F/O Claydon Posting Telegram, 1942

F/O Claydon Posting Telegram, 1942

F/O Claydon Posting Telegram, 1942

Di sini kita melihat kecepatan perubahan karir masa perang, seperti yang C.W.J. Claydon diperintahkan untuk mengurangi cuti dan mengambil pos baru yang bertanggung jawab atas Toko Medis di RAF Ballykelly di Irlandia Utara, mulai tanggal 4 Januari 1943.

Terima kasih banyak kepada Peter Claydon karena telah mengirimkan foto-foto ini, yang merupakan milik ayahnya, C.W.J. Claydon, yang menghabiskan sebagian besar perang sebagai petugas medis dengan Skuadron No.120 di Ballykelly, Irlandia Utara.


Laporan Kantor Pos tentang Lokasi Situs, 1837–1950

Gedung Arsip Nasional di Washington, DC, menampung formulir laporan yang masih ada yang dikirim ke kepala kantor pos yang mencari informasi untuk Kantor Topografi untuk digunakan dalam menyusun peta rute pos.

Catatan ini telah direproduksi sebagai Mikrofilm M1126, Catatan Lokasi Situs Departemen Kantor Pos, 1837–1955 (683 gulungan). M1126 telah didigitalkan dan tersedia secara online melalui Katalog Arsip Nasional (Pengidentifikasi Arsip Nasional 608210).


F/O Claydon Posting Telegram, 1942 - Sejarah

Untuk berkontribusi ke situs ini, lihat item menu "Tentang" di atas.

Transkripsi ini mungkin mengandung kesalahan manusia.
Seperti biasa, konfirmasikan ini, seperti yang Anda lakukan pada materi sumber lainnya.

Obituari Telegram
1942

Crocker, Margaret Sarah
Meninggal dunia dengan tenang pada pukul 13.30 WIB. pada Minggu, 23 November 1942, Margaret Sarah, putri mendiang A.J. & Ny. Crocker. Pemakaman pada hari Selasa, 24 November 1942 @ 15:30 dengan mobil mobil jenazah dari kediaman mendiangnya, 90 Bond St.

Kirkland, Mrs. George William
Meninggal kemarin sore pukul 4.20, Nyonya George William Kirkland, berusia 75 tahun meninggalkan untuk berkabung empat putra (tiga di Nfld, dan satu di AS) tiga saudara perempuan (dua di AS dan satu di Kanada) juga sebelas cucu. Pemakaman besok Selasa pukul 14:30 dari kediaman almarhumnya, 265 Hamilton Avenue.

Dinding, John J.
Meninggal dunia dengan tenang pada pukul 02.30 WIB. pada hari Minggu, setelah sakit sebentar, John J. Wall (cooper) pergi untuk berkabung istri, tiga anak perempuan. Pemakaman pada hari Selasa pukul 14:30 dari kediaman almarhumnya, 168 LeMarchant Road. (Tidak ada bunga).

Halaman disumbangkan oleh Sandra Churchill

Halaman Revisi oleh Ivy F. Benoit (Sabtu 29 Mei 2021)

Grand Bank Newfoundland adalah usaha nirlaba.
Tidak ada bagian dari proyek ini yang boleh direproduksi dalam bentuk apa pun
untuk tujuan apa pun selain penggunaan pribadi.

© Newfoundland's Grand Banks (1999-2021)

CATATAN:
Anda dapat mencari di seluruh situs NGB
dengan menggunakan pencarian [Google] di bawah ini.


Kuesioner mantan tawanan Perang Alan Birley Bateman, bagian 1

Di bawah ini adalah kuesioner Mantan Tawanan Perang Alan Bateman, yang diisi oleh Alan setelah dibebaskan, merinci kamp tawanan perang dan rumah sakit tempat dia ditahan, dan informasi yang dapat digunakan untuk mengajukan tuntutan Kejahatan Perang terhadap musuh. Sampai saat ini, dokumen-dokumen ini adalah Top Secret, dan aslinya disimpan di Arsip Nasional di Kew, London.

Banyak, banyak terima kasih kepada Soren Flenstead yang menyelenggarakan situs luar biasa, Airwar over Denmark

Situs ini memiliki sejumlah besar informasi yang mengkatalogkan awak penerbang Inggris dan Amerika yang terbang di atas Denmark selama Perang Dunia 2 dan dalam banyak kasus kehilangan nyawa mereka di Denmark dan laut sekitarnya. Situs Soren's tentu layak untuk dilihat.

Bagikan ini:

Seperti ini:


Kisah Nyata dari Masa Lalu Kanton: Telegram ke 138 High Street

Julius Hollander tiba di New York City pada tanggal 5 April 1938. Perjalanan dari Rotterdam berjalan lancar, terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa U-boat Jerman sering menargetkan kapal militer dan penumpang, membuat penyeberangan ke Amerika Serikat menjadi sangat berbahaya. Kembali di Amsterdam, saudara laki-laki Julius, Walter, berada di kamp pengungsi Yahudi dan sedang menunggu keberangkatan untuk bergabung dengan saudaranya. Kedua pria itu melihat bahwa melarikan diri dari Nazi sangat penting untuk kelangsungan hidup mereka sendiri dan keluarga mereka.

Pada Desember 1939, Walter dikeluarkan dari kamp karena ia telah memperoleh visa dan tiket ke Amerika Serikat. Kedua saudara itu berpendidikan baik dan telah menerima ”pendidikan yang menyeluruh dalam bisnis”. Mereka berasal dari Aachen, Jerman — di perbatasan Belanda dan Belgia. Di Aachen mereka adalah pengusaha terhormat dan pernah menjadi anggota dewan di beberapa organisasi amal. Di Amerika ada keamanan bagi orang-orang Yahudi ini, tetapi juga pengaturan ulang. Pekerjaan yang akan mereka lakukan di sini jauh lebih kasar dan bayarannya sedikit.

Walter akhirnya bekerja sebagai buruh di E.F. Dodge Company di Leominster dengan bayaran $20 per minggu. Julius sedikit lebih baik tiba di Kanton sekitar tahun 1940, dia mengambil pekerjaan malam merawat tungku di Canton Japanning Company di Neponset Street. Julius dibayar 60 sen per jam dan akan membawa pulang $28 seminggu. Kedua bersaudara itu menemukan kamar sewaan kecil di komunitas masing-masing. Kulit paten buatan japannery dan terletak di tempat taman industri kecil sekarang berada di Jalan Neponset, tepat saat Anda meninggalkan Kanton di sebelah kiri.

Di Kanton, ada komunitas Yahudi kecil dan berpengaruh yang bekerja untuk saling membantu dengan latar belakang sentimen anti-imigrasi yang meningkat. Lingkungan di jalan-jalan High dan Tolman adalah rumah bagi keluarga Myers, Sherr, Danovitch dan Swardlick. Keluarga Swardlick adalah keturunan Rusia, Polandia, dan Lituania dan datang ke Kanton sebelum tahun 1920. Mereka pernah tinggal di Tolman Street dan membeli sebuah rumah kecil di 138 High Street pada tahun 1921. Pada tahun 1927, Max Swardlick hancur dalam kecelakaan lift di Plymouth Rubber , meninggalkan istrinya, Mary, dengan enam anak. Salah satu anak, Sam, akan menjadi presiden Republic Plumbing. Pada akhir 1930-an Sam kuliah di Northeastern University dan Mary menyewa sebuah kamar di rumah itu. Dari tahun 1941 hingga 1942, itu adalah rumah tempat Julius mengetik surat yang gagal mengubah jalannya sejarah.

Tujuan tunggal pria berusia 47 tahun itu adalah untuk menyelamatkan keluarganya. Seluruh tabungannya dimaksudkan untuk “membeli” kebebasan ibu, saudara perempuan, dan kedua keponakannya. Adik ipar Julius, Otto, semakin takut tinggal di Belanda setelah pindah dari Frankfurt, Jerman, untuk menghindari pergeseran gelap politik dan penganiayaan terhadap orang-orang Yahudi. Pada Mei 1940, keluarga itu terperangkap di Amsterdam oleh pendudukan Jerman di Belanda.

Pada bulan April 1941, Otto menulis kepada seorang teman, "Siapa yang tahu apakah masih ada kesempatan untuk meninggalkan Eropa pada saat surat ini akan tiba." Pada saat yang sama, Julius sedang duduk di kamarnya di High Street di depan mesin tik dan bekerja atas nama saudara iparnya dan keluarga. “Saya mendapat informasi bahwa visa transit untuk Kuba tersedia lagi,” tulisnya. “Saya akan sangat menghargai jika Anda mau membantu saya mendapatkan visa untuk Tuan Otto Frank sesegera mungkin.”

Telegram Western Union yang menandakan peluang bagi keluarga Frank

Julius dan Walter adalah paman Anne Frank dan mereka bekerja keras untuk mengamankan kebebasan dan kehidupan mereka. Seperti yang ditulis oleh seorang sejarawan, “Prospek untuk dapat membawa keluarga mereka ke Amerika Serikat memberikan tujuan bagi pekerjaan mereka.” Akumulasi tabungan mereka adalah $2.900. Untuk mendapatkan visa AS, Belanda harus membuktikan bahwa mereka dapat mendukung lima orang dengan upah buruh mereka. Ini akan terbukti tidak mungkin. Pada saat yang sama, Otto Frank memiliki seorang teman yang sangat berpengaruh di Amerika yang dapat membantu, dan Julius Hollander adalah kunci komunikasi yang terjadi.

Otto Frank pernah menjadi teman sekamar dengan Charley Straus, pewaris Macy's. Pada tahun 1907 Frank dan Straus bertemu saat Straus sedang cuti dari Princeton dan belajar di Heidelberg. Selama bertahun-tahun mereka tetap berhubungan dan bahkan berlibur bersama. Charley mengubah namanya menjadi Nathan Straus Jr. dan ketika kekayaannya meningkat, ia menjadi sangat berpengaruh dan menjadi teman Franklin Roosevelt. Straus adalah kepala Otoritas Perumahan A.S., agen New Deal, dan terhubung dengan sangat baik. Frank menceritakan kepada temannya, "Anda adalah satu-satunya orang yang saya tahu yang dapat saya tanyakan: Apakah mungkin bagi Anda untuk memberikan uang jaminan untuk saya?"

Pada tanggal 1 Juli 1941, undang-undang imigrasi berubah dan Strauss menulis kepada Frank, "Saya khawatir, bagaimanapun, berita itu bukanlah kabar baik." Sebuah strategi baru muncul. Di sini, di Kanton, Julius Hollander akan menjadi kunci untuk membantu keluarga Frank menemukan jalan keluar dari Belanda yang diduduki Nazi. Julius menulis kepada Strauss, "Tidak mungkin bagi saya untuk mendapatkan visa imigrasi untuk negara ini tanpa bantuan Anda."

Rencana yang muncul adalah untuk mendapatkan visa transit dari Kuba dengan biaya tinggi berupa visa pengunjung sebesar $250, tiket kapal untuk keluarga sebesar $550, dan obligasi sebesar $2.500 per orang yang akan dikembalikan setelah mereka meninggalkan Kuba. Seluruh keluarga harus pergi ke Kuba dan mengajukan visa untuk memasuki Amerika Serikat. Strauss telah berjanji untuk mengatur deposit bank sebesar $2.000 per orang dewasa dan obligasi yang diperlukan serta tiket yang diperlukan untuk perjalanan. Uang itu akan berjumlah beberapa ribu dolar untuk menjamin kehidupan seluruh keluarga.

Pada hari Kamis, 27 November 1941, sebuah Telegram Western Union diterima di kantor telegraf Kanton dan dikirim ke Julius Hollander di High Street: “Jika Anda dan saudara Anda memulai negosiasi untuk visa Kuba … Nyonya Straus bersedia melakukan setoran yang diperlukan seperti yang ditunjukkan … untuk Otto Edith Margot Anna Frank. Terserah Anda untuk memulai jika tertarik. ”

Pasti ada kebahagiaan hati-hati, yang hancur 11 hari kemudian ketika Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbor. Pada 11 Desember Amerika Serikat memasuki perang dan aplikasi Julius Hollander untuk visa Kuba Otto Frank dibatalkan pada hari yang sama. Ketika penganiayaan terhadap penduduk Yahudi meningkat pada tanggal 4 Agustus 1944, keluarga Frank bersembunyi di beberapa ruangan tersembunyi di balik rak buku di gedung tempat Otto Frank bekerja.

Otto Frank selamat dari kengerian Auschwitz dan meninggal di Swiss pada 1980. Edith, istrinya, meninggal karena kelaparan di Auschwitz. Anne dan Margot meninggal karena tifus dalam beberapa hari satu sama lain di Bergen-Belsen. Pada pertengahan 2005, seorang sukarelawan penelitian menemukan sebuah file di folder manilla di YIVO: The Institute for Jewish Research. File itu ditandai "Otto Frank." Melihat ke dalam folder, dia melihat nama dan tanggal lahir anak perempuan dan menyadari bahwa ini adalah ayah Anne Frank. Di dalam file ada surat-surat dan korespondensi dari Kanton. Surat-surat itu mengungkapkan untuk pertama kalinya bahwa Otto Frank berusaha mati-matian untuk mengeluarkan keluarganya dari Belanda yang dilanda perang pada tahun 1941, 15 bulan sebelum mereka bersembunyi.

Ada tiga huruf dalam file yang mengakhiri cerita. Pada bulan Juni 1945, Julius meminta bantuan kepada Departemen Migrasi National Refugee Service untuk menghubungi orang-orang Frank, karena telah diberitahu secara keliru bahwa mereka masih hidup dan tinggal di Paris. Surat kedua datang ke Julius pada tahun 1946. Layanan Pengungsi Nasional menulis dengan informasi bahwa Otto Frank ada di Amsterdam, Edith sudah meninggal, dan putrinya masih hilang. Surat terakhir pada Februari 1946 menutup kisah itu, ketika Julius memberi tahu Layanan Pengungsi bahwa ia telah menemukan saudara iparnya di Amsterdam. Hanya Otto yang selamat.

Koneksi ke Canton adalah pengingat yang tak terhapuskan dari genosida yang berusaha untuk membasmi seluruh orang dari dunia ini. Rumah di High Street adalah tempat bersejarah yang penting di mana harapan dan kegigihan Julius Hollander dihancurkan oleh peristiwa dunia dan di mana bahkan yang paling kuat pun tidak dapat campur tangan. Kata-kata Anne Frank bergema hingga hari ini: “Di mana ada harapan, di situ ada kehidupan. Itu mengisi kami dengan keberanian baru dan membuat kami kuat lagi.”


Silsilah Bridgeport (di Fairfield County, CT)

CATATAN: Catatan tambahan yang berlaku untuk Bridgeport juga ditemukan melalui halaman Fairfield County dan Connecticut.

Catatan Kelahiran Bridgeport

Catatan Pemakaman Bridgeport

Pemakaman Lakeview Miliaran Kuburan

Pemakaman Mountain Grove Miliaran Kuburan

Pembroke Pembroke Miliaran Kuburan

Pemakaman St Michael Miliaran Kuburan

Catatan Sensus Bridgeport

Sensus Federal Amerika Serikat, 1790-1940 Pencarian Keluarga

Catatan Gereja Bridgeport

Direktori Kota Bridgeport

Direktori kota Bridgeport, termasuk Stratford, Fairfield dan Southport - 1879 Genealogy Gophers

Buku biru Dau untuk New Haven, Bridgeport, Waterbury (Connecticut), 1913 Connecticut State Library

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres 1960/1961

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres 1961/1962

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres 1962/1963

White Pages dan Yellow Pages, Bridegeport, Februari 1939 sampai Desember 1939 Perpustakaan Kongres

White Pages dan Yellow Pages, Bridegeport, Februari 1951 sampai Mei 1952 Perpustakaan Kongres

White Pages dan Yellow Pages, Bridegeport, Juli 1943 sampai Agustus 1945 Perpustakaan Kongres

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres Juli 1953

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres Juni 1958

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres Juni 1959

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres Mei 1954

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres Mei 1955

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres Mei 1956

Halaman Putih dan Halaman Kuning, Bridegeport, Perpustakaan Kongres Mei 1957

White Pages dan Yellow Pages, Bridegeport, November 1936 sampai Juni 1938 Perpustakaan Kongres

White Pages dan Yellow Pages, Bridegeport, Oktober 1940 sampai Juli 1942 Perpustakaan Kongres

White Pages dan Yellow Pages, Bridegeport, Oktober 1946 sampai Januari 1948 Perpustakaan Kongres

White Pages dan Yellow Pages, Bridegeport, Oktober 1948 sampai Desember 1950 Perpustakaan Kongres

Catatan Kematian Bridgeport

Sejarah dan Silsilah Bridgeport

Sejarah kota tua Stratford dan kota Bridgeport, Connecticut v. 1 Genealogy Gophers

Sejarah kota tua Stratford dan kota Bridgeport, Connecticut v. 2 Genealogy Gophers

Sejarah Bridgeport dan sekitarnya V.2 Genealogy Gophers

Bab-bab terpilih tentang sejarah Bridgeport Connecticut State Library

Bab-bab terpilih tentang sejarah Bridgeport Connecticut State Library

Catatan Imigrasi Bridgeport

Connecticut, daftar penumpang dan kru, Pencarian Keluarga 1804-1959

Catatan Tanah Bridgeport

Catatan Peta Bridgeport

Bridgeport 1875 Bird's Eye View Peta Pekerjaan Peta Bersejarah

Bridgeport 1876 Peta Pekerjaan Peta Bersejarah

Bridgeport 1888 Peta Pekerjaan Peta Bersejarah

Bridgeport 1910 Peta Pekerjaan Peta Bersejarah

Bridgeport 1917 Peta Pekerjaan Peta Bersejarah

Peta kota Bridgeport, Conn., Perpustakaan Kongres 1850

Peta Asuransi Kebakaran Sanborn dari Bridgeport, Fairfield County, Connecticut, Perpustakaan Kongres 1889

Peta Asuransi Kebakaran Sanborn dari Bridgeport, Fairfield County, Connecticut, Perpustakaan Kongres 1898

Peta Asuransi Kebakaran Sanborn dari Bridgeport, Fairfield County, Connecticut, Perpustakaan Kongres Maret 1884

Lihat peta Bridgeport, Ct. 1875. Perpustakaan Kongres

Catatan Pernikahan Bridgeport

Catatan Militer Bridgeport

Database Pensiun Mulia (pensiun untuk Veteran Sipil dan Spanyol Amerika) Perpustakaan Negara Bagian Connecticut

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Bridgeport

American Telegraphe 04/08/1795 hingga 06/06/1804 Genealogy Bank

Pengiklan Bridgeport 06/05/1806 hingga 01/05/1809 Bank Silsilah

Bridgeport CT Evening Farmer 1909-1917 Sejarah Fulton

Bridgeport Evening Farmer 16/10/1876 hingga 12/30/1922 Bank Silsilah

Bridgeport Gazette 27/06/1810 hingga 01/09/1811 Bank Silsilah

Bridgeport Herald 03/07/1805 hingga 01/09/1806 Bank Silsilah

Bridgeport Herald, 1897-1910 Arsip Berita Google

Bridgeport Morning News, 1885-1891 Arsip Berita Google

Bridgeport News, The: Artikel Edisi Web 14/03/2012 hingga 06/03/2018 Genealogy Bank

Bridgeport Post 1947-1948, 1951-1977 Arsip Surat Kabar di FindMyPast

Bridgeport Post 1947-1977 Newspapers.com

Standar Bridgeport 19/02/1857 hingga 30/12/1876 Bank Silsilah

Bridgeport Standard Telegram 1919 Arsip Surat Kabar di FindMyPast

Arsip Surat Kabar Bridgeport Sunday Post 1952 di FindMyPast

Bridgeport Telegram 1918-1928, 1947-1948, 1951-1952, 1954-1960, 1962-1977 Arsip Surat Kabar di FindMyPast

Bridgeport Telegram 1918-1977 Newspapers.com

Bridgeport Times dan Evening Farmer 1909-1917 Newspapers.com

Connecticut Courier 08/03/1814 hingga 14/06/1826 Bank Silsilah

Connecticut Post 21/05/2001 hingga 30/06/2002 Genealogy Bank

Connecticut Post 18/09/2001 ke Bank Silsilah Saat Ini

Connecticut Post: Artikel Edisi Web 28/11/2015 ke Bank Silsilah Saat Ini

Humming Bird, atau Herald of Taste 14/04/1798 hingga 14/07/1798 Bank Silsilah

La Tribuna del Connecticut 03/03/1906 hingga 12/09/1908 Bank Silsilah

La sentinella = 17/4/1920 hingga 20/12/1930 Bank Silsilah

La sentinella = Penjaga. (Bridgeport, Conn.) (dari 17 April 1920 hingga 27 Desember 1930) Chronicling America

La tribuna del Connecticut. (Bridgeport, Conn.) (dari 3 Maret 1906 hingga 9 Desember 1908) Mencatat Amerika

Petani Republik 25/04/1810 hingga 11/08/1876 Bank Silsilah

Petani Republik 1909-1920 Newspapers.com

Spirit of the Times 10/06/1830 hingga 26/09/1832 Bank Silsilah

Sunday Herald, 1890-1897, 1949-1963 Arsip Berita Google

Petani malam Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) (dari 2 Januari 1909 hingga 31 Desember 1917) Mencatat Amerika

Waktu Bridgeport dan petani malam. (Bridgeport, Conn.) (dari 1 Januari 1918 hingga 30 Desember 1922) Mencatat Amerika

Koran Offline untuk Bridgeport

Menurut Direktori Surat Kabar AS, surat kabar berikut dicetak, jadi mungkin ada salinan kertas atau mikrofilm yang tersedia. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut tentang cara menemukan surat kabar offline, lihat artikel kami tentang Menemukan Surat Kabar Offline.

Ulasan Afri-Suara. ([Bridgeport, Conn.]) 1991-Saat ini

Ulasan Afro-Suara. ([Bridgeport, Conn.]) 1988-1991

Suar. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1931-1942

Berita Batu Hitam. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1988-1989

Standar Harian Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1860-1861

Standar Harian Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1869-1891

Elang Jembatan. (Bridgeport, Ct) 1990-Saat ini

Petani Malam Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1866-1917

Berita Malam Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1892-1895

Pos Malam Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1893-1906

Standar Malam Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1861-1869

Bridgeport Evening Star dan Evening Herald. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1920-1921

Bridgeport Herald. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1926-1934

Bridgeport Independen. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1878-1879

Lampu Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Kt) 1988-1990

Bridgeport Messenger. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1831-1832

Berita Pagi Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1882-1892

Telegram Pagi Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1906-1908

Berita Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1989-2009

Pos Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1906-1992

Standar Jembatan. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1891-1917

Bintang Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1898-1908

Bintang Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1921-1926

Bridgeport Matahari. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1870-an-1880-an

Telegram Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1908-1977

Telegram Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1988-1990

Bridgeport Times dan Petani Malam. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1918-1924

Bridgeport Times, Petani Malam. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1925-1926

Bridgeport Times, Bintang Bridgeport. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1926-1927

Bridgeport Times. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1924-1925

Kurir Connecticut. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1810-an-1820-an

Connecticut Patriot. (Bridgeport, Con[N].) 1826-1828

Pos Connecticut. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1992-Saat ini

Pengiklan Harian dan Petani. (Bridgeport [Samb.]) 1856-1861

Pemimpin Harian. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1883-1893

Serikat Harian. (Bridgeport, Conn) 1891-1895

Petani Sore. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1864-1866

Sore Herald. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1919-1920

Pos Sore. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1880-an-1893

Bintang malam. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1847-1849

Pengacara Kabupaten Fairfield. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1981-1993

Mandiri. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1890-1893

Pemimpin. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1872-1883

Penjaga Kota May. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1871-1870-an

Berita Pagi. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1879-1882

Pagi Telegram-Union. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1901-1906

Telegram pagi. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1890-an-1901

Persatuan Pagi. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1895-1901

Standar Republik. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1839-1913

Standar-Amerika. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1917-1919

Matahari. (Bridgeport [Sambungan]) 1880-an-1890

Minggu Elang. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1880-1881

Minggu Herald. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1930-an-1960-an

Minggu Herald. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1934-1960-an

Minggu Herald. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1934-1965

Telegram. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1977-1988

Times-Star. (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1927-1930-an

Catatan Pengesahan Bridgeport

Catatan Probate Connecticut Awal (sebelum 1750) Leluhur Amerika

Catatan Pengesahan dari Fairfield County, Connecticut, 1704-1757 Leluhur Amerika

Catatan Sekolah Bridgeport

Penambahan atau koreksi pada halaman ini? Kami menyambut saran Anda melalui halaman Hubungi Kami


Surat Kabar dan Obituari Dutchess County NY

CATATAN: Catatan tambahan yang berlaku untuk Dutchess County juga ada di halaman New York Newspapers and Obituaries.

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Dutchess County

Kutipan dari Pemberitahuan Pernikahan dari Dutchess County, New York Newspapers 1826-1851 American History and Genealogy Project

Koran dan Obituarium Amenia

Amenia NY Harlem Valley Times 1913-2007 Sejarah Fulton

Amenia NY Times 1852-1914 Sejarah Fulton

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Barrytown

Surat Kabar Beacon dan Obituari

Beacon NY Daily Herald 1913-1927 Sejarah Fulton

Beacon NY News 1927-1975 Sejarah Fulton

Berita Minggu, 1982-1983 Arsip Berita Google

Surat Kabar Dover Plains dan Obituari

Koran Fishkill dan Obituari

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Millbrook

Meja Bundar Millbrook NY 1897-2000 Sejarah Fulton

Meja bundar Millbrook. Millbrook, NY 1892-08-20 hingga 1904-12-23 Surat Kabar Bersejarah NYS

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Millerton

Millerton News 1981-1981 Perpustakaan Memorial Scoville

Pawling Koran dan Obituari

Pawling NY Alliance 1891 Fulton History

Pawling NY Chronicle 1895-1933 Sejarah Fulton

Jurnal Pawling NY 1889-1892 Sejarah Fulton

Pawling NY Patterson News Chronicle 1901-1925 Sejarah Fulton

Pawling NY Pioneer 1870-1887 Sejarah Fulton

Pawling NY Recorder 1899-1900 Sejarah Fulton

Pawling NY Republik 1910-1911 Sejarah Fulton

Koran dan Obituari Pine Plains

Pine Plaines NY Daftar Herald 1859-2005 Sejarah Fulton

Pine Planes NY Daftarkan Herald Fulton History

Koran dan Obituarium Poughkeepsie

Petani Amerika, dan Pengiklan Dutchess County 20/12/1798 ke 07/22/1800 Genealogy Bank

Jurnal Negara 15/12/1785 hingga 07/07/1789 Bank Silsilah

Petani Belanda 19/09/1871 hingga 22/08/1876 Bank Silsilah

Dutchess Observer 24/07/1816 hingga 26/04/1826 Bank Silsilah

Petani 29/04/1806 hingga 02/03/1807 Bank Silsilah

Surat Kabar Sejarah Lembah Sungai Hudson, termasuk The Vassar Miscellany Weekly (surat kabar Vassar College), 1914-2001 Warisan Lembah Sungai Hudson

Kemerdekaan 02/08/1832 hingga 01/29/1834 Bank Silsilah

Jurnal New-York, atau, Pengiklan Umum 20/07/1778 hingga 19/11/1781 Genealogy Bank

Barometer Politik 08/06/1802 hingga 21/08/1811 Bank Silsilah

Poughkeepsie Eagle-Berita 1861-1942 Newspapers.com

Poughkeepsie Eagle-News, 1861-1942 Jurnal Poughkeepsie

Jurnal Poughkeepsie 14/07/1789 hingga 13/12/1845 Bank Silsilah

Jurnal Poughkeepsie 1785-2020 Newspapers.com

Jurnal Poughkeepsie, 1785-2021 Jurnal Poughkeepsie

Poughkeepsie NY Daily Eagle 1861-1937 Sejarah Fulton

Poughkeepsie NY Evening Star and Enterprise 1936-1941 Sejarah Fulton

Poughkeepsie NY New Yorker 1941 Fulton Sejarah

Poughkeepsie eagle, dua kali seminggu. Poughkeepsie, NY 1889-12-28 hingga 1917-01-05 Surat Kabar Bersejarah NYS

Elang Poughkeepsie. Poughkeepsie, NY 1835-04-22 hingga 1843-12-30 Surat Kabar Bersejarah NYS

Elang Poughkeepsie. Poughkeepsie, NY 1889-01-02 hingga 1889-12-25 NYS Surat Kabar Bersejarah

Perusahaan malam Pokeepsie. Poughkeepsie, NY 1895-07-01 hingga 1917-09-29 NYS Surat Kabar Bersejarah

Elang Poughkeepsie. Poughkeepsie, NY 1862-08-02 hingga 1867-02-02 NYS Surat Kabar Bersejarah

Elang semi-mingguan dan telegraf berita Poughkeepsie. Poughkeepsie, NY 1917-01-09 hingga 1917-05-29 Surat Kabar Bersejarah NYS

Ulster Republican 01/06/1836 hingga 18/11/1836 Bank Silsilah

Koran Red Hook dan Obituari

Red Hook NY Journal 1859-1917 Sejarah Fulton

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Rhinebeck

Rhinebeck NY Gazette 1846-1988 Sejarah Fulton

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Wappingers Falls

Surat Kabar dan Obituari Washington

Tribun Nasional 1903-1903 Perpustakaan Umum Allegany

Koran Offline untuk Dutchess County

Menurut Direktori Surat Kabar AS, surat kabar berikut dicetak di daerah ini, jadi mungkin ada salinan kertas atau mikrofilm yang tersedia. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut tentang cara menemukan surat kabar offline, lihat artikel kami tentang Menemukan Surat Kabar Offline.

Amenia: Waktu Amenia. (Amenia, NY) 1852-1912

Barrytown: Penjelajah Barrytown. (Barrytown, NY) 1958-1982

Suar: Berita Suar. (Beacon, NY) 1927-1959

Pembunuhan Ikan: Pembunuh Ikan Harian Herald. (Fishkill-On-Hudson, NY) 1895-1913

Fishkill: Jurnal Pembunuhan Ikan. (Pembunuhan Ikan, NY) 1854-1855

Millbrook: Cermin Millbrook dan Meja Bundar. (Millbrook, Dutchess County, NY) 1905-1935

Millbrook: Meja Bundar Millbrook. (Millbrook, Dutchess County, NY) 1935-1970

Millbrook: Meja Bundar Millbrook. (Millbrook, NY) 1972-Saat ini

Millerton: Berita-Republik. (Millerton, NY) 1944-1960

Pawling: Kronik Berita. (Pawling, N.Y.) 1982-Saat ini

Pawling: Pawling Chronicle. (Pawling, NY) 1894-1936

Pawling: Pelopor Pawling. (Pawling, NY) 1870-1890

Pawling: Pawling-Patterson News dan Gabungan Berita Dover-Wingdale. (Pawling, NY) 1931-1936

Pawling: Pawling-Patterson News-Chronicle. (Pawling, NY) 1936-1939

Pine Plains: Pine Plains Herald. (Pine Plains, NY) 1859-1926

Dataran Pinus: Daftar Dataran Pinus dan Herald. (Pine Plains, NY) 1926-1928

Dataran Pinus: Daftar Dataran Pinus. (Pine Plains, NY) 1882-1893

Dataran Pinus: Daftar Dataran Pinus. (Pine Plains, NY) 1910-1926

Pine Plains: Daftar Mingguan Pine Plains. (Pine Plains, NY) 1893-1910

Dataran Pinus: Daftar dan Herald. (Pine Plains, NY) 1928-1970

Lembah yang Menyenangkan: Suara Lembah yang Menyenangkan. (Lembah Menyenangkan, NY) 1969-1987

Poughkeepsie: Petani Amerika, dan Pengiklan Dutchess County. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1798-1800

Poughkeepsie: Amerika. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1845-1850

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal Negara, dan Daftar Petani Dutchess dan Ulster County. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1788-1789

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal Negara, dan Pengiklan Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1785-1788

Poughkeepsie: Pers Harian. (Poughkeepsie, [N.Y.]) 1852-1866

Poughkeepsie: Demokrat Belanda. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1854-1856

Poughkeepsie: Petani Belanda. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1869-1883

Poughkeepsie: Intelijen Belanda. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1828-1833

Poughkeepsie: Pengamat Belanda. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1815-1826

Poughkeepsie: Republik Belanda. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1831-1833

Poughkeepsie: Perusahaan Malam. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1883-1892

Poughkeepsie: Bintang Malam. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1889-1904

Poughkeepsie: Petani. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1806-1807

Poughkeepsie: Penjaga. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1801-1802

Poughkeepsie: Kurir Minggu Lembah Hudson. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1941-1942

Poughkeepsie: Kemerdekaan [Microform]. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1832-1834

Poughkeepsie: Kemerdekaan. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1832-1834

Poughkeepsie: Intelijen dan Republikan. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1833-1834

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal dan Poughkeepsie Eagle. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1848-1850

Poughkeepsie: Kesepakatan Baru. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1933-1934

Poughkeepsie: Perusahaan Malam Pokeepsie. (Pokeepsie [I.E. Poughkeepsie], NY) 1892-1918

Poughkeepsie: Barometer Politik. Volume (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1802-1811

Poughkeepsie: Poughkeepsie Amerika. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1850-1853

Poughkeepsie: Elang Harian Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1860-1915

Poughkeepsie: Berita Harian Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1871-1883

Poughkeepsie: Pers Harian Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, [N.Y.]) 1866-1883

Poughkeepsie: Poughkeepsie Eagle-Berita. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1915-1942

Poughkeepsie: Elang Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1850-1867

Poughkeepsie: Elang Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, [N.Y.]) 1834-1844

Poughkeepsie: Bintang Malam dan Perusahaan Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1918-1941

Poughkeepsie: Bintang Malam Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1904-1918

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal & Elang Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1844-1847

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal Poughkeepsie, dan Republikan Konstitusional. Volume (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1802-1815

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County [NY]) 1789-1802

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1815-1844

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1960-Saat ini

Poughkeepsie: Berita Pagi Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1868-1871

Poughkeepsie: Poughkeepsie New Yorker. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1941-1960

Poughkeepsie: Berita-Tekan Poughkeepsie. ([Poughkeepsie, NY]) 1883-1915

Poughkeepsie: Poughkeepsie News-Telegraph. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1883-1917

Poughkeepsie: Dealer Persegi Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1946-1948

Poughkeepsie: Poughkeepsie Telegraph dan Demokrat Belanda. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1856-1859

Poughkeepsie: Telegraf Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1831-1856

Poughkeepsie: Telegraf Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1859-1883

Poughkeepsie: Elang Mingguan Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1867-1888

Poughkeepsie: Berita Mingguan Poughkeepsie. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1871-1883

Poughkeepsie: Republican Herald. Volume (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1811-1823

Poughkeepsie: Jurnal Republik. Volume (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1795-1796

Poughkeepsie: Telegraf & Pengamat Republik. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1826-1831

Poughkeepsie: Telegraf Republik. (Poughkeepsie [N.Y.]) 1824-1826

Poughkeepsie: Kurir Minggu. (Poughkeepsie, NY) 1872-1941

Kait Merah: Pengiklan Kait Merah. (Kait Merah, NY) 1923-1969

Kait Merah: Jurnal Kait Merah. ([Kait Merah, NY]) 1866-1917

Kait Merah: Kali Kait Merah. (Kait Merah, NY) 1917-1923

Red Hook: Jurnal Mingguan Red Hook. (Kait Merah [N.Y.]) 1859-1866

Rhinebeck: Pengiklan Lembaran. (Rhinebeck, NY) 1972-Saat ini

Rhinebeck: Rhinebeck Gazette dan Red Hook Times. (Rhinebeck, NY) 1923-1932

Rhinebeck: Lembaran Rhinebeck. (Rhinebeck, NY) 1863-1923

Rhinebeck: Lembaran Rhinebeck. (Rhinebeck, NY) 1932-1969

Rhinebeck: Tribune Rhinebeck. (Rhinebeck, NY) 1869-1872

Tivoli: Tivoli Times. (Tivoli, Dutchess County, NY) 1897-1917

Wappingers Falls: Berita Belanda Selatan. (Wappingers Falls, NY) 1967-Saat ini

Wappingers Falls: Wappingers & Berita Belanda Selatan. (Wappingers Falls, NY) 1956-1967

Video Cara Menggunakan Situs Ini

Peta New York

Kabupaten Dutchess ditampilkan dalam warna merah

Tip Penelitian

Koran bisa menjadi harta karun informasi bagi leluhur Anda. Pastikan untuk mencari surat kabar di kota/kota tempat tinggal leluhur Anda, serta daerah sekitarnya. Obituari umumnya diterbitkan sekitar tahun 1890 atau lebih baru, meskipun di beberapa daerah mereka dicetak sebelumnya. Pemberitahuan kematian dan pernikahan mungkin muncul lebih awal.


Retret dari Burma, 1941-42

Redaktur Umum
Bisheshwar Prasad, D. Litt.

Bagian Historis Antar-Layanan Gabungan
(India & Pakistan)
1954

Kata pengantar

Each major war in the past has engaged the attention of historians who have brought under review the trend of operations and examined the forces and influences which prompted large masses of humanity to diverge from their normal pursuits of peaceful avocations. This tendency is a necessary corollary to the importance attached to political history, for have not wars in the past affected the whole course of political, economic and social life of humanity at large? An important object of military history, however, is to examine the developments in the science of strategy and tactics and trace their influence on the defence organisation of states. In the present century, two global wars following each other within the span of two generations, and working tremendous changes in the life patterns of the world, have been the subject of study from various angles--some of these sponsored by governments and this has resulted in the preparation and production of numerous accounts depicting prominently the part played by participant nations.

Much before the conclusion of the Second World War, the Government of India had decided to set up an organisation attached to the Chief of the General Staff for collecting and collating records with a view to writing the history of the operations in which Indian forces had participated. The beginning was made with one officer, but by the time the war had come to a close, the cell had expanded into the War Department Historical Section. Subsequent to the partition of India, it was agreed upon by the Dominions of India and Pakistan that the project of recording the glorious achievements of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War should continue as a joint venture of the two states that this combined organisation should function under a civilian historian and that it should be named the Combined Inter-Services Historical Section, India and Pakistan. This joint body was chartered to produce the official history of the party played by the pre-partition India and its armed forces in the World War of 1939-1945. The narratives were to deal with military operations and organisational activities, and were to provide a truthful, analysed record of the operations carried out by our armed forces, so as to be an authoritative reference work for the future leaders, a field of study and guidance for the military student, and a written monument to the achievements of the forces who served.

Keeping in view these fundamental purposes, a history in about twenty volumes was planned it has been divided into three series, viz. the campaigns in the western theatre the campaigns in the eastern theatre and the activities pertaining to organisation and administration. The campaign volumes narrate the part played by the Indian armed forces in Africa, Italy, the Middle East, Burma and South-East Asia, but while doing so, the achievements of the forces of the Allied nations fighting alongside have also been sufficiently highlighted, for the operations have been studied as a whole in their geographical setting. The volumes relating to the campaigns in the western theatre cover the theatres of war

in North Africa and the Western Desert East Africa the Middle East, comprising Iraq, Syria and Iran and Sicily, Italy and Greece. The other series gives the story of the war in the east, beginning with the conquest of Hong Kong, Malaya, Borneo and Burma by the Japanese to the recovery of these countries by the Allied nations. Two volumes have been assigned to the reverses while three volumes cover the story of the reconquest of Arakan and Central Burma. The activities of the Occupation Forces in Japan and South-East Asia also find a place in this series. In addition to the narratives of campaigns, volumes in the third series discuss the policy and planning of the defence of India, expansion of India's armed forces and the general headquarters, the development of technical services and supply organisation, and the war economy, including industrial production and finance. All operations have been studied from the inter-service aspect, but the history of the two infant services, the Royal Indian Air Force and the Royal Indian Navy has been traced separately also.

India's role in the war was one of subordinate co-operation, for she was not the architect of policy either in determining the influences which heralded the war or in steering its course. Her line of actin was laid down by His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, and, later, with the integration of Allied command, higher strategy was planned by the Combined Chiefs of Staffs who disposed the available supplies and war equipment among the various theatres of war. In these narratives, therefore, 'higher direction' or 'Grand Strategy' finds no place as this was the concern of Washington or London. The Government of India, under the direction of Whitehall, was however responsible for devising measures for its territorial defence, and such plans as were then formulated have been discussed in one volume. Yet, the narratives of campaigns have necessarily to be prefaced by an analysis of the general strategic plan as also the strategic appreciations and plans of the local authorities who regulated the course of the campaigns. But the treatment of strategic problems has seldom exceeded the level of the theatre or army commander, and it is form his point of view generally that this history has been written. For the spheres beyond, the reader will have inevitably to depend on the volumes on 'Grand Strategy' planned by the United Kingdom Cabinet Historical Section[*] or those in Washington[*].

We have been allowed full access to the official records of the Government of India, and the Historical Section has almost a complete set of War Diaries and despatches and reports of the commanders in the field. But, unfortunately, a large mass of high level records was destroyed at the time of transfer of power to the two Dominions, which has handicapped us in finding many important documents relating to policy and decisions. We were unable to make good this deficiency by drawing upon the resources of Whitehall, as the agreement with the War Office precluded reference to any papers beyond the army level. Within these limitations, however, we were able to derive considerable information from the War Office, the Admiralty and the Air Ministry, where our Liaison Officers worked for some years, as well as from the Cabinet Historical Section. Their co-operation, on a reciprocal basis, has been of considerable benefit in enriching our sources of knowledge. We have also received documents from the archives of Canada, Australia and New

Zealand under arrangements for mutual information on subjects of common interest. The exchange of drafts of narratives between the Commonwealth countries has been of great advantage in reducing points of controversy and eliminating wide divergences as to fact. Yet, on the whole, this history is based on the records in our possession of which free and full use has been made.

History, at best, is a narrative to present an accurate narrative of events has been our endeavour. Yet, it is not a mere chronicle of events, for we have analysed the factors and influences which have produced them and thereby interpreted facts in their correct perspective. Our view-point has been one of objectivity, but in the sifting of material subjectivity cannot altogether be eliminated in relating the exploits of our own troops we may have been at times led to emphasise their glorious achievements. Yet a panegyric is not our object and we have not hesitated to record reverses or recount inconvenient situations in which the troops were placed., However, as a civilian organisation, we have refrained from speculating on what a commander in a particular position should have done or passed judgement on his appreciation of the situation. We have marshalled facts to reconstruct the situations as we view them, and lessons as emerging from them have been deduced.

The present volume is one of the series of Campaigns in the Eastern Theatre, and narrates the circumstances in which Burma was lost to the Japanese in 1942, so soon after the start of the putsch in South-East Asia. Yet, it is not merely a story of continuous reverses but of successful retreat as well. The mettle of an army, the morale of its troops and the character of its commanders are best revealed in retreat, when the first concern is to extricate the force to enable it to fight later in better circumstances. That the army in Burma managed to save itself from the Japanese pincers and succeeded in getting behind the hills screening Assam from the land of pagodas was no mean achievement it offsets the initial inability to stop the Japanese from over-running the Valley of the Irrawaddy. Why did the disaster come? The answer to this question is to be found in the lack of effective military preparations, inadequacy of the apprehension of danger and the faulty conceptions of defence. These have been analysed in the earlier chapters, while in subsequent pages the details of operations have been given in the background of strategical and tactical plans.

In this campaign the Indian, British, Burmese and Chinese units fought side by side or in different but contiguous sectors. Hence it has been necessary to plan the story as a whole, for the strategical picture would not be made clear without bringing into full review the fighting in the different zones. The operations of the Burcorps and the Chinese Armies, therefore, find due mention in this volume. So also has an assessment been made of the work of the Royal Air Force which was somewhat conspicuous in the early stages. In the main, however, it is an account of the fighting of the Indian divisions who struggled to stem the tide of Japanese advance and who, against all odds, saved themselves from the prospect of extermination which faced them. In our analysis of the ugly situations and estimate of the facts responsible for them, some commanders may not appear in the best of lights, but it is far from our intention to deprecate their zealous endeavours to stop the Japanese on the


TELEGRAPHY AND TELEPHONES

TELEGRAPHY AND TELEPHONES. Cleveland's connection to the rest of the U.S. by telegraph line was a communications breakthrough essential to the city's commercial and industrial development. During critical years in the formation of the U.S. telegraph industry, pivotal officials resided in Cleveland. Arriving in Cleveland 3 decades after the telegraph, the telephone further altered the way Clevelanders conducted business and social intercourse. Cleveland's first telegraph line began operation between Cleveland and Pittsburgh in Aug. 1847, 3 years after Samuel F. B. Morse completed the first American line, connecting Baltimore with Washington. The Lake Erie Line, a T-shaped circuit extending from Buffalo via Cleveland to Detroit and from Cleveland to Pittsburgh, was in full operation by spring 1848. It was built by the Lake Erie Telegraph Co. as part of Henry O'Rielly's Atlantic, Lake & Mississippi Telegraph system. By summer 1848, the Lake Erie Line faced competition from the Erie & Michigan Telegraph Line extending from Buffalo to Milwaukee through Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago. John J. Speed and Ezra Cornell built the line under contract to F. O. J. Smith. Speed, in turn, subcontracted parts of the line to JEPTHA H. WADE. The telegraph, called the magnetic telegraph or lightning line, was hailed as a communications breakthrough. Its most important service was to convey news, especially business news such as stock market quotations, and political news such as election returns. But in the beginning, expectations were disappointed by poor service. Like most early telegraph lines, the Lake Erie and Erie & Michigan lines were built hastily, using cheap materials and poor insulators. The telegraph columns of the newspapers frequently contained apologies instead of the latest news.

Soon after completing his section of the Erie & Michigan telegraph, Jeptha Wade organized a connecting line between Cleveland and Cincinnati, in operation by 1 Jan. 1850. Telegraph lines proliferated in Ohio as in the rest of the U.S. by 1852 14 companies operated 3,210 mi. of telegraph wire in Ohio. There was too little business, however, to support all the rival companies. Speed, Wade, and Cornell were among the first to see the need for consolidation. The western section of the system they created appeared in the 1853 Cleveland city directory as the Speed & Wade Telegraph Lines, consisting of the Erie & Michigan, along with 4 other telegraph companies. Lake Erie Telegraph was by then part of the Natl. Telegraph Co. system. House's Printing Telegraph, a third party, arrived in Cleveland in 1851 under the auspices of the New York & Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Co., operating a line from New York to St. Louis. In Mar. 1854 the New York & Mississippi Valley Co. gained control of Lake Erie Telegraph. A month later they bought out Speed and Wade's interests in the Cornell-Speed-Wade system. Ezra Cornell held out until Nov. 1855, when the Erie & Michigan merged with the New York & Mississippi Valley. In spring 1856, the company was reincorporated as the Western Union Telegraph Co. Although Western Union headquarters were in Rochester, ANSON STAGER, general superintendent for the company, and Jeptha Wade, general agent or negotiator, relocated to Cleveland. Western Union dominated telegraphy in the West and until 1864 was the only telegraph company serving Cleveland.

During the 1850s and 1860s, Stager and Wade negotiated contracts between Western Union and the railroads. Telegraphic train dispatching, attempted first in 1851, gradually came into general use during the next 10 years. The railroads came to rely on the telegraph for speed and safety. The telegraph companies, in turn, gained rights-of-way and other benefits through contracts with the railroads. During the Civil War, Anson Stager was appointed military superintendent of all telegraph lines and offices in the North. He continued to serve simultaneously as general superintendent of Western Union, and before the war's end he left Washington for Cleveland, where he performed both duties. As president of Western Union in 1866 and 1867, Wade negotiated its merger with its 2 main rivals, the U.S. Telegraph Co. and the American Telegraph Co. Both Wade and Stager encouraged inventor Elisha Gray's experiments in telegraphy, giving him work space in Western Union's Cleveland repair shop. In 1869 Stager loaned Gray money to establish the telegraphic instrument-manufacturing firm of Gray & Barton, forerunner of WESTERN ELECTRIC. Gray & Barton moved to Chicago in 1870 Gray later became Alexander Graham Bell's chief rival claimant as inventor of the telephone.

Local telegraph systems began to appear in Cleveland during the late 1860s. By 1869 Cleveland's first fire-alarm telegraph system was in operation. District telegraph companies were organized during the 1870s to send messages within the Cleveland metropolitan area. Subscribers to the American District Telegraph Co. (ADT), organized in Cleveland in 1876, could signal the central station for police, fire, a messenger, a physician, or even a carriage. In June 1877, just 1 year after Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his telephone at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, Cleveland's first telephone was installed between the yard and office of Rhodes & Co. coal dealers on Water (W. 9th) St. More private lines followed, but telephone service in Cleveland properly begins with the first telephone exchange, opened 15 Sept. 1879 by the Western Union Telegraph Co. In Nov. 1879 Western Union, in an agreement with Bell Telephone, withdrew from the telephone business, and the Cleveland exchange was sold to a local group with a Bell license. The Cleveland Telephone Co., incorporated in Jan. 1880, was the only successful local telephone company in Cleveland until the 1890s.

The introduction of the telephone posed little threat to the telegraph, generating far less excitement than the introduction of the telegraph 30 years earlier. Well into the 20th century, the telegraph remained more popular than the telephone for long-distance use and continued to dominate the news business. Cleveland was served by Western Union and a variety of competitors. Meanwhile, the telephone gradually gained popularity for local communication. The 76 local subscribers of Sept. 1879 grew by 1890 to 2,979 telephone subscribers in Cleveland, a city with a population over 261,000. The great majority of subscribers during this period were businesses, as telephone service was expensive: $72 per year for a business, $60 for a residence in 1885. At pay stations (there were 5 in 1881), the cost was 10 cents for a call of 5 minutes or less, except at the Newburgh station, where the cost was 20 cents. Technical problems encountered by the first subscribers included irregular ringing of the phone when the subscriber was not wanted, failure to get a response from the central office or from a subscriber, interruption of a conversation, and difficulty in hearing. The Midland Telephone Co., a Chicago-based Bell organization, brought Cleveland its first long-distance telephone line in 1883, connecting the city with Youngstown. That same year Midland was taken over by the Central Union Telephone Co., also based in Chicago and organized to develop Bell telephone service in Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana. Central Union operated long-distance lines in cooperation with Cleveland Telephone's local lines. By 1893 the long-distance lines of the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. reached Ohio, and Clevelanders, in theory, could telephone cities on the East Coast. Actually, long-distance service remained unreliable until the late 1890s, when metallic 2-wire circuits were introduced in Cleveland. Even after that, the vast majority of telephone calls were local (approx. 98% in 1905), with the telegraph still used for long distances.


In the Public Sphere

Legal impediments to Jewish participation in the political, social, and economic life of the country largely ended once Jews received political rights in Maryland in 1826. By then, Jews had turned their attention in new directions, seeking to assure their inclusion in all facets of American life and advocating on behalf of oppressed co-religionists abroad. They participated fully in the political life of the nation, advocated on behalf of causes important to them as Jews, and sometimes held out the promise of the "Jewish vote" in an effort to garner political support. Issues that have traditionally stood at the top of the Jewish community's political agenda include opposition to anti-Semitism, extension of civil rights, separation of church and state, the security of the State of Israel, and the welfare of Jews around the world.

"There Is No Jewish Vote"

Secretary of the Board of Delegates of American Israelites Myer S. Isaacs wrote to Lincoln on the eve of the presidential election, October 26, 1864, that "the Jewish vote does not exist." Isaacs nevertheless assures Lincoln that "the majority of Israelite citizens must concur in the attachment for the Union and a determination to leave no means untried to maintain its honor."

Myer S. Isaacs (1841-1904) to Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865). Holograph letter, October 26, 1864. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4. Abraham Lincoln Papers, Manuscript Division,Library of Congress (143)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj0

&ldquoAs for the Isrelites [Sic]&hellip They Will Vote for You&rdquo

English born Isachar Zacharie was President Lincoln's chiropodist, political confidante, and special emissary. Among other things, Zacharie involved himself in helping Abraham Lincoln secure the Jewish vote. In a letter to Lincoln on November 3, 1864, Zacharie wrote: "I just returned to this city after a trip of nine days through Pennsylvania and New York state, and I am happy to inform you, that I am satisfied that I have done much good, I now think all is Right . . . . As regards the Isrelites [sic]--with but few Exceptions, they will vote for you. . . . I understand them well, and have taken the precaution--to see that they do as they have promised--I have secured good and trustworthy men to--attend on them on Election Day--My Men have been all the week seeing that their masses are properly Registered--so that all will go right on the 8th ins."

Isachar Zacharie (1827-1900) to Abraham Lincoln. Holograph letter, November 3, 1864. Page 2 - Page 3 - Page 4 Abraham Lincoln Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (144)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj1

"Stop Your Cruel Oppression of the Jews!"

In this print, which appeared after a 1905 pogrom in Kishinev, a &ldquoRussian Jew&rdquo carries on his back a large bundle labeled &ldquoOppression&rdquo hanging from the bundle are weights labeled &ldquoAutocracy,&rdquo &ldquoRobbery,&rdquo &ldquoCruelty,&rdquo &ldquoAssassination,&rdquo &ldquoDeception,&rdquo and &ldquoMurder.&rdquo In the background, on the right, a Jewish community burns, while in the upper left corner, President Theodore Roosevelt asks the Emperor of Russia, Nicholas II, "Now that you have peace without, why not remove his burden and have peace within your borders?"

Emil Flohri (1869-1938). Stop Your Cruel Oppression of the Jews, 1904. Chromolithograph. Ben and Beatrice Goldstein Foundation Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (145)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj2

The Kishinev Massacre

The Kishinev Massacre of 1903, in which forty-nine Jews were murdered and hundreds were wounded, aroused universal condemnation and protest. For the first time, Jews in the United States took the lead in organizing nationwide protests. In addition to hundreds of demonstrations and meetings held throughout the nation, a massive petition drive protesting the slaughter was organized. Since the Russian authorities refused to accept the petition, it was deposited instead in the State Department's vault in a special box constructed to house it. In his letter accepting the petition, Secretary of State John Hay wrote: "It is a valuable addition to the public literature and it will be sacredly cherished among the treasures of the Department."

"Kishineff" Petition, 1903 Wood case with bound manuscript petition Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., Library of Congress (146)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj3

The Crime of the Century

In this drawing by Homer Davenport, Lady Columbia, resplendent in patriotic attire, rebukes Czar.Nicholas II, who averts his eyes and appears embarrassed. Behind them is a poster with several skulls and bones, reading "Kishenev Massacre of 400 Jews--700 Jewish Homes Looted --Dead Left Bleeding in the Streets. Tirospol--General Slaughter of Jews--Young and Old Killed and Wounded."

Homer Davenport (1867-1912). The Crime of the New Century, 1903. Pen and ink drawing, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (148)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj4

&ldquoThe Victims in Their Agony&rdquo

The illustration in the center of this elegy depicts the April 1903 Kishinev massacre. The elegy is in seven parts, including &ldquoFirst signs of storm,&rdquo &ldquoThe luckless in despair,&rdquo &ldquoThe bugle call of the rioters to one another,&rdquo &ldquoThe victims in their agony,&rdquo &ldquoThe wailings of women and children,&rdquo &ldquoThe devilish work in full force,&rdquo and &ldquoThe survivors beg for bread.&rdquo

Herman S. Shapiro. &ldquoKishinev shekhita, elegie&rdquo [Kishinev Massacre Elegy]. New York: Asna Goldberg, 1904. Irene Heskes Collection, Music Division, Library of Congress (149)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj5

Emma Goldman and "The Birth Control Question"

In this letter to Margaret Sanger, Emma Goldman consoles Sanger on the sudden death of her five-year-old daughter Peggy, and urges her to gather her strength and to continue her work on the birth control question, which "has taken hold of the public as never before." Its "hold" was especially strong in the Lower East Side immigrant community in which Sanger worked as a visiting nurse.

Emma Goldman (1869-1940) to Margaret Sanger (1879-1966). Typescript letter, December 7, 1915. Page 2 Margaret Sanger Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (150)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj6

Yiddish Plays on Birth Control

These two Yiddish plays--Birth Control or Race Suicide dan A Woman's Duty in Birth Control--were both submitted for copyright deposit at the Library of Congress. Both plays were written in the same year that Margaret Sanger and others opened America's first birth-control clinic in Brooklyn, New York. Women were alerted to the clinic's opening through the distribution of five thousand leaflets in English, Italian, and Yiddish. Police closed the clinic within ten days. Birth Control or Race Suicide, by the prolific playwright Harry Kalmanowitz, was performed in 1916 at New York's Roof Garden Theater.

Harry Kalmanowitz. Geburth Kontrol, oder, Rassen zelbstmord [Birth Control or Race Suicide], 1916. Playscript, cast page, Hebraic Section, Library of Congress (151)

Samuel B. Grossman. Di Flikhten fun a froy in geburt kontrol [A Woman's Duty in Birth Control: A Drama in Four Acts]. Chicago, 1916. Copy of playscript title page. Hebraic Section, Library of Congress (152)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj7

Ben Shahn and a Fight for Rights

The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Political Action Committee was established in 1943 to educate and mobilize CIO members about political issues of special concern to labor. The Committee championed the rights of all workers and strived to raise awareness of the importance of protecting their rights by registering and voting. This is one of several posters Ben Shahn designed for the CIO.

Ben Shahn (1898-1969). For All These Rights We've Just Begun to Fight, CIO Political Action Committee, 1946. Color lithograph poster. Courtesy of the HUC Skirball Cultural Center Museum Collection, Los Angeles, Library of Congress (164)

Bookmark this item: //www.loc.gov/exhibits/haventohome/haven-home.html#obj8

A Woman's Place is in the House

A leading American feminist and human rights activist, Bella Abzug (1920-1988) served in Congress from 1970 to 1976. In the years that followed, she headed the National Advisory Committee on Women, founded Women, USA, and co-founded the Women's Environment and Development Organization.


Tonton videonya: Tündöklés és bukás a II világháború fordulópontjai 4. rész A kimerültség elleni küzdelem 1942 - 1943