Sebuah Pengantar - Sejarah

Sebuah Pengantar - Sejarah

Kata “Antebellum” berarti, masa sebelum perang. Itu tentu saja merupakan gelar yang tepat untuk diberikan kepada sejarah Amerika Serikat dari tahun 1820 hingga 1855. Itu memang periode menjelang Perang Saudara. Banyak peristiwa yang terjadi selama periode itu membantu membuat perang itu tak terhindarkan. Masalah perbudakan dan perluasannya menyebabkan kesenjangan politik yang dalam di negara ini selama ini, dengan terus-menerus berebut pertanyaan apakah sebuah negara harus “bebas” atau “budak”. Pandangan tentang perbudakan semakin keras–– dengan organisasi anti-perbudakan yang kuat menjadi kuat di Utara… Sementara pembela perbudakan menjadi semakin keras di Selatan.

Yang sedang berkata, seseorang tidak boleh melihat periode ini hanya melalui lensa peristiwa yang menyebabkan perang–– karena peristiwa ini tidak terjadi dalam ruang hampa. Pada awal periode Antebellum, Amerika Serikat adalah sekelompok negara (terutama di daerah yang memeluk pantai Atlantik.) Pada Perang Saudara, Amerika Serikat adalah kekuatan benua, dengan negara bagian di kedua sisi Benua. Ketika periode Antebellum dimulai, perbatasan masa depan Amerika Serikat tidak diketahui. Ketika periode itu berakhir, batas-batas Benua Amerika Serikat ditetapkan. Era Antebellum dalam sejarah Amerika adalah periode ekspansi terus menerus ke arah barat. Di bagian timur negara itu, penduduk asli Amerika tidak lagi menjadi masalah (setelah Undang-Undang Penghapusan India menyebabkan pemindahan paksa sebagian besar penduduk asli Amerika ke daerah barat Sungai Mississippi, membuka tanah mereka untuk pemukim kulit putih. )

Periode Antebellum adalah era perubahan teknologi yang cepat, perubahan yang mengubah Amerika selama tahun-tahun ini. Perubahan besar pertama, yang dibawa oleh teknologi lama yang sudah ada, memungkinkan pembangunan Kanal Erie. Ini membuka Mid-West untuk pemukiman dan perdagangan. Segera setelah itu, lebih banyak kemajuan besar muncul dengan diperkenalkannya rel kereta api. Kereta api dengan cepat menciptakan ekonomi tunggal yang saling bergantung untuk Amerika Serikat. Rel kereta api secara radikal mengubah waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan perjalanan dari satu tempat ke tempat lain. Akhirnya, pengenalan telegram pada periode Antebellum benar-benar mengubah komunikasi. Tiba-tiba, berita itu instan. Anda mungkin tidak dapat mengirim banyak informasi sekaligus, tetapi bayangkan jika, pada tahun 1815, mereka yang berperang di Pertempuran New Orleans mendapatkan pesan tepat waktu bahwa perang sudah diselesaikan.

Terakhir, wajah Amerika berubah secara radikal selama periode Antebellum. Populasi Amerika Serikat naik dari 9 juta menjadi hampir 30 juta selama periode ini. Dan sementara Amerika Serikat tetap menjadi negara yang sangat pedesaan—bahkan pada akhir periode—– persentase orang yang tinggal di kota-kota Amerika terus tumbuh (dari hanya 6% dari populasi menjadi mendekati 19%.) Sembilan belas persen itu mewakili 6 juta orang.
Komposisi budaya Amerika juga berubah dengan cepat – dengan imigran baru dari Jerman, Skandinavia, dan Irlandia bergabung dengan orang Amerika awal yang sebagian besar berasal dari Inggris.


Pengantar Sejarah Kuno (Klasik)

Sementara definisi "kuno" tunduk pada interpretasi, ada beberapa kriteria yang dapat digunakan ketika membahas sejarah kuno, periode waktu yang berbeda dari prasejarah dan akhir zaman kuno atau sejarah abad pertengahan.

  1. Prasejarah: Periode kehidupan manusia yang datang sebelumnya (yaitu, prasejarah [istilah yang diciptakan, dalam bahasa Inggris, oleh Daniel Wilson (1816-92), menurut Barry Cunliffe
  2. Zaman Kuno Akhir/Abad Pertengahan: Periode yang datang pada akhir periode kita dan berlangsung hingga Abad Pertengahan

Holocaust: Sebuah Sejarah Pengantar

Holocaust (juga disebut Ha-Shoah dalam bahasa Ibrani) mengacu pada periode dari 30 Januari 1933 - ketika Adolf Hitler menjadi kanselir Jerman - hingga 8 Mei 1945, ketika perang di Eropa secara resmi berakhir. Selama waktu ini, orang-orang Yahudi di Eropa menjadi sasaran penganiayaan yang semakin keras yang pada akhirnya menyebabkan pembunuhan 6.000.000 orang Yahudi (1,5 juta di antaranya adalah anak-anak) dan penghancuran 5.000 komunitas Yahudi. Kematian ini mewakili dua pertiga dari Yahudi Eropa dan sepertiga dari semua Yahudi dunia.

Orang-orang Yahudi yang tewas bukanlah korban dari pertempuran yang menghancurkan Eropa selama Perang Dunia II. Sebaliknya, mereka adalah korban dari upaya Jerman yang disengaja dan sistematis untuk memusnahkan seluruh populasi Yahudi di Eropa, sebuah rencana yang disebut Hitler sebagai "Solusi Akhir" (Endlosung).

Latar belakang

Setelah kekalahannya dalam Perang Dunia I, Jerman dipermalukan oleh Perjanjian Versailles, yang mengurangi wilayah sebelum perang, secara drastis mengurangi angkatan bersenjatanya, menuntut pengakuan kesalahannya atas perang, dan menetapkannya untuk membayar ganti rugi kepada kekuatan sekutu. Dengan hancurnya Kekaisaran Jerman, sebuah pemerintahan parlementer baru yang disebut Republik Weimar dibentuk. Republik mengalami ketidakstabilan ekonomi, yang semakin memburuk selama depresi dunia setelah kehancuran pasar saham New York pada tahun 1929. Inflasi besar-besaran diikuti oleh pengangguran yang sangat tinggi meningkatkan perbedaan kelas dan politik yang ada dan mulai melemahkan pemerintah.

Pada tanggal 30 Januari 1933, Adolf Hitler, pemimpin Partai Pekerja Sosialis Nasional Jerman (Nazi), diangkat menjadi kanselir Jerman oleh Presiden Paul von Hindenburg setelah partai Nazi memenangkan persentase suara yang signifikan dalam pemilihan tahun 1932. Nazi Partai telah memanfaatkan kerusuhan politik di Jerman untuk mendapatkan pijakan elektoral. Nazi menghasut bentrokan dengan komunis dan melakukan kampanye propaganda yang kejam terhadap lawan-lawan politiknya - pemerintah Weimar yang lemah dan orang-orang Yahudi yang disalahkan Nazi atas penyakit Jerman.

Propaganda: &ldquoOrang-orang Yahudi Adalah Kemalangan Kami&rdquo

Alat utama serangan propaganda Nazi adalah surat kabar mingguan Nazi Der Stürmer (Penyerang). Di bagian bawah halaman depan setiap edisi, dengan huruf tebal, kertas itu menyatakan, &ldquoOrang-orang Yahudi adalah kemalangan kami!&rdquo Der Stürmer juga secara teratur menampilkan kartun Yahudi di mana mereka dikarikaturkan sebagai berhidung bengkok dan seperti kera. Pengaruh surat kabar sangat luas: pada tahun 1938 sekitar setengah juta eksemplar didistribusikan setiap minggu.

Segera setelah ia menjadi kanselir, Hitler menyerukan pemilihan baru dalam upaya untuk mendapatkan kendali penuh dari Reichstag, parlemen Jerman, untuk Nazi. Nazi menggunakan aparat pemerintah untuk meneror partai lain. Mereka menangkap para pemimpin mereka dan melarang pertemuan politik mereka. Kemudian, di tengah kampanye pemilihan, pada 27 Februari 1933, gedung Reichstag terbakar. Seorang Belanda bernama Marinus van der Lubbe ditangkap karena kejahatan tersebut, dan dia bersumpah bahwa dia telah bertindak sendiri. Meskipun banyak yang menduga Nazi bertanggung jawab atas tindakan tersebut, Nazi berhasil menyalahkan Komunis, sehingga menghasilkan lebih banyak suara.

Kebakaran itu menandakan matinya demokrasi Jerman. Pada hari berikutnya, pemerintah, dengan dalih mengendalikan Komunis, menghapuskan hak dan perlindungan individu: kebebasan pers, berkumpul, dan berekspresi dibatalkan, serta hak atas privasi. Ketika pemilihan diadakan pada tanggal 5 Maret, Nazi menerima hampir 44 persen suara, dan dengan 8 persen yang ditawarkan oleh Konservatif, memenangkan mayoritas di pemerintahan.

Nazi bergerak cepat untuk mengkonsolidasikan kekuatan mereka menjadi kediktatoran. Pada 23 Maret, Undang-Undang Pengaktifan disahkan. Ini mendukung upaya diktator Hitler dan secara hukum memungkinkan dia untuk mengejar mereka lebih jauh. Nazi mengerahkan mesin propaganda mereka yang tangguh untuk membungkam kritik mereka. Mereka juga mengembangkan kekuatan polisi dan militer yang canggih.

NS Sturmabteilung (S.A., Storm Troopers), sebuah organisasi akar rumput, membantu Hitler merusak demokrasi Jerman. Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, Polisi Rahasia Negara), pasukan yang direkrut dari petugas polisi profesional, diberi kebebasan penuh untuk menangkap siapa pun setelah 28 Februari Schutzstaffel (SS, Pasukan Perlindungan) bertugas sebagai pengawal pribadi Hitler dan akhirnya mengendalikan kamp konsentrasi dan Gestapo. NS Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (S.D., Security Service of the SS) berfungsi sebagai dinas intelijen Nazi, mengungkap musuh dan menjaga mereka di bawah pengawasan.

Dengan adanya infrastruktur polisi ini, para penentang Nazi diteror, dipukuli, atau dikirim ke salah satu kamp konsentrasi yang dibangun Jerman untuk memenjarakan mereka. Dachau, tepat di luar Munich, adalah kamp pertama yang dibangun untuk tahanan politik. Tujuan dachau&rsquos berubah dari waktu ke waktu dan akhirnya menjadi kamp konsentrasi brutal lainnya bagi orang Yahudi.

Pada akhir tahun 1934, Hitler memegang kendali mutlak atas Jerman, dan kampanyenya melawan orang-orang Yahudi berjalan lancar. Nazi mengklaim orang-orang Yahudi merusak budaya Jerman murni dengan pengaruh &ldquoasing&rdquo dan &ldquomongrel&rdquo mereka. Mereka menggambarkan orang Yahudi sebagai orang yang jahat dan pengecut, dan orang Jerman sebagai pekerja keras, pemberani, dan jujur. Orang-orang Yahudi, Nazi mengklaim, yang sangat terwakili dalam keuangan, perdagangan, pers, sastra, teater, dan seni, telah melemahkan ekonomi dan budaya Jerman. Mesin propaganda besar-besaran yang didukung pemerintah menciptakan anti-Semitisme rasial, yang berbeda dari tradisi anti-Semitisme lama di gereja-gereja Kristen.

Ras superior adalah &ldquoArya,&rdquo Jerman. Kata Arya, &ldquoberasal dari studi linguistik, yang dimulai pada abad kedelapan belas dan pada titik tertentu menentukan bahwa bahasa Indo-Jerman (juga dikenal sebagai Arya) lebih unggul dalam struktur, variasi, dan kosa kata mereka daripada bahasa Semit yang memiliki berkembang di Timur Dekat. Penilaian ini mengarah pada dugaan tertentu tentang karakter orang-orang yang berbicara bahasa-bahasa ini. Kesimpulannya adalah bahwa bangsa &lsquoArya&rsquo juga lebih unggul daripada &lsquoSemit&rsquo&rdquo

Orang Yahudi Terisolasi dari Masyarakat

Nazi kemudian menggabungkan teori rasial mereka dengan teori evolusi Charles Darwin untuk membenarkan perlakuan mereka terhadap orang Yahudi. Jerman, sebagai yang terkuat dan terkuat, ditakdirkan untuk memerintah, sementara orang-orang Yahudi yang lemah dan tercemar secara rasial ditakdirkan untuk punah. Hitler mulai membatasi orang-orang Yahudi dengan undang-undang dan teror, yang mengharuskan pembakaran buku-buku yang ditulis oleh orang-orang Yahudi, mengeluarkan orang-orang Yahudi dari profesi dan sekolah umum mereka, menyita bisnis dan properti mereka dan mengeluarkan mereka dari acara-acara publik. Yang paling terkenal dari undang-undang anti-Yahudi adalah Hukum Nuremberg, yang berlaku pada tanggal 15 September 1935. Mereka membentuk dasar hukum untuk pengecualian orang Yahudi dari masyarakat Jerman dan kebijakan Yahudi Jerman yang semakin ketat.

Banyak orang Yahudi berusaha melarikan diri dari Jerman, dan ribuan orang berhasil dengan berimigrasi ke negara-negara seperti Belgia, Cekoslowakia, Inggris, Prancis, dan Belanda. Jauh lebih sulit untuk keluar dari Eropa. Orang Yahudi menghadapi kuota imigrasi yang kaku di sebagian besar negara di dunia. Bahkan jika mereka memperoleh dokumen yang diperlukan, mereka sering harus menunggu berbulan-bulan atau bertahun-tahun sebelum pergi. Banyak keluarga yang putus asa mengirim anak-anak mereka terlebih dahulu.

Pada bulan Juli 1938, perwakilan dari 32 negara bertemu di kota Prancis Evian untuk membahas masalah pengungsi dan imigrasi yang diciptakan oleh Nazi di Jerman. Tidak ada hal substansial yang dilakukan atau diputuskan di Konferensi Evian, dan menjadi jelas bagi Hitler bahwa tidak ada seorang pun yang menginginkan orang Yahudi dan bahwa dia tidak akan menghadapi perlawanan dalam menerapkan kebijakan Yahudinya. Pada musim gugur 1941, Eropa pada dasarnya disegel untuk sebagian besar emigrasi legal. Orang-orang Yahudi terjebak.

Pada tanggal 9-10 November 1938, serangan terhadap orang-orang Yahudi menjadi kekerasan. Hershel Grynszpan, seorang anak laki-laki Yahudi berusia 17 tahun yang putus asa karena deportasi keluarganya, menembak Ernst vom Rath, sekretaris ketiga di Kedutaan Besar Jerman di Paris, yang meninggal pada 9 November. Para hooligan Nazi menggunakan pembunuhan ini sebagai dalih untuk menghasut malam kehancuran yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Kristallnacht (malam pecahan kaca). Mereka menjarah dan menghancurkan rumah-rumah dan bisnis-bisnis Yahudi dan membakar sinagoga-sinagoga. Banyak orang Yahudi dipukuli dan dibunuh 30.000 orang Yahudi ditangkap dan dikirim ke kamp konsentrasi.

Orang Yahudi Terkurung di Ghetto

Jerman menginvasi Polandia pada September 1939, memulai Perang Dunia II. Segera setelah itu, pada tahun 1940, Nazi mulai membangun ghetto untuk orang Yahudi di Polandia. Lebih dari 10 persen penduduk Polandia adalah orang Yahudi, berjumlah sekitar tiga juta. Orang-orang Yahudi secara paksa dideportasi dari rumah mereka untuk tinggal di ghetto yang padat, terisolasi dari masyarakat lainnya.

Konsentrasi populasi Yahudi ini kemudian membantu Nazi dalam mendeportasi orang-orang Yahudi ke kamp kematian. Ghetto kekurangan makanan, air, ruang, dan fasilitas sanitasi yang dibutuhkan oleh begitu banyak orang yang tinggal di dalam batas-batas mereka yang terbatas. Banyak yang meninggal karena kekurangan dan kelaparan.

&ldquoSolusi Akhir&rdquo

Pada bulan Juni 1941 Jerman menyerang Uni Soviet dan memulai &ldquoSolusi Akhir.&rdquo Empat kelompok pembunuh keliling dibentuk yang disebut Einsatzgruppen A, B, C dan D. Setiap kelompok terdiri dari beberapa unit komando. NS Einsatzgruppen mengumpulkan orang-orang Yahudi kota demi kota, menggiring mereka ke lubang-lubang besar yang telah digali sebelumnya, menelanjangi mereka, menyusunnya, dan menembak mereka dengan senjata otomatis. Orang mati dan sekarat akan jatuh ke dalam lubang untuk dikubur di kuburan massal. Dalam pembantaian Babi Yar yang terkenal, dekat Kiev, 30.000-35.000 orang Yahudi terbunuh dalam dua hari. Selain operasi mereka di Uni Soviet, Einsatzgruppen melakukan pembunuhan massal di Polandia timur, Estonia, Lithuania dan Latvia. Diperkirakan pada akhir tahun 1942, Einsatzgruppen telah membunuh lebih dari 1,3 juta orang Yahudi.

Pada tanggal 20 Januari 1942, beberapa pejabat tinggi pemerintah Jerman bertemu untuk secara resmi mengoordinasikan cabang administrasi militer dan sipil dari sistem Nazi untuk mengatur sistem pembunuhan massal terhadap orang Yahudi. Pertemuan ini, yang disebut Konferensi Wannsee, &ldquomenandai awal dari operasi pemusnahan menyeluruh dan menyeluruh [orang-orang Yahudi] dan meletakkan dasar bagi organisasinya, yang dimulai segera setelah konferensi berakhir.&rdquo

Sementara Nazi membunuh kelompok nasional dan etnis lainnya, seperti sejumlah tawanan perang Soviet, intelektual Polandia, dan gipsi, hanya orang-orang Yahudi yang ditandai untuk pemusnahan total dan sistematis. Orang Yahudi dipilih untuk &ldquoPerlakuan Khusus&rdquo (Sonderbehandlung), yang berarti bahwa pria, wanita, dan anak-anak Yahudi harus dibunuh secara metodis dengan gas beracun. Dalam catatan akurat yang disimpan di kamp kematian Auschwitz, penyebab kematian orang-orang Yahudi yang telah digas ditandai dengan &ldquoSB,&rdquo huruf pertama dari dua kata yang membentuk istilah Jerman untuk &ldquoPerlakuan Khusus.&rdquo

Pada musim semi 1942, Nazi telah mendirikan enam pusat pembunuhan (kamp kematian) di Polandia: Chelmno (Kulmhof), Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Maidanek dan Auschwitz. Semuanya terletak di dekat jalur kereta api sehingga orang-orang Yahudi dapat dengan mudah diangkut setiap hari. Sistem kamp yang luas (disebut Sistem Lager) mendukung kamp kematian. Tujuan dari kamp-kamp ini bervariasi: beberapa adalah kamp kerja paksa, beberapa kamp transit, yang lain kamp konsentrasi dan subkamp mereka, dan yang lainnya lagi adalah kamp kematian yang terkenal kejam. Beberapa kamp menggabungkan semua fungsi ini atau beberapa di antaranya. Semua kamp sangat brutal.

Di hampir setiap negara yang dikuasai oleh Nazi, orang-orang Yahudi dipaksa memakai lencana yang menandai mereka sebagai orang Yahudi, mereka dikumpulkan ke dalam ghetto atau kamp konsentrasi dan kemudian secara bertahap diangkut ke pusat-pusat pembantaian. Kamp kematian pada dasarnya adalah pabrik untuk membunuh orang Yahudi. Jerman mengirim ribuan orang Yahudi kepada mereka setiap hari. Dalam beberapa jam setelah kedatangan mereka, orang-orang Yahudi telah dilucuti dari harta benda dan barang berharga mereka, digas sampai mati, dan tubuh mereka dibakar di krematorium yang dirancang khusus. Sekitar 3,5 juta orang Yahudi dibunuh di kamp kematian ini.

Banyak orang Yahudi muda yang sehat dan kuat tidak langsung dibunuh. Upaya perang Jerman dan "Solusi Akhir" membutuhkan banyak tenaga kerja, jadi Jerman menyediakan sejumlah besar orang Yahudi untuk tenaga kerja budak. Orang-orang ini, dipenjarakan di kamp konsentrasi dan kerja paksa, dipaksa bekerja di amunisi Jerman dan pabrik lainnya, seperti I.G. Farben dan Krupps, dan di mana pun Nazi membutuhkan buruh. Mereka bekerja dari fajar hingga gelap tanpa makanan dan tempat tinggal yang memadai. Ribuan tewas, secara harfiah bekerja sampai mati oleh Jerman dan kolaborator mereka.

Pada bulan-bulan terakhir Hitler&rsquos Reich, saat tentara Jerman mundur, Nazi mulai menggiring para tahanan yang masih hidup di kamp konsentrasi ke wilayah yang masih mereka kuasai. Jerman memaksa orang-orang Yahudi yang kelaparan dan sakit untuk berjalan ratusan mil. Sebagian besar meninggal atau ditembak di sepanjang jalan. Sekitar seperempat juta orang Yahudi tewas dalam pawai kematian.

Perlawanan Yahudi

Represi Jerman yang luar biasa dan kehadiran banyak kolaborator di berbagai populasi lokal sangat membatasi kemampuan orang Yahudi untuk melawan. Perlawanan Yahudi memang terjadi, bagaimanapun, dalam beberapa bentuk. Tetap hidup, bersih, dan menjalankan tradisi agama Yahudi merupakan perlawanan di bawah kondisi tidak manusiawi yang dipaksakan oleh Nazi. Bentuk-bentuk perlawanan lainnya melibatkan upaya melarikan diri dari ghetto dan kamp. Banyak orang yang berhasil melarikan diri dari ghetto tinggal di hutan dan pegunungan di kamp keluarga dan dalam pertempuran unit partisan. Namun, begitu bebas, orang-orang Yahudi harus bersaing dengan penduduk setempat dan kelompok-kelompok partisan yang sering kali secara terbuka bermusuhan. Orang-orang Yahudi juga melakukan pemberontakan bersenjata di ghetto Vilna, Bialystok, Bedzin-Sosnowiec, Krakow, dan Warsawa.

Pemberontakan Ghetto Warsawa adalah pemberontakan ghetto terbesar. Deportasi besar-besaran (atau tindakan) telah ditahan di ghetto dari Juli hingga September 1942, mengosongkan ghetto dari mayoritas orang Yahudi yang dipenjara di sana. Ketika Jerman memasuki ghetto lagi pada Januari 1943 untuk menyingkirkan beberapa ribu orang lagi, kelompok-kelompok kecil Yahudi yang tidak terorganisir menyerang mereka. Setelah empat hari, Jerman mundur dari ghetto, setelah mendeportasi jauh lebih sedikit orang daripada yang mereka maksudkan. Nazi memasuki kembali ghetto pada 19 April 1943, menjelang Paskah, untuk mengevakuasi orang-orang Yahudi yang tersisa dan menutup ghetto. Orang-orang Yahudi, menggunakan bom rakitan dan senjata curian atau barter, melawan dan bertahan melawan Jerman selama 27 hari. Mereka berjuang dari bunker dan selokan dan menghindari penangkapan sampai Jerman membakar gedung ghetto demi gedung. Pada tanggal 16 Mei, ghetto telah menjadi reruntuhan dan pemberontakan telah ditumpas.

Orang Yahudi juga memberontak di kamp kematian Sobibor, Treblinka dan Auschwitz. Semua tindakan perlawanan ini sebagian besar tidak berhasil dalam menghadapi pasukan Jerman yang unggul, tetapi mereka sangat penting secara spiritual, memberi orang-orang Yahudi harapan bahwa suatu hari Nazi akan dikalahkan.

Pembebasan

Kamp-kamp itu dibebaskan secara bertahap, ketika Sekutu maju dengan tentara Jerman. Misalnya, Maidanek (dekat Lublin, Polandia) dibebaskan oleh pasukan Soviet pada Juli 1944, Auschwitz pada Januari 1945 oleh Soviet, Bergen-Belsen (dekat Hanover, Jerman) oleh Inggris pada April 1945, dan Dachau oleh Amerika pada April. 1945.

Pada akhir perang, antara 50.000 dan 100.000 orang Yahudi yang selamat tinggal di tiga zona pendudukan: Amerika, Inggris, dan Soviet. Dalam setahun, angka itu tumbuh menjadi sekitar 200.000. Zona pendudukan Amerika berisi lebih dari 90 persen orang-orang terlantar (DP) Yahudi. DP Yahudi tidak akan dan tidak bisa kembali ke rumah mereka, yang membawa kembali kenangan mengerikan dan masih memegang ancaman bahaya dari tetangga anti-Semit. Dengan demikian, mereka mendekam di kamp-kamp DP sampai emigrasi dapat diatur ke Palestina, dan kemudian Israel, Amerika Serikat, Amerika Selatan, dan negara-negara lain. Kamp DP terakhir ditutup pada tahun 1957

Di bawah ini adalah angka untuk jumlah orang Yahudi yang dibunuh di setiap negara yang berada di bawah dominasi Jerman. Mereka adalah perkiraan, seperti semua angka yang berkaitan dengan korban Holocaust. Angka-angka yang diberikan di sini untuk Cekoslowakia, Hungaria dan Rumania didasarkan pada perbatasan teritorial mereka sebelum perjanjian Munich 1938. Jumlah total enam juta orang Yahudi yang dibunuh selama Holocaust, yang muncul dari pengadilan Nuremberg, juga merupakan perkiraan. Jumlahnya berkisar antara lima dan tujuh juta orang terbunuh. Jumlah pastinya tidak akan pernah diketahui karena banyak orang yang pembunuhannya tidak tercatat dan mayatnya masih belum ditemukan.


Sebuah Pengantar - Sejarah

"Orang-orang Khazar adalah fenomena yang tidak biasa untuk Abad Pertengahan. Dikelilingi oleh suku-suku liar dan nomaden, mereka memiliki semua keunggulan negara-negara maju: pemerintahan yang terstruktur, perdagangan yang luas dan makmur, dan tentara yang permanen. Pada saat itu, ketika fanatisme dan ketidaktahuan yang mendalam memperebutkan kekuasaan mereka atas Eropa Barat, negara Khazar terkenal dengan keadilan dan toleransinya. Orang-orang yang dianiaya karena keyakinan mereka berbondong-bondong ke Khazaria dari mana-mana. Sebagai bintang yang berkilauan, ia bersinar terang di cakrawala suram Eropa, dan menghilang tanpa meninggalkan jejak keberadaan apa pun."
- Vasilii V. Grigoriev, dalam esainya "O dvoystvennosti verkhovnoy vlasti u khazarov" (1835), dicetak ulang dalam buku kompilasinya tahun 1876 Rossiya dan Aziya di halaman 66

"Meskipun orang-orang Yahudi di mana-mana adalah orang-orang yang tunduk, dan di sebagian besar dunia juga dianiaya, Khazaria adalah satu-satunya tempat di dunia abad pertengahan di mana orang-orang Yahudi sebenarnya adalah tuan mereka sendiri. Bagi orang-orang Yahudi yang tertindas di dunia, Khazar adalah sumber kebanggaan dan harapan, karena keberadaan mereka tampaknya membuktikan bahwa Tuhan tidak sepenuhnya meninggalkan umat-Nya."
- Raymond Scheindlin, dalam The Chronicles of the Jewish People (1996)

Sejarah Khazaria memberi kita contoh menarik tentang bagaimana kehidupan Yahudi berkembang di Abad Pertengahan. Di masa ketika orang-orang Yahudi dianiaya di seluruh Eropa Kristen, kerajaan Khazaria adalah mercusuar harapan. Orang-orang Yahudi dapat berkembang di Khazaria karena toleransi penguasa Khazar, yang mengundang para pengungsi Yahudi Bizantium dan Persia untuk menetap di negara mereka. Karena pengaruh para pengungsi ini, orang Khazar menganggap agama Yahudi menarik dan mengadopsi Yudaisme dalam jumlah besar.

Sebagian besar informasi yang tersedia tentang Khazar berasal dari sumber Arab, Ibrani, Armenia, Bizantium, dan Slavia, yang sebagian besar dapat diandalkan. Ada juga sejumlah besar bukti arkeologi tentang Khazar yang menerangi berbagai aspek ekonomi Khazar (seni dan kerajinan, perdagangan, pertanian, perikanan, dll.) serta praktik pemakaman.

Asal usul. Khazar adalah orang Turki 1 yang berasal dari Asia Tengah. Suku-suku Turki awal cukup beragam, meskipun diyakini bahwa rambut kemerahan mendominasi di antara mereka sebelum penaklukan Mongol. Pada awalnya, Khazar percaya pada perdukunan Tengri, berbicara bahasa Turki, dan nomaden. Kemudian, Khazar mengadopsi Yudaisme, Islam, dan Kristen, belajar bahasa Ibrani dan Slavia, dan menetap di kota-kota di seluruh Kaukasus utara dan Ukraina. Bangsa Khazar memiliki sejarah kemerdekaan etnis yang luar biasa yang membentang sekitar 800 tahun dari abad ke-5 hingga ke-13.

Sejarah paling awal Khazar di Rusia selatan, sebelum pertengahan abad ke-6, tersembunyi dalam ketidakjelasan. Dari sekitar tahun 550 hingga 630, Khazar adalah bagian dari Kekaisaran Turki Barat, yang diperintah oleh Celestial Blue Turks (Turki Kök). Ketika Kekaisaran Turki Barat pecah akibat perang saudara pada pertengahan abad ke-7, bangsa Khazar berhasil menegaskan kemerdekaannya. Namun, kaganate Kök tempat mereka tinggal menyediakan sistem pemerintahan bagi Khazar. Misalnya, orang Khazar mengikuti pedoman yang sama seperti orang Turki Kök mengenai suksesi raja.

Kekuatan politik. Secara maksimal, negara merdeka Khazaria mencakup wilayah geografis Rusia selatan, Kaukasus utara, Ukraina timur, Krimea, Kazakhstan barat, dan Uzbekistan barat laut. Kelompok Turki lainnya seperti Sabir dan Bulgar berada di bawah yurisdiksi Khazar selama abad ke-7. Orang-orang Khazar memaksa beberapa orang Bulgar (dipimpin oleh Asparukh) untuk pindah ke Bulgaria modern, sementara orang-orang Bulgaria lainnya melarikan diri ke wilayah hulu Sungai Volga di mana negara bagian Volga Bulgharia yang merdeka didirikan. Khazar memiliki kekuatan terbesar mereka atas suku-suku lain di abad ke-9, mengendalikan Slavia timur, Magyar, Pecheneg, Burtas, Hun Kaukasia Utara, dan suku-suku lain dan menuntut upeti dari mereka. Karena yurisdiksi mereka atas wilayah tersebut, Laut Kaspia dinamai "Laut Khazar", dan bahkan hari ini bahasa Azeri, Turki, Persia, dan Arab menunjuk Kaspia dengan istilah ini (dalam bahasa Turki, "Hazar Denizi" dalam bahasa Arab, " Bahr-ul-Khazar" dalam bahasa Persia, "Daryaye Khazar").

Selain peran mereka dalam mewujudkan secara tidak langsung pembentukan negara Balkan modern di Bulgaria, Khazar memainkan peran yang bahkan lebih signifikan dalam urusan Eropa. Dengan bertindak sebagai negara penyangga antara dunia Islam dan dunia Kristen, Khazaria mencegah penyebaran Islam secara signifikan ke utara Pegunungan Kaukasus. Ini dicapai melalui serangkaian perang yang dikenal sebagai Perang Arab-Khazar, yang terjadi pada akhir abad ke-7 dan awal abad ke-8. Perang menetapkan Kaukasus dan kota Derbent sebagai batas antara Khazar dan Arab.

kota. Ibukota Khazar pertama adalah Balanjar, yang diidentifikasi dengan situs arkeologi Verkhneye Chir-Yurt. Selama tahun 720-an, Khazar memindahkan ibu kota mereka ke Samandar, sebuah kota pesisir di utara Kaukasus yang terkenal akan taman dan kebun anggurnya yang indah. Pada 750, ibu kota dipindahkan ke kota Itil (Atil) di tepi Sungai Volga. Bahkan, nama "Itil" juga menunjuk Sungai Volga pada abad pertengahan. Itil akan tetap menjadi ibu kota Khazar setidaknya selama 200 tahun lagi. Itil, pusat administrasi kerajaan Khazar, terletak berdekatan dengan Khazaran, pusat perdagangan utama. Pada awal abad ke-10, penduduk Khazaran-Itil sebagian besar terdiri dari Muslim dan Yahudi, tetapi beberapa orang Kristen juga tinggal di sana. Ibu kota memiliki banyak masjid. Istana raja terletak di sebuah pulau di dekatnya, yang dikelilingi oleh tembok bata. Orang Khazar tinggal di ibu kota mereka selama musim dingin, tetapi mereka tinggal di padang rumput sekitar pada musim semi dan musim panas untuk bercocok tanam.

Ibu kota besar Ukraina modern, Kiev, didirikan oleh orang Khazar atau Hongaria. Kiev adalah nama tempat Turki (Küi = tepi sungai + ev = pemukiman). Sebuah komunitas Khazar Yahudi tinggal di Kiev. Kota-kota lain di Khazar, banyak di antaranya juga memiliki komunitas Yahudi yang penting, termasuk Kerch (Bospor), Feodosia, Tatarkha (Tmutorokan), Chufut-Kale, Sudak, dan Sarkel. Gubernur lokal Samandar adalah orang Yahudi, dan dapat diasumsikan bahwa banyak gubernur daerah lain ini juga orang Yahudi. Sebuah benteng bata besar dibangun pada tahun 834 di Sarkel, di sepanjang Sungai Don. Itu adalah usaha Bizantium-Khazar yang kooperatif, dan Petronas Kamateros, seorang Yunani, menjabat sebagai chief engineer selama konstruksi.

Peradaban dan perdagangan. Makanan pokok Khazar adalah nasi dan ikan. Barley, gandum, melon, rami, dan mentimun juga dipanen di Khazaria. Ada banyak kebun buah-buahan dan daerah subur di sekitar Sungai Volga, tempat bangsa Khazar bergantung karena jarangnya hujan. Khazar berburu rubah, kelinci, dan berang-berang untuk memenuhi permintaan bulu yang besar.

Khazaria adalah jalur perdagangan penting yang menghubungkan Asia dan Eropa. Misalnya, "Jalan Sutra" adalah penghubung penting antara Cina, Asia Tengah, dan Eropa. Di antara barang-barang yang diperdagangkan di sepanjang rute perdagangan Khazar adalah sutra, bulu, lilin, madu, perhiasan, perak, koin, dan rempah-rempah. Pedagang Yahudi Radhanite dari Persia melewati Itil dalam perjalanan mereka ke Eropa Barat, Cina, dan lokasi lainnya. Orang-orang Sogdiana Iran juga memanfaatkan perdagangan Jalur Sutra, dan bahasa serta huruf rahasia mereka menjadi populer di kalangan orang Turki. Khazar berdagang dengan orang-orang Khwarizm (Uzbekistan barat laut) dan Volga Bulgharia dan juga dengan kota-kota pelabuhan di Azerbaijan dan Persia.

Dual-monarki Khazar adalah sistem Turki di mana kagan adalah raja tertinggi dan bek adalah pemimpin tentara sipil. Kagan adalah bagian dari keluarga penguasa Asena Turki yang telah menyediakan kagan untuk negara-negara Asia Tengah lainnya pada periode awal abad pertengahan. Kagan Khazar memiliki hubungan dengan penguasa Bizantium, Abkhazia, Hongaria, dan Armenia. Sampai batas tertentu, raja-raja Khazar mempengaruhi agama orang Khazar, tetapi mereka menoleransi mereka yang memiliki agama yang berbeda dari mereka sendiri, sehingga bahkan ketika raja-raja ini mengadopsi Yudaisme, mereka masih membiarkan orang Kristen Yunani, Slavia pagan, dan Muslim Iran tinggal di tempat mereka sendiri. domain. Di ibu kota, Khazar mendirikan mahkamah agung yang terdiri dari 7 anggota, dan setiap agama diwakili di panel peradilan ini (menurut satu kronik Arab kontemporer, Khazar diadili menurut Taurat, sementara suku-suku lainnya diadili menurut hukum lainnya).

Komunitas kuno Yahudi ada di Semenanjung Krimea, sebuah fakta yang dibuktikan oleh banyak bukti arkeologis. Adalah penting bahwa Krimea berada di bawah kendali Khazar. Komunitas Yahudi Krimea kemudian dilengkapi dengan pengungsi Yahudi yang melarikan diri dari pemberontakan Mazdaq di Persia, penganiayaan kaisar Bizantium Leo III dan Romanus I Lecapenus, dan untuk berbagai alasan lainnya. Orang-orang Yahudi datang ke Khazaria dari Uzbekistan modern, Armenia, Hongaria, Suriah, Turki, Irak, dan banyak tempat lainnya, seperti yang didokumentasikan oleh al-Masudi, Surat Schechter, Saadiah Gaon, dan catatan lainnya. Penulis Arab Dimashqi menulis bahwa pengungsi Yahudi ini menawarkan agama mereka kepada orang Turki Khazar dan bahwa orang Khazar "menemukannya lebih baik daripada agama mereka sendiri dan menerimanya". Para pedagang Radhanite Yahudi mungkin juga mempengaruhi konversi. Mengadopsi Yudaisme mungkin juga merupakan simbol kemerdekaan politik bagi Khazaria, memegang keseimbangan kekuasaan antara Khilafah Muslim dan Kekaisaran Bizantium Kristen.

Di bawah kepemimpinan raja Bulan dan Obaja, bentuk rabi standar dari agama Yahudi menyebar di kalangan Khazar. Raja Bulan mengadopsi Yudaisme kira-kira pada tahun 838, setelah konon mengadakan debat antara perwakilan agama Yahudi, Kristen, dan Muslim. Bangsawan Khazar dan banyak orang biasa juga menjadi orang Yahudi. Raja Obaja kemudian mendirikan sinagoga dan sekolah Yahudi di Khazaria. Buku-buku Misnah, Talmud, dan Taurat dengan demikian menjadi penting bagi banyak Khazar. Saint Cyril datang ke Khazaria pada tahun 860 dalam upaya Bizantium untuk mengubah Khazar menjadi Kristen, tetapi ia tidak berhasil mengubah mereka dari Yudaisme. Namun, dia meyakinkan banyak orang Slavia untuk mengadopsi agama Kristen. Pada abad ke-10, orang Khazar menulis menggunakan huruf Ibrani. Dokumen utama Yahudi Khazar dari periode itu ditulis dalam bahasa Ibrani. The Ukrainian professor Omeljan Pritsak estimated that there were as many as 30,000 Jews in Khazaria by the 10th century. In 2002, the Swedish numismatist Gert Rispling discovered a Khazar Jewish coin.

In general, the Khazars may be described as a productive and tolerant people, in contact with much of the rest of the world and providing goods and services at home and abroad. Many artifacts from the Khazars, exhibiting their artistic and industrial talents, have survived to the present day.

Decline and fall. During the 10th century, the East Slavs were united under Scandinavian overlordship. A new nation, Kievan Rus, was formed by Prince Oleg. Just as the Khazars had left their mark on other peoples, so too did they influence the Rus. The Rus and the Hungarians both adopted the dual-kingship system of the Khazars. The Rus princes even borrowed the title kagan. Archaeologists recovered a variety of Khazar or Khazar-style objects (including clothing and pottery) from Viking gravesites in Chernigov, Gnezdovo, Kiev, and even Birka (Sweden). The residents of Kievan Rus patterned their legal procedures after the Khazars. In addition, some Khazar words became part of the old East Slavic language: for example, bogatyr ("brave knight") apparently derives from the Khazar word baghatur.

The Rus inherited most of the former Khazar lands in the late 10th century and early 11th century. One of the most devastating defeats came in 965, when Rus Prince Svyatoslav conquered the Khazar fortress of Sarkel. It is believed that he conquered Itil two years later, after which he campaigned in the Balkans. Despite the loss of their nation, the Khazar people did not disappear. Many of them converted to Islam and survived in the North Caucasus and Central Asian regions under new identities. Others lived and studied in other Jewish communities from Spain to the Byzantine Empire 2 but in the end had no impact on the ancestral composition of any modern Jewish population.

Catatan.
1. Many medieval writers attested to the Khazars' Turkic origins including Theophanes, al-Masudi, Rabbi Yehudah ben Barzillai, Martinus Oppaviensis, and the anonymous authors of the Georgian Chronicle and Chinese chronicle T'ang-shu. The Arabic writer al-Masudi in Kitab at-Tanbih wrote: ". the Khazars. are a tribe of the Turks." (cited in Peter Golden, Khazar Studies, pp. 57-58). T'ang-shu reads: "K'o-sa [Khazars]. belong to the stock of the Turks." (cited in Peter Golden, Khazar Studies, P. 58). dalam nya Kronograf, Theophanes wrote: "During his [Byzantine emperor Heraclius] stay there [in Lazica], he invited the eastern Turks, who are called Chazars, to become his allies." (cited in Theophanes, Analecta Bollandiana jilid 112, 1994, pp. 339-376).

Suggestions for further research. Here are some useful published introductory materials on the Khazars. Some are available from retail bookstores, while others are only available through libraries.

"The World of the Khazars" edited by Peter B. Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas (2007)

"Khazar Studies: An Historico-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars" by Peter B. Golden (1980)

Journal article "Khazaria and Judaism" by Peter B. Golden, in Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, volume 3, 1983, pages 128 to 156.

"The Kuzari: In Defense of the Despised Faith" by Yehudah HaLevi, translated by N. Daniel Korobkin (1998, 2009)

"The Emergence of Rus 750-1200" by Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin (1996)


“Get Big Fast”

In 1994 Jeff Bezos, a former Wall Street hedge fund executive, incorporated Amazon.com, choosing the name primarily because it began with the first letter of the alphabet and because of its association with the vast South American river. On the basis of research he had conducted, Bezos concluded that books would be the most logical product initially to sell online. Amazon.com was not the first company to do so Computer Literacy, a Silicon Valley bookstore, began selling books from its inventory to its technically astute customers in 1991. However, the promise of Amazon.com was to deliver any book to any reader anywhere.

While Amazon.com famously started as a bookseller, Bezos contended from its start that the site was not merely a retailer of consumer products. He argued that Amazon.com was a technology company whose business was simplifying online transactions for consumers.

The Amazon.com business strategy was often met with skepticism. Financial journalists and analysts disparaged the company by referring to it as Amazon.bomb. Doubters claimed Amazon.com ultimately would lose in the marketplace to established bookselling chains, such as Borders and Barnes & Noble, once they had launched competing e-commerce sites. The lack of company profits until the final quarter of 2001 seemed to justify its critics.

However, Bezos dismissed naysayers as not understanding the massive growth potential of the Internet. He argued that to succeed as an online retailer, a company needed to “Get Big Fast,” a slogan he had printed on employee T-shirts. In fact, Amazon.com did grow fast, reaching 180,000 customer accounts by December 1996, after its first full year in operation, and less than a year later, in October 1997, it had 1,000,000 customer accounts. Its revenues jumped from $15.7 million in 1996 to $148 million in 1997, followed by $610 million in 1998. Amazon.com’s success propelled its founder to become Waktu magazine’s 1999 Person of the Year.

The company expanded rapidly in other areas. Its Associates program, where other Web sites could offer merchandise for sale and Amazon.com would fill the order and pay a commission, grew from one such site in 1996 to more than 350,000 by 1999. Following Bezos’s initial strategy, the company quickly began selling more than books. Music and video sales started in 1998. That same year it began international operations with the acquisition of online booksellers in the United Kingdom and Germany. By 1999 the company was also selling consumer electronics, video games, software, home-improvement items, toys and games, and much more.

To sustain that growth, Amazon.com needed more than private investors to underwrite the expansion. As a result, in May 1997, less than two years after opening its virtual doors to consumers and without ever having made a profit, Amazon.com became a public company, raising $54 million on the NASDAQ market. In addition to the cash, the company was able to use its high-flying stock to fund its aggressive growth and acquisition strategy.

Although offering more types of goods broadened its appeal, it was Amazon.com’s service that gained it customer loyalty and ultimate profitability. Its personalization tools recommended other products to buy on the basis of both a customer’s purchasing history and data from buyers of the same items. Its publishing of customer reviews of products fostered a “community of consumers” who helped each other find everything from the right book to the best blender.


An Introduction to Oral History

When we transitioned to working remotely in March, units across the Smithsonian were encouraged to think about how we can continue to ensure our mission to increase and diffuse knowledge with the doors to our museums and research centers closed. At the Archives, we turned to our work with our oral history collection. Since 1973, the Archives has worked to record a wide, diverse range of viewpoints about the events that have shaped the Smithsonian. So what exactly is oral history?

Oral history is a technique for generating and preserving original, historically interesting information— primary source material—from personal recollections through planned recorded interviews. This method of interviewing is used to preserve the voices, memories and perspectives of people in history. It’s a tool we can all use to engage with and learn from family members, friends, and the people we share space with in an interview that captures their unique history and perspective in their own words. Oral history stems from the tradition of passing information of importance to the family or tribe from one generation to the next. In the United States, the Oral History Association connects oral historians and provides a broad range of information on oral history. Some basic tenets include:

Teknik: The methodology of oral history can be adapted to many different types of projects from family history to academic research projects in many different disciplines. The interviews should usually be conducted in a one-on-one situation, although group interviews can also be effective.

Sharing: In collaboration with a well-prepared and empathetic interviewer, the narrator may be able to share information that they do not realize they recall and to make associations and draw conclusions about their experience that they would not be able to produce without the interviewer.

Preserving: Recording preserves the interview, in sound or video and later in transcript for use by others removed in time and/or distance from the interviewee. Oral history also preserves the ENTIRE interview, in its original form, rather than the interviewer’s interpretation of what was said.

Original historically important information: The well-prepared interviewer will know what information is already in documents and will use the oral history interview to seek new information, clarification, or new interpretation of a historical event.

Personal recollections: The interviewer should ask the narrator for first-person information. These are memories that the narrator can provide on a reliable basis, e.g., events in which they participated or witnessed or decisions in which they took part. Oral history interviews can convey personality, explain motivation, and reveal inner thoughts and perceptions.

Oral history is an essential tool for us as we aim to record the history of the Smithsonian and the folks that contribute to it, but it is also an inherently democratic practice. Anyone anywhere can conduct an oral history to learn more about their friends, family, and the people they share space with. For more tools and information on conducting oral histories, check out our How To Do Oral History site. And check out what other units from across the Smithsonian are sharing over at Smithsonian Cares!


History of Greece: Introduction

The ancient Classical and Hellenistic eras of Greece are undoubtedly the most splendid, having left behind a host of ideas, concepts, and art to provide the foundation of what we call &ldquowestern civilization&rdquo. However, the two previous millennia that lead to these ancient eras, as well as the other two millennia that succeeded them are all part of the history of Greece and have left just as rich a cultural footprint on the land.

Much of the ancient Greek civilization has survived either directly or through permutations to our day. The ancient Greek dialects are influential even to this day with much Greek vocabulary embedded in the Modern Greek and English languages. Likewise, the art and architecture of ancient Greece has remained relevant and influential up to our time in the breadth of western society. The much-celebrated Renaissance was guided in large part by the re-discovery of the ancient Greek ideas through text and art, which were hitherto suppressed by the belief in the absolute authority of the supernatural power and the church.

It should be noted that History is a discipline that was conceived first in Ancient Greece. Herodotus (484 &ndash 425 BCE) is considered the Father of History, as he was the first who attempted to record events and human actions for the sole purpose of preserving them for future generations. The very first lines of his Histories read: &ldquoHerodotus of Halicarnassus here displays his inquiry, so that human achievements may not become forgotten in time, and great and marvelous deeds &ndash some displayed by Greeks, some by barbarians &ndash may not be without their glory&rdquo (Herodotus, 3). Being the first to attempt such a feat, Herodotus was not spared from harsh criticism for including in his Histories (written between 431 and 435 BCE), myths, legends, and outrageous tales.

&ldquoI have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time.&rdquo (Thucydides, 16)

Not much later than Herodotus, Thucydides (460 &ndash 395 BCE) with his History of the Peloponnesian War, put his own stamp on the discipline of History by attempting to present history in an &ldquoobjective&rdquo way, and to make correlations between human actions and events. Their approach and methods of recording historical events became the guiding light for historians of the next two thousand years.

This brief history of Greece is compiled here as an introduction to web readers and to provide the historical background that&rsquos needed to appreciate all the subjects of Ancient Greek culture. It was no easy task to compress the history of Ancient Greece into a concise format that would be appropriate both for online reading and as a precise overview of the subject. Suffice to say that each sentence of this essay has been the subject of countless volumes of discourse throughout history. Further reading can be found in the bibliography. -- 6/2007


The Aim of a Strong Introduction

Along with excellent organization, your introduction lets the visitor know that what you’ve written is of interest. For what reasons would someone come to read your post? Craft an intro that shows them they’ve come to the right place. Here are a few tactics and introduction examples to help you accomplish that.

1 Answer the question “Why should I read this?”

In the intro to this article, I smacked you in the face with a statistic: If you don’t capture a reader’s attention within fifteen seconds, 55 percent will surf on to something else. Right from the first sentence, I’ve told you why this article matters, which is a powerful way to compel someone to read on.

2 Engage the visitor with an anecdote.

Hook the visitor in with an intriguing narrative that gives a hint as to what the article is about and she’s more likely to continue reading.

In the summer of 2015, Stan Transkiy was 16 years into a life sentence, and he had finally found a way to occupy his time.

3 Tell the reader “This is not for you. (But not really. It totally is.)”

When you tell someone “Whatever you do, don’t think of a purple gorilla!” the first thing they do is think of a purple gorilla. (You’re welcome! Don’t worry he’s friendly.) The same psychological tactic can work in writing an introduction.

Why do you look so angry? This article hasn’t even begun and already you disapprove. Why can’t I ever win with you? I see it in your face.

If this sounds unfamiliar, good for you. You don’t need this.

4 Share something personal.

Much like storytelling, sharing something personal in an introduction can pique a visitor’s curiosity. Either he’ll feel he can relate, or the story will be so unique that he’ll be driven to read on to discover more.

I write to fill the page, preferably with nothing.

This ambition was in me before I could write. I grew up in a family of refugees speaking Russian, a language that, as my teachers and classmates took pains to remind me, did not belong to me.

5 Ask a question.

Some may argue that this introduction-writing technique is overused, but now and then a compelling question is the hook your piece needs. It’s especially effective if the visitor has to read on to uncover the answer.

What do you get when you combine a classic psychology experiment with the search for extraterrestrial intelligence?


Introduction and Conclusion

INTRODUCTIONS
The introduction of a paper must introduce its thesis and not just its topic. Readers will lose some—if not much—of what the paper says if the introduction does not prepare them for what is coming (and tell them what to look for and how to evaluate it).

For example, an introduction that says, “The British army fought in the battle of Saratoga” gives the reader virtually no guidance about the paper’s thesis (i.e., what the paper concludes/argues about the British army at Saratoga).

History papers are not mystery novels. Historians WANT and NEED to give away the ending immediately. Their conclusions—presented in the introduction—help the reader better follow/understand their ideas and interpretations.

In other words, an introduction is a MAP that lays out “the trip the author is going to take [readers] on” and thus “lets readers connect any part of the argument with the overall structure. Readers with such a map seldom get confused or lost.”1

Introductions do four things:

attract the ATTENTION of the reader
convince the reader that he/she NEEDS TO READ what the author has to say
define the paper’s SPECIFIC TOPIC
state and explain the paper’s THESIS
Writing the introduction:
Consider writing the introduction AFTER finishing your paper. By then, you will know what your paper says. You will have thought it through and provided arguments and supporting evidence therefore, you will know what the reader needs to know—in brief form—in the introduction. (Always think of your initial introduction as “getting started” and as something that “won’t count.” It is for your eyes only discard it when you know exactly what your paper says.) A common technique is to turn your conclusion into an introduction. It usually reflects what is in the paper—topic, thesis, arguments, evidence—and can be easily adjusted to be a clear and useful introduction.

Some types of introductions:

Quotation
Historical overview (provides introduction to topic AND background so that fewer explanations are needed later in paper)
Review of literature or a controversy
Statistics or startling evidence
Anecdote or illustration
Pertanyaan
From general to specific OR specific to general
Avoid:

“The purpose of this paper is . . .” OR “This paper is about . . . .”
First person (e.g., “I will argue that”)
Too many questions
Dictionary definitions
Panjang:
There is no rule other than to be logical. Short papers require short introductions (e.g., a short paragraph) longer ones may require a page or more to provide all that a reader needs. Longer papers require ELABORATION of the thesis a sentence is not sufficient to prepare the reader for the many pages of arguments and evidence that follow.

CONCLUSIONS
Conclusions are the last thing that readers read they define readers’ final impression of a paper. A flat, boring conclusion means a flat, boring (or, at least, disappointing) paper.

Conclusions should be a climax, not an anti-climax. They do not just restate what has already been said they interpret, speculate, and provoke thinking.

Some types of conclusions:

Statement of subject’s significance
Call for further research
Recommendation or speculation
Comparison of part to present
Anecdote
Quotation
Questions (with or without answers)
Avoid:

“In conclusion” “finally” “thus”
Additional or new ideas that introduce a new paper
First person
Panjang:
Again, there is no rule, although too short conclusions should definitely be avoided. Short conclusions leave the reader on the edge of a cliff with no directions on how to get down.

You are the expert – help your reader pull together and appreciate what he/she has read.

____________________________
1Howard Becker, Writing for Social Scientists (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).

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Dinosaurus

The prehistoric reptiles known as dinosaurs arose during the Middle to Late Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, some 230 million years ago. They were members of a subclass of reptiles called the archosaurs (“ruling reptiles”), a group that also includes birds and crocodiles.

Scientists first began studying dinosaurs during the 1820s, when they discovered the bones of a large land reptile they dubbed a Megalosaurus (𠇋ig lizard”) buried in the English countryside. In 1842, Sir Richard Owen, Britain’s leading paleontologist, first coined the term 𠇍inosaur.” Owen had examined bones from three different creatures–Megalosaurus, Iguanadon (“iguana tooth”) and Hylaeosaurus (“woodland lizard”). Each of them lived on land, was larger than any living reptile, walked with their legs directly beneath their bodies instead of out to the sides and had three more vertebrae in their hips than other known reptiles. Using this information, Owen determined that the three formed a special group of reptiles, which he named Dinosauria. The word comes from the ancient Greek word deinos (“terrible”) and sauros (“lizard” or “reptile”).

Tahukah kamu? Despite the fact that dinosaurs no longer walk the Earth as they did during the Mesozoic Era, unmistakable traces of these enormous reptiles can be identified in their modern-day descendants: birds.

Since then, dinosaur fossils have been found all over the world and studied by paleontologists to find out more about the many different types of these creatures that existed. Scientists have traditionally divided the dinosaur group into two orders: the 𠇋ird-hipped” Ornithischia and the “lizard-hipped” Saurischia. From there, dinosaurs have been broken down into numerous genera (e.g. Tyrannosaurus or Triceratops) and each genus into one or more species. Some dinosaurs were bipedal, which means they walked on two legs. Some walked on four legs (quadrupedal), and some were able to switch between these two walking styles. Some dinosaurs were covered with a type of body armor, and some probably had feathers, like their modern bird relatives. Some moved quickly, while others were lumbering and slow. Most dinosaurs were herbivores, or plant-eaters, but some were carnivorous and hunted or scavenged other dinosaurs in order to survive.

At the time the dinosaurs arose, all of the Earth’s continents were connected together in one land mass, now known as Pangaea, and surrounded by one enormous ocean. Pangaea began to break apart into separate continents during the Early Jurassic Period (around 200 million years ago), and dinosaurs would have seen great changes in the world in which they lived over the course of their existence. Dinosaurs mysteriously disappeared at the end of the Cretaceous Period, around 65 million years ago. Many other types of animals, as well as many species of plants, died out around the same time, and numerous competing theories exist as to what caused this mass extinction. In addition to the great volcanic or tectonic activity that was occurring around that time, scientists have also discovered that a giant asteroid hit Earth about 65.5 million years ago, landing with the force of 180 trillion tons of TNT and spreading an enormous amount of ash all over the Earth’s surface. Deprived of water and sunlight, plants and algae would have died, killing off the planet’s herbivores after a period of surviving on the carcasses of these herbivores, carnivores would have died out as well.

Despite the fact that dinosaurs no longer walk the Earth as they did during the Mesozoic Era, unmistakable traces of these enormous reptiles can be identified in their modern-day descendants: birds. Dinosaurs also live on in the study of paleontology, and new information about them is constantly being uncovered. Finally, judging from their frequent appearances in the movies and on television, dinosaurs have a firm hold in the popular imagination, one realm in which they show no danger of becoming extinct.


Settlement Houses: An Introduction

One of the most influential organizations in the history of American social welfare was the “settlement house.” The establishment and expansion of social settlements and neighborhood houses in the United States corresponded closely with the Progressive Era, the struggle for woman suffrage, the absorption of millions of new immigrants into American society and the development of professional social work.

Settlements were organized initially to be “friendly and open households,” a place where members of the privileged class could live and work as pioneers or “settlers” in poor areas of a city where social and environmental problems were great. Settlements had no set program or method of work. The idea was that university students and others would make a commitment to “reside” in the settlement house in order to “know intimately” their neighbors. The primary goal for many of the early settlement residents was to conduct sociological observation and research. For others it was the opportunity to share their education and/or Christian values as a means of helping the poor and disinherited to overcome their personal handicaps.

What actually happened was that residents of settlements learned as much or more from their neighbors than they taught them. The “settlers” found themselves designing and organizing activities to meet the needs of the residents of the neighborhoods in which they were living. While trying to help and uplift their neighbors — organizing classes, clubs, games and other educational and social activities — settlement house residents and volunteers experienced first hand the powerlessness of the poor, the pervasive abuse of immigrants, the terrible conditions in which men, women and children were required to work in factories and sweatshops, the failure of public officials to enforce laws, the dangers of unsanitary conditions and the debilitating effects of tuberculosis and other diseases. Settlement house residents soon learned that the low standards of living and unsafe working conditions that were the usual lot of poor people in the neighborhoods were most often not the result of choice but of necessity.

When neighborhood conditions and individual or social problems seemed too pressing to be ignored, settlement workers tried to meet them. Their efforts often led to confrontations with local and state officials. At other times, bringing about a change required becoming advocates for a specific cause or acting as spokespersons appealing to a wider public for understanding or support for a proposed civic matter or political measure. From their advocacy, research and sometimes eloquent descriptions of social needs afflicting their neighbors, lasting contributions were made by residents of settlement houses in the areas of education, public health, recreation, labor organizing, housing, local and state politics, woman’s rights, crime and delinquency, music and the arts. Settlements soon became renown as the fountainhead for producing highly motivated social reformers, social scientists and public administrators, including such early notables as

Background: The Early Years

The settlement house movement started in England in 1884 when Cannon Samuel A Barnett, Vicar of St. Jude’s Parrish, founded Toynbee Hall in East London. The settlement idea, as formulated by Cannon Barnett, was to have university men “settle” into a working-class neighborhood where they would not only help relieve poverty and despair through their good works but also learn something about the real world from living day-to-day with the residents of the slums. According to an early Toynbee Hall report, it was “…an association of persons, with different opinions and different tastes its unity is that of variety its methods are spiritual rather than material it aims at permeation rather than conversion and its trust is in friends rather than in organization.”

Several Americans visited Toynbee Hall and were so influenced by the English experiment they decided to organize similar “settlements” in the United States. Diantara mereka:

Stanton A. Coit who founded the first American settlement in 1886 — Neighborhood Guild — on the Lower East Side of New York City (Note: the name was later changed to University Settlement)

Christina Isobel MacColl and her friend Sarah Carson founded Christodora Settlement House in the slums of New York City’s Lower East Side

Jane Addams and her college classmate, Ellen Gates Starr, founded Hull House on the West Side of Chicago in 1889

Vida D. Scudder and Jean Fine organized College Settlement in New York City

Robert A. Woods established Andover House in Boston (the name was later changed to South End House.

The settlement idea spread rapidly in the United States. By 1897 there were seventy-four settlements, over a hundred in 1900, and by 1910 there were more than four hundred in operation. Most settlements were located in large cities (40 percent in Boston, Chicago, and New York), but many small cities and rural communities boasted at least one settlement house. In the early years settlements and neighborhood houses were financed entirely by donations and the residents usually paid for their own room and board.

The American settlement movement diverged from the English model in several ways. More women became leaders in the American movement and there was a greater interest in social research and reform. But probably the biggest difference was that American settlements were located in overcrowded slum neighborhoods filled with recent immigrants. Working with the inhabitants of these neighborhoods, settlement workers became caught up in searching for ways to ease their neighbor’s adjustment and integration into a new society. Settlement house residents often acted as advocates on behalf of immigrants and their neighborhoods and, in various areas, they organized English classes and immigrant protective associations, established “penny banks” and sponsored festivals and pageants designed to value and preserve the heritage of immigrants.

It is important to note that settlements helped create and foster many new organizations and social welfare programs, some of which continue to the present time. Settlements were action oriented and new programs and services were added as needs were discovered settlement workers tried to find, not be, the solution for social and environmental deficits affecting their neighbors. In the process, some settlements became engaged in issues such as housing reform, factory safety, labor organizing, protecting children, opening health clinics, legal aid programs, consumer protection, milk pasteurization initiatives and well-baby clinics. Others created parks and playgrounds or emphasized the arts by establishing theaters and classes for the fine arts and music education. A number of settlement leaders and residents conducted research, prepared statistical studies, wrote reports or described their personal experiences in memoirs (e.g., Hull-House Maps and Papers, Robert Woods’s City Wilderness, Jane Addams’s Twenty Years at Hull-House, and Lillian Wald’s House on Henry Street).

Early settlement house residents did not escape the prejudice nor completely overcome the ethnic stereotypes common to their generation and social class they tried consciously to teach middle-class values, often betraying a paternalistic attitude toward the poor. On the other hand, and this was typical of progressives, most settlements were segregated. Although Hull-House and other settlements helped establish separate institutions for Black neighborhoods, pioneered in studying Black urban communities, and helped organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Blacks were not welcome at the major settlements.

The Contributions of “Living” in a Settlement House

A distinctive feature of the early years of the settlement movement was “residency.” By design, staff and volunteers lived communally in the same house or building, sharing meals and facilities, working together and spending some or all of their leisure time together. This arrangement fostered an exciting environment in which university-educated and socially motivated men and women enjoyed the opportunity to share their knowledge, life experiences, ideas and plans for the future. Working and living together, even for short periods, the residents of a settlement house bonded around specific projects, collaborated on social issues, formed close friendships and experienced lasting impressions they carried with them for a lifetime.

How to Cite this Article (APA Format): Hansan, J.E. (2011). Settlement houses: An introduction. Social Welfare History Project. Retrieved [date accessed] from http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/settlement-houses/settlement-houses/

21 Replies to &ldquoSettlement Houses: An Introduction&rdquo

Hello, You offer a great framework to understand the origins of the settlement home movement. Given that many settlement homes in the United States “originated” just prior to the Emancipation Proclamation and that “Blacks were not welcome at the major settlements“, can you direct me to research about settlement homes started by and for Black people in the late 1800s? Terima kasih!

You might start by looking at the Seventeenth Street Mission in Richmond, Va. More pictures here: https://cdm17236.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p17236coll1 You might also look at the work of Rev. John Little who directed especially successful settlement houses serving African Americans in Louisville, Ky.

Terima kasih! I teach graduate level social work classes and want to continue to disrupt the Jane Addams (the story told is that she started “the first” settlement home in 1870). Her story is frequently the only settlement home story told. It’s one the excludes the narratives of people of color who helped people of color.

One further thought, while this is not exactly a settlement house, you might want to look into Ora Brown Stokes. Here’s one of her projects https://images.socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/items/show/503 and a bit of biography https://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/dvb/bio.asp?b=Stokes_Ora_Brown

Settlement Houses are needed now more than ever!!
It is so sad to see them closing their doors. Power to the people!

how did the social settlement movement help progressive reforms?

The best response to your comment is to suggest you read about specific settlement houses, e.g., Hull House, Chicago Commons, Baden St. Settlement and Baltimore Settlements. Also, read about some of the residents who lived in a settlement house and launched their careers. Semoga beruntung. Jack Hansan

[…] Hansan, J.E. (2011). Settlement houses: An introduction. Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/programs/settlement-houses/. […]

Hi,can anyone answer these, I have two questions related with this article:
1. Identify a group of people who lived in the settlement houses.
2. Name two groups serviced by the settlement houses.

Terima kasih! greatly appreciated.

Dear Aggiebaby: It is easy to answer your question: First, before we were married, my wife and I lived as residents on the third floor University Settlement in Philadelphia. Also living in the “Unie House” at the same time were two dental externs, a heart surgeon from Bari, Italy, two other social work students and a psychology major plus two other administrative staff and the the Executive Director, his family and one daughter. Second, there are countless groups serviced by settlement house since their founding. All you need to do is read the histories of most any settlement house on the SWH web site. Good luck, Jack Hansan

Hi Mr. Hansan,
thank you for this contribution as your article carries a spirit of this movement which is sometimes hard to place in words and often gets lost in translation when transferred into historical scholarship.

I am teaching a social work practice with groups class and was wondering if you can direct me to resource with specific examples of group activities (i.e. social/fun/recreational) that I could use to, in addition to providing theory and historical overview, demonstrate and engage my class into a type of activity such as the ones you describe in your article….?

Thank you for your time, Dunja

Dear Dunja: Sorry for the delay in responding to your request. It would take more time than I have to give to fully answer your question however, I have several resources for you to consider. 1) Read the entry under SOCIAL WORK titled: “More Than Sixty Years with Social Group Work” by Katy Papell who died just recently. 2)Another entry to read is listed with the tab for Settlements. It is “The Position of United Neighborhood Houses on Issues.” 3) Google “National Association of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers.” 4) Read the entry titled “Phillip Schiff Presentation” under the tab for Settlements. 5) Google: “United Neighborhood Centers of America.” 6) If your students are required to do field work direct them to engage in organizations dealing with current social problems, e.g., homelessness, food banks, teen pregnancy, poverty, immigrants, etc.

Good luck with your practice. Jack Hansan

Thanks for a great article. I have been involved in settlement house programs for a number of years beginning in the 1960 while in undergraduate school and then later during and after my MSW at Washington Univ. in St Louis Mo. Now late in life I find my self on a settlement house board of directors who is trying to re program an organization that lost its way. Do any of you have suggestions to update my knowledge of what kind of programs are operating in contemporary settlement houses. We are in Brownsville Texas at the Texas Mexico boarder.

Any suggestions will be most appreciated.

Dear Jack White: I am pleased to reply to your comment. I started to work in a Kansas City, Mo. neighborhood center in 1950 and received my MSW in Social Group Work from the Univ. of PA in 1956. While I have been retired for many years, I have created the SWH Project and it has helped me keep up to date on the history of settlement houses. In response to your question I have several suggestions: 1) the successor of the National Federation of Settlements & Neighborhood Centers is the “United Neighborhood Centers of America.” It recently merged with the Alliance however, it would be a good place to start your search for help or resources. Another suggestion is to contact the United Neighborhood House of New York, or Northeaster PA. If you search for United Neighborhood Houses you will learn several areas of the US have such organizations.

Good luck in locating some help. Regards, Jack Hansan

Dear Mr. Hansan,
In my field of clinical social work we are so entrenched in the notion of individual pathology that it is next to impossible to find support for the idea that doing what we can to focus on the health of families and neighborhoods and the social and economic policies that effect them, is always a part of our work. And listening to the people we serve to better understand what they need! Thank you for reminding me of why I got into social work in the first place.

Thank you for the nice comment. Jack Hansan

Mr. Hansan,
I am attending school at the older than average student age of 46 for social work. I have read and enjoyed your writing on Settlement Houses. I think my plans for social work may have hung a sharp left. Terima kasih banyak.

Thanks for the nice comment. If you follow through, contact the director of United Neighborhood Centers of America. He would be interested in communicating with you. Regards, Jack Hansan

John.. what year did you write the article ” The settlement House Movement”? Thanks. Raymond Sims.

Dear Raymond Sims: It is difficult to put a time frame on that article. I started working in a neighborhood house in K.C. Mo in 1950 and with the exception of two years active duty during the Korean War I continued to work in settlements until 1965. During that time I acquired a great deal of knowledge about settlements and their contribution to American social welfare. If it is important, I can tell you when the article was posted on the SWH web site. Warm regards, Jack Hansan

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