ini sedemikian rupa sehingga Anda dapat melihat titik-titik yang menyatu dengan mata Anda untuk membentuk warna," kata Wesolowski. "Kami meletakkan serpihan cat di atas sampel ini, dan jika Anda bisa melihat serpihannya, warnanya tidak cocok. Jika cocok, serpihannya hilang karena hanya menyatu."

Akhirnya menemukan warna merah marun yang sebenarnya dari gerbong adalah kemenangan bagi Wesolowski, tetapi dalam beberapa hal, ini adalah kemenangan yang pahit.

"Di satu sisi, itu luar biasa, tetapi di sisi lain, sekarang saya tahu bahwa model yang saya buat sedikit terlalu banyak di sisi merah," kata Wesolowski sambil tertawa.


Kereta Pemakaman Presiden Abraham Lincoln

Di tempat di mana Stasiun Wanatah dari Monon Railroad pernah berdiri, kereta pemakaman Lincoln berhenti sebentar pada pagi hari tanggal 1 Mei 1865 sekitar pukul 07:40 Kereta pemakaman menempuh perjalanan sejauh 1.700 mil dari Washington, DC ke Springfield, Illinois, menelusuri kembali rute yang diambil oleh Abraham Lincoln di jalur kampanye aslinya ke Washington.

Didirikan oleh Kota Wanatah.

Topik dan seri. Penanda sejarah ini tercantum dalam daftar topik berikut: Pemerintah & Politik &banteng Kereta Api & Trem &perang banteng, Sipil AS. Selain itu, itu termasuk dalam daftar mantan Presiden AS: #16 Abraham Lincoln. Tanggal bersejarah yang signifikan untuk entri ini adalah 1 Mei 1913.

Lokasi. 41° 25,802′ N, 86° 54,01′ W. Marker berada di Wanatah, Indiana, di LaPorte County. Marker berada di West Cross Street dekat North Illinois Street. Di W. Cross dan N. Illinois adalah silo biji-bijian. Penanda ada di taman hanya di barat daya. Masuk melalui tanah kerikil di sebelah barat silo. Sentuh untuk peta. Marker ada di area kantor pos ini: Wanatah IN 46390, Amerika Serikat. Sentuh untuk petunjuk arah.

penanda terdekat lainnya. Setidaknya 8 penanda lain berada dalam jarak 13 mil dari penanda ini, diukur saat burung gagak terbang. Kereta Lincoln di Westville (sekitar 7 mil jauhnya) Situs Tassinong (sekitar 8,6 mil jauhnya) Porter County (Indiana) Veteran

(sekitar 8,7 mil) Old Sac Trail (sekitar 8,8 mil) The Lincoln Highway (sekitar 8,8 mil) Gereja dan Pemakaman Pinhook Methodist (sekitar 9 mil) La Salle di Indiana (sekitar 10,7 mil jauhnya ) Door Village School (sekitar 12,1 mil jauhnya).

Penanda terkait. Klik di sini untuk daftar penanda yang terkait dengan penanda ini.

Lihat juga. . .
1. Situs Sejarah Nasional Rumah Lincoln. Satu-satunya rumah yang dimiliki Lincoln terletak di Springfield. Dari sini dia pergi ke Gedung Putih dan ke sini jenazahnya dikembalikan. (Dikirim pada 27 September 2007, oleh Christopher Light dari Valparaiso, Indiana.)

2. Situs Sejarah Nasional Teater Ford. Di sini, John Wilkes Booth melepaskan tembakan fatal yang menewaskan Presiden Lincoln. (Dikirim pada 27 September 2007, oleh Christopher Light dari Valparaiso, Indiana.)

3. Pengawal Kehormatan Pemakaman Presiden Abraham Lincoln. “Pengawal Kehormatan menemani peti mati Lincoln ke Springfield, Illinoirs. Ini adalah daftar anggota Korps Cadangan Veteran. Orang-orang ini adalah satu-satunya yang diizinkan untuk memindahkan peti mati dari satu tempat ke tempat lain selama perjalanan pemakaman yang panjang.” Entri RootsWeb (Dikirim pada 27 Februari 2012.)


Kereta Pemakaman Abraham Lincoln

Di situs ini, pelayat yang tak terhitung jumlahnya berdiri sebagai saksi khusyuk ketika Chicago & Alton Railroad Engine No. 58 tiba menarik kereta pemakaman yang membawa jenazah Abraham Lincoln, Presiden ke-16 Amerika Serikat.

Didirikan 2010 oleh Kota Springfield.

Topik dan seri. Penanda sejarah ini tercantum dalam daftar topik ini: Kereta Api & Trem. Selain itu, itu termasuk dalam daftar mantan Presiden AS: #16 Abraham Lincoln. Tanggal sejarah yang signifikan untuk entri ini adalah 3 Mei 1865.

Lokasi. 39° 48.14′ N, 89° 39.102′ W. Marker berada di Springfield, Illinois, di Kabupaten Sangamon. Marker berada di South 3rd Street di selatan East Jefferson Street (Illinois Route 97), di sebelah kanan saat bepergian ke utara. Marker terletak di stasiun kereta Springfield Amtrak. Sentuh untuk peta. Penanda berada di atau dekat alamat pos ini: 100 S 3rd St, Springfield IL 62701, Amerika Serikat. Sentuh untuk petunjuk arah.

penanda terdekat lainnya. Setidaknya 8 penanda lain berada dalam jarak berjalan kaki dari penanda ini. Lincoln's Final Journey (dalam jarak berteriak dari penanda ini) Brunwick's Billiard Hall (sekitar 500 kaki, diukur dalam garis langsung) Toko Joshua Speed ​​(sekitar 600 kaki) Globe Tavern (sekitar 600 kaki) penanda lain yang juga bernama Globe Tavern (sekitar 600 kaki jauhnya) Kantor Hukum Stuart dan Lincoln


Sejarah Misterius: Kereta Hantu Lincoln

Hampir pasti kereta hantu paling terkenal di Amerika adalah kereta yang membawa pulang Presiden Abraham Lincoln setelah dia dibunuh pada tahun 1865. (Mayat putra Willie yang digali juga ada di dalam kereta).

Berlawanan dengan keinginan istrinya, diputuskan bahwa tubuh Lincoln akan dipajang di kereta pemakaman yang akan berhenti di berbagai kota di seluruh bagian utara Amerika Serikat dalam perjalanan ke Springfield, Illinois.

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Meskipun jenazahnya telah dibalsem, beberapa pegawai pemakaman diminta untuk bepergian dengan almarhum presiden, seperti halnya si pembalsem itu sendiri, untuk menjaga agar tubuhnya terlihat sebagus mungkin. Mereka menggunakan bunga segar untuk menutupi baunya, yang berarti kereta harus sering berhenti untuk mengumpulkan bunga segar.

Kereta berjalan dalam pola zig-zag sehingga bisa berhenti di semua kota besar di daerah tersebut serta beberapa komunitas kecil, dan di sepanjang jalur kereta, pria, wanita dan anak-anak berbaris di sepanjang rel untuk memberi penghormatan. untuk seorang pria yang telah menjadi pahlawan bagi sebagian besar orang di utara.

Kereta meninggalkan Washington DC pada 21 April 1865, dan pada 29 April, kereta tiba di Columbus di mana tubuh Lincoln dipajang di rotunda gedung negara selama sekitar dua belas jam. Lebih dari lima puluh ribu orang datang ke gedung negara untuk memberi penghormatan. Kereta berangkat sekitar jam 8 malam, menuju ke barat. Ini tidak biasa, karena jalan ke barat adalah salah satu tanjakan paling curam di Ohio, dan akan membutuhkan dua mesin untuk melakukan perjalanan. Biasanya kereta akan menuju selatan ke Cincinnati, tetapi ada kekhawatiran bahwa Copperheads (pemrotes anti perang saudara) berpotensi membuat masalah bagi kereta jika melewati Queen City.

Sebaliknya, kereta mengambil jalur barat dan larut malam itu melewati Urbana. Banyak orang mengira itu berhenti di depot Miami Street, satu-satunya stasiun kereta api yang masih ada di kota, tetapi sebenarnya berhenti di stasiun North Main Street, yang sudah tidak ada lagi. Kereta bertemu dengan gerbang bunga besar di atas rel dan beberapa ratus pelayat yang membawa karangan bunga.

Kereta hanya berada di kota selama sekitar dua puluh menit dan bertentangan dengan beberapa legenda urban, kereta itu tidak mogok di sana. Kereta kemudian meninggalkan Urbana, menuju barat ke Piqua di mana ia berhenti lagi untuk waktu yang singkat tepat setelah tengah malam. Kereta akhirnya berhasil mencapai Springfield, Illinois sesuai jadwal di mana presiden dimakamkan.

Bahkan sebelum ulang tahun pertama laporan kematian Lincoln tentang Kereta Hantu mulai mengalir masuk. Kisah-kisah aslinya dilaporkan di Lembah Sungai Hudson.

Setiap tahun sejak, pada akhir April selama peringatan perjalanan pemakaman pertama, orang-orang di sepanjang rute asli kereta melaporkan melihat pemandangan yang aneh, kereta spektral yang menakutkan lewat diam-diam di sepanjang rel, terkadang di jalur yang ada dan terkadang di rute di mana trek dulu.

Kereta hantu, dikatakan, diawaki oleh kerangka dan penjaga kehormatan kerangka serupa berdiri mengawasi peti mati. Suara peluit kereta api, (sangat berbeda dari kereta api hari ini), kadang-kadang terdengar, atau kepulan asap dari kereta api yang lewat tidak terlihat, dan laporan tentang jam yang akan berhenti selama enam menit hingga dua puluh menit. (lama tinggal sebenarnya).


Kereta Pemakaman Lincoln dan Ulasan Besarnya

Generasi pelajar dan cendekiawan telah membuat penemuan luar biasa melalui dokumen sumber utama — buku harian, surat, dan barang-barang lain yang merekam pemikiran dan pengalaman langsung dari pria dan wanita di era Perang Saudara.

Tapi, seperti pepatah lama, sebuah gambar bernilai seribu kata, membuat pemeriksaan foto-foto periode menjadi font abadi dari detail luar biasa dari satu momen dalam waktu. Dan berkat ketersediaan gambar-gambar digital ini melalui Perpustakaan Kongres dan sumber-sumber lain, penemuan-penemuan baru dibuat dengan keteraturan yang meningkat.

Setelah pembunuhannya, Abraham Lincoln menjalani perjalanan yang panjang dan berliku-liku sebelum akhirnya dimakamkan di Springfield, Illinois. Presiden yang mati syahid itu disemayamkan di dua lokasi Washington, DC - Ruang Timur Gedung Putih pada 18 April dan Capitol rotunda pada tanggal 20. Kemudian, setelah kebaktian doa pribadi untuk anggota Kabinetnya, seorang penjaga kehormatan membawa peti mati Lincoln untuk dimuat ke kereta pemakaman khusus.

Lebih dari 10.000 orang menyaksikan mesin dan sembilan mobilnya - termasuk mobil kepresidenan yang dengan tergesa-gesa dibuat ulang menjadi mobil jenazah - memulai perjalanan sejauh 1.654 mil. Peti mati itu disertai oleh sekelompok kerabat Lincoln dan teman-teman pribadi, serta penjaga kehormatan militer yang terdiri dari tokoh-tokoh dari setiap cabang angkatan bersenjata. Kereta itu juga berisi tubuh putra Lincoln yang berusia 11 tahun, Willie, seorang korban demam tifoid tahun 1862, yang tubuhnya dipotong untuk bergabung dengan ayahnya di Springfield.

Peti mati Abraham Lincoln dibawa dengan mobil pemakaman melalui kerumunan di Broad Street di Philadelphia, 22 April 1865. Perpustakaan Kongres

Kereta melewati ratusan komunitas di tujuh negara bagian dan berhenti secara signifikan di 12 kota, termasuk Baltimore, Md. Harrisburg dan Philadelphia, Pa. New York City, Albany dan Buffalo, NY Cleveland dan Columbus, Ohio dan Indianapolis dan Michigan City, Ind .- yang masing-masing menyertakan status kebohongan tambahan. Perjalanan terakhir Lincoln membalikkan rute yang telah dilaluinya ke Washington sebagai presiden terpilih pada tahun 1861.

Prosesi pemakaman Lincoln bergerak di Broadway di New York City. Perpustakaan Kongres

Jutaan orang Amerika secara langsung memberikan penghormatan kepada Lincoln. Di New York City, 160.000 orang berbaris dalam parade di Broadway, mengawal iring-iringan pemakaman. Seorang muda Theodore Roosevelt termasuk di antara penonton pada kenyataannya, banyak sarjana percaya dia terlihat dalam gambar yang diambil hari itu, menonton dari jendela lantai atas.

Prosesi Pemakaman di New York City melewati jendela rumah keluarga calon presiden. Perpustakaan Kongres

Salah satu tontonan terbesar dari era Perang Saudara terjadi jauh dari medan perang mana pun. Meskipun pertempuran terakhir yang menimbulkan korban belum datang, Presiden Andrew Johnson menyatakan permusuhan hampir berakhir pada 10 Mei, ketika kepala eksekutif Konfederasi Jefferson Davis ditangkap di Georgia utara. Pada hari yang sama, Presiden Johnson menyerukan peninjauan resmi untuk menghormati pasukan.

The Grand Review of the Union Army veteran di Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., 23-24 Mei 1865. Library of Congress

Pada tanggal 23–24 Mei 1865, Grand Review of the Armies menyaksikan lebih dari 145.000 tentara Union berparade di sepanjang Pennsylvania Avenue di Washington, DC Acara tersebut, dalam skala besar dan arak-arakan, menghasilkan suasana dekat-karnaval yang berbuat banyak untuk menghilangkan selubung. yang telah menetap di kota setelah pembunuhan Abraham Lincoln. Bands played patriotic songs, and thousands of citizens lined the capital’s broad boulevards to watch the triumphant Federal soldiers from the armies of the Potomac, the Tennessee and Georgia parade by in their blue uniforms, buttons polished and shining.

From written accounts, we know that President Johnson, his Cabinet and senior military officials, including Lt. Gen. Ulysses Grant, observed the scene from the reviewing stand in front of the White House.

The reviewing stand at the Grand Review of the Union Army veterans on Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C., May 23-24, 1865. Library of Congress

But by zooming in on an image taken during the event, many more fascinating details emerge: Maj. Gen. William Sherman engaged in intense conversation Maj. Gen. George Meade wearing his spectacles to take in the scene and Grant staring directly at the camera, seemingly the only person aware of the photographer. Other readily identifiable personalities include Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, Brig. Gen. Ely Parker (Grant’s Native American adjutant and military secretary), Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, President Johnson and Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles.

The event was led by Maj. Gen. George Meade’s Army of the Potomac, infantrymen marching 12 abreast, with a cavalry contingent stretching seven miles. This was followed on the second day by Maj. Gen. William Sherman’s western army, behind which trailed the massive collection of livestock, baggage trains and civilian refugees who had begun following this force as it made its way through the Carolinas.

The parade was, both literally and metaphorically, the final march of the Union armies. Nearly all regiments were disbanded within two weeks, and the citizen soldiers began making their long journeys home.


The Lincoln Funeral Train in Indiana

Map of the Funeral Train Route, Lincoln Highway National Museum and Archives, http://www.lincoln-highway-museum.org/WHMC/WHMC-LFTR-01.html

On the evening of April 14, 1865, an assassin shot President Abraham Lincoln. He died the next day at 7:22 a.m. While Union soldiers hunted the conspirators, the nation went into mourning. The funeral for the assassinated president took place April 19, 1865 at the White House. NS Waktu New York reported that “thousands wended their way up the capitol steps, into the grand rotunda, by the bier and coffin of the President… their homage was silent and tearful.” On the morning of April 21, a military guard placed Lincoln’s casket in the ninth car of a funeral train which was draped in black. The casket of Lincoln’s son William who had died in 1862 was also aboard for the trip back to the Midwest.

IHB state historical marker, learn more here.

The train, which also carried friends, family, high ranking officials, and a military guard, left Washington D.C. destined for Lincoln’s home town of Springfield, Illinois, on April 21. The War Department directed the procession which declared the tracks along the route to be “military roads.” On April 30 the Lincoln funeral train passed into Indiana where Lincoln spent much of his youth (1816-1830). The War Department directed: “The route from Columbus to Indianapolis is via the Columbus and Indianapolis Railroad, and from Indianapolis to Chicago via Lafayette and Michigan Railroad. In order to guard against accidents, trains will not run faster than twenty miles per hour.”

The train stopped in Richmond first, at 3 a.m., to the sound of tolling bells and a crowd of somewhere between 12,000 and 15,000 people. Here, Governor Oliver P. Morton and almost 100 elected officials paid their respects. The governor and other several other high-ranking officials boarded the train for the trip to the state capital.

Image courtesy of Lincoln Highway National Museum and Archives, http://www.lincoln-highway-museum.org/WHMC/WHMC-LFTR-01.html

At 3:41 a.m. the train arrived in Centreville, home town of Congressmen George W. Julian, a steadfast abolitionist and supporter of women’s rights. Next it passed through Germantown and Cambridge City, home of Union General Solomon Meredith. As the train passed through Dublin at 4:27 a.m., almost the entire town was standing on the platform in the rain. Next the train stopped in Lewisville and afterwards it slowed as it passed through the small village of Charlottesville, where reportedly a large number of African Americans gathered in mourning. The train passed through Greenfield at 5:55 a.m. and then paused in Cumberland on the Hancock-Marion county border.

Lincoln’s Funeral on Pennsylvania Avenue, April 19, 1865, Library of Congress Digital Collections, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/brh2003004934/PP/

The train reached Indianapolis on April 30 at 7 a.m. in the pouring rain. The city was decorated with arches, evergreens, and flags. The Indianapolis city band played the Lincoln Funeral March while soldiers moved the casket to the hearse. The hearse, which was an ornately decorated carriage drawn by six plumed white horses, delivered the casket from the train to the State House through streets lined with people. NS Indianapolis Daily Gazette noted “the archways and mourning festoons across the streets, the public and private buildings draped in the habiliments of grief, the funeral procession, the solemn dirges, and, above all, the patient multitude that stood for hours in the drenching rain waiting an opportunity to look upon the earthly tenement so lately vacated by the spirit.”

The coffin was placed in the interior hall of the State House which was lined in black cloth. The Indianapolis Guard of Honor protected the flower-surrounded coffin. NS Indianapolis Daily Gazette estimated that 15,000 troops and 60,000 private citizens passed through the rotunda that day. Rain prevented the elaborate ceremonial procession from the State House back to the train depot which had been planned for that evening. Instead, the casket lay in state until 10 p.m., which was longer than planned, and then the hearse carried the casket directly back to the train depot. Mourning Hoosiers followed the carriage and the train left Indianapolis at midnight.

It passed through Augusta, Zionsville, Whitestown, Lebanon, Hazelrigg, Thorntown, Colfax, and Stockwell, before reaching Lafayette. NS New York Semi-Weekly Times reported on the trip through these towns: “These are small places, but it seems the inhabitants are on the roadside. Some of them hold torches in their hands, and the surroundings are solemnly lighted. Men stand with uncovered heads as the train hurries on its way.” At Lebanon the residents “hung over the track, suspended from two uprights, a hundred variegated Chinese lanterns.”

The train reached Lafayette at 3:35 a.m. and the Indianapolis Daily Journal reported that in Lafayette “The houses on each side of the railroad is [sic] illuminated, and as elsewhere, badges of mourning and draped flags are displayed bonfires are blazing and bells tolling mournful strains of music are heard, and the people are assembled at all the stations to view the train.” After leaving Lafayette, the train traveled through Tippecanoe Battle Ground, Brookston, Chalmers, Reynolds, Bradford, Francisville, Medaryville, Kankakee, La Crosse, Wanatha, Westville, and Lacroix.

S. M. Fassett, President Abraham Lincoln’s hearse, Springfield, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91732556/

The train reached Michigan City at 8:25 a.m. The Indianapolis Daily Journal reported that it “stopped under a large and beautiful temporary structure, trimmed with black and white and ornamented with evergreens and choice flowers.” The arches were decorated with black and white fabric, evergreens, and flowers. Over each arch were the words “Abraham Lincoln” and a motto. These included, “Our guiding star has fallen” and “Though dead he yet speaketh.” Young women sang the hymn “Old Hundred.” NS Waktu reported, “Many persons are affected to tears.” The paper concluded its description of the Michigan City stop: “Meantime, guns are fired, and the subduing strains of music are heard. The scene is gilded by an unclouded sun.” NS Chicago Tribune reported that the morning was “clear and beautiful.”

Finally, it had stopped raining.

Read about the train’s journey to Chicago and then to Lincoln’s home of Springfield, where the President was laid to rest, here.


How Lincoln’s Final Journey Brought the Country Together

I n the early morning of April 21, 1865, the soggy streets of downtown Baltimore were packed with swarms of people. By 8 o&rsquoclock, the roads surrounding the Camden station were impassable. Work stopped. Schools closed. Stores emptied. And, the people, waiting patiently for a train, wept.

The train that chugged into the station at 10 o&rsquoclock contained the remains of Abraham Lincoln. He had died six days prior, on April 15, less than a week after the Civil War ended at Appomattox. Inside the train, dubbed the Lincoln Special, the late President&rsquos body was dressed in the same suit from his second inauguration just six weeks earlier.

The people&rsquos outpouring of grief begged that his funeral services extend beyond Washington. In an age before television or radio, the only way for a person to participate was to leave her farm or close his store and physically go to a funeral procession where Lincoln lay in state. Lincoln&rsquos funeral train allowed the nation to mourn in unison by bringing him to them in a way that neither telegraph nor newspapers could satisfy. Over the course of 20 days, the train sojourned from Washington to Baltimore to Harrisburg to Philadelphia to New York to Albany to Buffalo to Cleveland to Columbus to Indianapolis to Chicago, and finally to Springfield, Ill.

Coordinating the transportation of Lincoln&rsquos remains fell on the shoulders of the Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton. His was a temperament opposite to Lincoln&rsquos, but he had kept a loyal vigil at Lincoln&rsquos deathbed and took on the challenge of creating the biggest funeral that the country had ever seen. Stanton made this procession possible by designating the railroads as military domains, so the different railroad companies that ran the collection of lines were required to fully cooperate.

Orchestrating the 15 railroad companies involved was a mammoth undertaking. For that reason, Stanton created the Committee of Arrangements. Its members were &ldquoauthorized to arrange the time tables with the respective railroad companies, and do and regulate all things for safe and appropriate transportation.&rdquo Still, scheduling the train also required a wrangling of various time zones between cities and states, which were more numerous and less systematic than today. Before standardized time began in 1883, most towns told time by high noon. Clocks had to be increased one minute for every 12 eastward or westward miles to keep the correct time. Noon in D.C. was 12:12 in New York, 11:17 in Chicago and 12:07 in Philadelphia. As such, the country was composed of ununified pockets&mdashsplintered by both war and local time&mdashand this train, with its precious cargo, briefly threaded them together.

Lincoln&rsquos funeral car was a magnificent carriage. The sides were painted a rich brownish-red, which was lovingly hand-polished to a shiny gloss with oil and rottenstone. The interior was decorated with plush green upholstered walls and black walnut molding. Pale green silk curtains cascaded along etched glass windows and three oil lamps beaconed from the car at night. With 16 wheels instead of the usual eight, it was a vehicle that paralleled those of European royalty. This special coach had three stately compartments and Lincoln&rsquos casket sat in the end room. (The body of Lincoln&rsquos departed son Willie, who had died in 1862 of typhoid fever, made the trip with Lincoln in the first room of this car.) As a presidential car, it had been originally designed to be Lincoln&rsquos Air Force One. But here, festooned in black bunting and on its maiden voyage, it was now his mobile sarcophagus.

At each destination along the route, the train stopped and the honor guards, dressed in robin&rsquos-egg-blue uniforms, carried Lincoln’s body in huge formal processions to viewing areas. Crowds waited for hours and many watched from windows or rooftops or tree limbs. In the halls, thousands of mourners, sometimes packed 12 bodies deep, stood weeping and waiting for a glimpse of the open coffin. For many, this was the very first time they saw Lincoln&rsquos face, since photographs in newspapers were still new. As Lincoln grew closer to his resting place, the emotions of the nation heightened. In some whistle-stops, the number of mourners was greater than the town&rsquos population.

Crowds who could not make it to the cities made their way to the train&rsquos tracks. The locomotive engine, bearing a portrait of Lincoln in the front, chuffed at a cautious 20 mi. per hour and passed by train stations at a quarter of that speed. The engine was followed by nine cars: six passenger and baggage cars, a car for guards, a special car that carried the body and the last car for family and the honor guards. A pilot train ran about 30 min. ahead of the funeral train and announced Lincoln&rsquos arrival by sounding a half-muffled bell, in which a leather pad was placed on half of the clapper to soften the strike. Those waiting trackside heard a rhythmic ringing of a clear tone followed by its muted echo and knew it was time to prepare. Bonfires were set along the route at night to push back the darkness, in an age before Edison, which made the evening air a curious mixture of smoke and lilacs in bloom.

There was a solemn eagerness as people lined the tracks day and night, rain or shine. At the sight of the trains, they stood back–some waving small flags, some standing silently, some singing hymns. Fifteen minutes later, a third train followed. When the final train passed, the crowds stepped into the tracks and watched it fade into the distance. Then, the moment was over.

Before Lincoln was set in his final resting place, his remains would be transported across the country on over 1,600 mi. of track. Millions of people participated. Nearly every American knew someone who attended memorial services or watched funeral processions or saw the train pass by. In these sad and dark days, the nation was stitched together in a way that it had never experienced before.

Ainissa Ramirez is a scientist and the co-author of Newton&rsquos Football and the author of Save Our Science. She co-hosts a science podcast called Science Underground.


The epic journey of Abraham Lincoln's funeral train

Photo shows a Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad engine, with a portrait of Abraham Lincoln mounted on the front. The engine was one of several used to carry Lincoln's body from Washington, D.C., to Springfield, Ill. (Photo: Library of Congress)

On April 30, 1865, Abraham Lincoln's funeral train, dubbed "The Lincoln Special," passed through Indianapolis on a 1,654-mile journey from Washington, D.C. to his burial site in Springfield, Illinois - loosely retracing the 1861 journey he took to Washington as president-elect. The train was the official presidential train - Air Force One if you will - but he would only ride it in death. Lincoln's portrait was fastened to the front of the engine above the cattle guard.

Lincoln's widow, Mary Todd, was too grief-stricken to travel on the funeral train. She would visit Springfield a month later. Willie Lincoln's casket was removed from his Washington, D.C. crypt and placed on the Lincoln funeral train for entombment. Lincoln's son, Robert, rode the train as far as Baltimore.

Abraham Lincoln's funeral train left Washington on April 21, 1865, passing through more than 440 cities, towns, village and burgs before ending in Springfield, Ill. on May 3. Through Indiana, many along the railroad tracks lit large bonfires in his honor. Church bells rang out and black bunting was strung along buildings. Mourners huddled in the cold downpour.

Wire reports say the condition of the body was starting to deteriorate from the long exposure to the air during viewings. When the body was viewed at the City Hall in New York City, it was reported that "the appearance of the dead President bears no marks of pain, but the eyes are sunken, face somewhat discolored and sallow about the lower part, dark around the eyes and cheeks and lips very tightly compressed." Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War, had taken charge of the funeral arrangements and insisted that no chemical process be used to remove the discoloration from the face. It was to be a part of the history of the event.

Abraham Lincoln funeral car (Photo: Library of Congress)

These are a chronology of events and scenes along the Indiana route as reported by the Daily State Sentinel using the language published at the time:

3:20 AM Richmond: 10,000 people stood in the “rain and coldness of weather”. Two wreaths are displayed. One for Abraham Lincoln bears the words, “the nation mourns.” The other is for Willie, reads”Like the early mourning (sic) flower, he is taken from our midst.” Gov. Oliver P. Morton boards the train for the trip to Indianapolis.

3:24 AM Centerville: Lincoln funeral train passes and 2,000 mourners hope for a glimpse of the coffin of the President.

4:15 AM, Cambridge City: Lincoln funeral train passes under a makeshift arch and receives salvos of an artillery salute.

4:27 AM Dublin: Depot is dressed in evergreen garland and portraits of Lincoln. Bonfires shed light on Lincoln funeral train.

5:35 AM Knightstown: A hymn is sung by a local choir as Lincoln funeral train passes under an arch at the depot.

6 AM: Indianapolis: Streets are packed with mourners awaiting the Lincoln funeral train.

Thousands of mourners gathered at Union Depot to pay respects to Lincoln. A constant drizzle of rain and hushed voices set the tone.

At 7:00 AM: The train carrying the body of assassinated President Abraham Lincoln pulled into Union Depot in Indianapolis.

A Military line of bayonets extended from Illinois and Washington streets to the statehouse.

At sunrise, 36 guns fired for the death of President Abraham Lincoln as hearse is prepared to take his body to Statehouse.

Horses drawing Lincoln funeral carriage are same as carriage he rode when he visited Indpls in 1861 on his way to DC for his inauguration.

The coffin of President Lincoln taken to the hearse as Lincoln's Funeral March is
performed by city band.

The hearse is fourteen feet high, five feet wide and thirteen feet high and covered with black velvet. It is curtained with black trimmed with silver fringe. The roof of the car bears twelve white plumes with black trimmings. On the top at about the center is a silver gilded Eagle. The sides are studded with large silver stars.

The car was drawn by eight white horses with black velvet covers, each bearing a large black plume.

Three of the horses are the same ones which drew the carriage in which Mr. Lincoln rode when he visited Indianapolis in 1861, on his way to Washington. They were driven by the same man as well.

Soldiers at "present arms" lead procession of Lincoln funeral carriage. Falling rain and tolling bells backdrop for citizens lining streets.

Businesses along Washington St. from East to the Indiana Statehouse are shrouded in black and garland as Lincoln funeral procession passes.

Businesses and city buildings were ornamented with wreaths, garlands, banners and streamers to honor Pres. Lincoln. All along the line of the march, citizens filled sidewalks balconies and housetops to get a glimpse of the procession.

Detail of 22 sergeants deposit Lincoln coffin into Indiana Statehouse on catafalque awaiting mourners.

Silverplate on Lincoln casket reads:
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Sixteenth President of the United States.
Born July 12, 1809,
Died April 15, 1865.

Thousands of rain-soaked crowd files past the Lincoln coffin, not out of morbid curiosity but in honor and to gaze at the great man for the last time - and no visible sign of violence.

Soft light from chandeliers over the coffin offers a view of the features of the face. Discolored and shaved closely down to the upper part of the chin, showing beneath short, closely trimmed whiskers, such as Lincoln wore for years. Although discolored, there is nothing of the repulsiveness of death visible in the dead President's face. The expression is that of calm, placid contentment as if he were enjoying an untroubled sleep, rather than that of a person who has perished by violence.

Indiana spares no expense in decor for Lincoln funeral honors at Statehouse. Evergreen wreaths and garlands hang from the walls and pillars.

Pagoda shaped black canopy covers Lincoln casket at Indiana Statehouse. It's trimmed in white cords and tassels and studded with gold stars.

Indiana Statehouse pillars are draped with black and white, intertwined with garlands of evergreens as Lincoln lies in state inside.

School children passed by the casket first, then women and the aged. The colored Masons, in regalia, and colored citizens generally, visited the remains in a body, bearing banners with "He lives in our Memories," and "Colored Men, always Loyal."

An estimated 150 people per minute - 100,000 viewed the remains of Pres. Abraham Lincoln at the Indiana Statehouse April 30, 1865.

A single gun salutes each half hour until sunset in respect of the body of Pres. Abraham Lincoln that lies in state at Indiana Statehouse.

At sunset: 36 guns fired for the death of President Abraham Lincoln as viewing continues at the Indiana Statehouse.

10:05 PM: Flowers at the coffin of Pres. Lincoln are gathered and given to the Indiana State Librarian for preservation.

10:10 PM: Coffin of Abraham Lincoln is closed to mourners at the Indiana Statehouse.

10:15 PM: Band plays "Old Hundred" as Lincoln coffin is placed on shoulders of Guard of Sergeants and carried to the funeral car.

Lincoln funeral carriage procession to Union Depot escorted by dignitaries, torch bearers and armed troops as bells toll.

The coffin of Abraham Lincoln placed on the train prepared by the Lafayette Railroad Company and makes its way to Chicago.

1 AM May 1: Lincoln funeral train leaves and passes through Whitestown as citizens gather around a bonfire to pay respects.

Bells tolled, bonfires blazed and mournful music played as Lincoln funeral train passes through northern Indiana towns.

Lincoln funeral train rolls through Indiana towns of Lebanon, Thorntown, Colfax, Lafayette. Respects paid despite early hours.

8:25 AM Michigan City: Lincoln funeral train arrives in the city. The rain that cast a pall on Indiana the day before has finally ceased.

Arches had been erected in the streets of Michigan City. A pyramid of 36 school girls in white dresses sang to honor Lincoln.

Makeshift funeral for Abraham Lincoln ends as guns were fired and the strains of music filled the air. The funeral train leaves Indiana and heads for Chicago.

Follow IndyStar photo coordinator Dawn Mitchell on Twitter: @dawn_mitchell61.


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The first funeral train was run by The London Necropolis and National Mausoleum Company on 7 November 1854. Trains ran once a day from London Necropolis railway station to Brookwood Cemetery. The train carried not only the bodies of the dead, but the parties of mourners who had come to attend the funeral services. Different classes were available for both the living and the dead a more expensive first class ticket would provide a more ornate coffin and greater care of the body during transit. The London Necropolis Railway was run on the tracks of the London and South Western Railway, who feared that regular passengers would shun locomotives which had previously hauled funeral trains, and therefore purchased an entirely new fleet exclusively for the Necropolis line. The public were initially reserved about the project one bishop expressed fears that "It may sometimes happen that persons of opposite characters might be carried in the same conveyance. For instance, the body of some profligate spendthrift might be placed in a conveyance with the body of some respectable member of the church, which would shock the feelings of his friends". [2] Others felt that the railway industry, which was less than 20 years old and still very much a new technology, was too hectic and loud, ill-befitting the sombre mourning associated with Christian funeral services.

The line ran daily – including Sundays – for almost 50 years until 1900, when the Sunday service was stopped and trains began to run on an "as needed basis". The railway remained in operation through the First World War and Second World War until 16 April 1941, when the London Necropolis station was bombed in the London Blitz. The station was never rebuilt and the line fell into disuse. [3]

When West Norwood railway station opened two years later it was sited near to the gates of South London Metropolitan Cemetery, founded twenty years earlier pall-bearers would unload the coffin from its "Funeral special" and simply carry it from the side entrance to the main gates. While this practice is long discontinued, the side gates still remain.

Following the 1947 nationalisation of Britain's railways, the use of the railway to transport coffins went into steep decline. New operating procedures required that coffins be carried in a separate carriage from other cargo as regular services to Brookwood station used electric multiple unit trains which did not have goods vans, coffins for Brookwood had to be shipped to Woking and then carried by road for the last part of the journey, or a special train had to be chartered. The last railway funeral to be carried by British Rail anywhere was that of Lord Mountbatten in September 1979, [4] and from 28 March 1988 British Rail formally ceased to carry coffins altogether. [5] Since Mountbatten, the only railway funeral to be held in the United Kingdom has been that of former National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers General Secretary Jimmy Knapp, carried from London to Kilmarnock for burial in August 2001. [6]

In Sydney, Australia, there was a similar service whereby the Rookwood Cemetery railway line served the Rookwood Cemetery complex. From 1867 until 1948 trains would depart Mortuary Station in Sydney City and travel the 15 km to Rookwood Cemetery. [7]

In Melbourne funeral services operated to the Springvale Necropolis along the dedicated Spring Vale Cemetery railway, [8] while the Fawkner Cemetery was served by trains to Fawkner station. [9]

In Helsinki, a 2 km long side track ran from the Malmi railroad station to the Malmi cemetery, which had its own railroad station. Coffins were transported to the cemetery from Harju morgue in Kallio. The track was decommissioned in 1954, and has been removed, but the Malmi cemetery station building still exists.

The Berlin Friedhofsbahn (Cemetery Line), opened in 1913, ran from Berlin-Wannsee station to Stahnsdorf's Forest Cemetery, about 20 kilometres southwest of Central Berlin. It was serviced by both funeral trains with passenger and hearse carriages, as well as regular S-Bahn (suburban rail) services. Funeral train service ended in 1952 and the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 spelled the end for cross-border S-Bahn services.

Although most funeral services now make use of road-going hearses rather than trains, funeral trains remain common for the funerals of heads of state.

Inggris: All British monarchs since Queen Victoria have been carried by funeral trains King Edward VII and King George VI were both taken to the Windsor & Eton Central railway station for the funeral procession. Most British Prime Ministers do not receive funeral trains. However, as part of his state funeral, Winston Churchill's coffin was carried by a special train hauled by the Southern Railway "Battle of Britain" class locomotive Winston Churchill from Waterloo to Handborough, the closest station both to St Martin's Church, Bladon, where Churchill was buried, and to Blenheim Palace.

Rusia: In 1894, the body of Tsar Alexander III, was transported by train from Livadia Palace in the Crimea, back to St. Petersburg, by way of Moscow. On 23 January 1924, the body of Vladimir Lenin was carried by funeral train to Moscow Paveletskaya railway station. Later Museum of Lenin Funeral train was established in the rail terminal building. [10] This is now the Museum of the Moscow Railway.

Dalam Amerika Serikat Presidents transported in funeral trains were Abraham Lincoln (April 1865), James Garfield (1881), Ulysses S. Grant (1885), William McKinley (1901), Franklin D. Roosevelt (1945), and Dwight D. Eisenhower (1969)

Senator Robert F. Kennedy's body was brought by train from New York City to Washington DC following his assassination in 1968, a crowd estimated at one million lined the trackside. [11] It was hauled by two Pennsylvania Railroad GG1 electrics. On June 5, 2013, Senator Frank Lautenberg of New Jersey, an advocate of public transit and Amtrak, was transported from Secaucus Junction to Washington. [12]

George H.W. Bush's funeral train (December 2018) carried him from Westfield, Texas to the George Bush Presidential Library in College Station, Texas, where he was buried. Union Pacific selected 4141 and 9096 to transport Bush. [13] An EMD SD70ACe diesel locomotive that had been previously painted in a "George Bush 41" scheme in the style of Air Force One had been dedicated to Bush when he and his wife Barbara toured the locomotive unit at its unveiling ceremony in 2005.

Founder of the Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's coffin was transported to the capital Ankara by a funeral train from İzmit where it was brought to on the battlecruiser Yavuz, ex SMS Goeben.

The last times a funeral train was used at a state funeral in Denmark were on 24 January 1972, when King Frederik IX of Denmark was taken from Christiansborg Palace Chapel via Copenhagen Central Station to Roskilde Cathedral, [14] and on 14 November 2000, when his widow Queen Ingrid was taken along the same route. Queen Ingrid's funeral, including the train transfer with a steam engine, is documented in a lengthy report by Danish television and available online. [15]

Rumania: King Michael I of Romania was given a state funeral on 16 December 2017. [16] At the conclusion of the ceremonies in Bucharest, the coffin was taken from Băneasa railway station to Curtea de Argeș railway station on board the royal train for burial in Curtea de Argeş. [17]