Virtus romana vs homoseksualitas

Virtus romana vs homoseksualitas

Ketika saya mengambil kelas latin, saya ingat mempelajari teks tentang virtus romana. Ketika Anda seorang pria di Roma, sepertinya Anda diharapkan menjadi yang pertama dalam pertempuran, berani, dan memiliki banyak kualitas jantan yang Anda temukan dalam stereotip modern seorang pria. Meskipun saya sangat mengerti bahwa berkelahi dengan kekasih Anda yang mempertaruhkan hidup Anda di sisi Anda adalah insentif untuk bertarung lebih sengit, itu adalah semacam paradoks bagi pria abad ke-21 bahwa homoseksualitas dan kejantanan sangat terkait pada waktu itu.

Saya akan sangat menghargai wawasan lebih lanjut tentang masalah ini dan detail tentang bagaimana homoseksualitas antara pria dan tentara dibayangkan di Roma Kuno.


Prajurit Romawi umumnya tidak bertarung dengan kekasih mereka di sisi mereka. Ingat, tentara Romawi bahkan tidak diizinkan untuk menikah selama dua abad pertama Kepangeranan.

Skandal berkala yang melibatkan petugas yang menyalahgunakan bawahan mereka dibuktikan di tentara Republik pertengahan dan akhir. Valerius Maximus, sumber utama insiden ini, melaporkan bahwa tribun militer Marcus Laetorius Mergus dikutuk karena menganiaya ajudannya. Setidaknya selama periode ini, tampak jelas bahwa hubungan antara sesama prajurit NS dihukum - seringkali dengan kematian. Rupanya, orang Romawi tidak suka pemikiran "salah satu dari mereka" ditembus.

Namun, homoseksualitas dengan budak laki-laki cukup umum di masyarakat Romawi. Atau setidaknya, seks penetrasi (dari pihak Romawi) dengan budaknya sendiri cukup dapat diterima. Dalam hal ini tampaknya militer tidak berfungsi secara berbeda dari masyarakat lainnya. Misalnya, Marcus Valerius Martialis menulis puisi untuk mengenang seorang teman perwira, Aulus Pudens, dan hubungannya dengan budaknya Encolpos. Berbeda dengan kasus seorang Romawi yang ditembus, di sini pasangan/korban pasif sudah dianggap terdegradasi dan pencemaran lebih lanjut tidak menjadi perhatian.

Selain itu, sudah umum dan mungkin diharapkan bahwa tentara akan memperkosa tawanan dalam perang. Ini termasuk perempuan dan anak laki-laki. Itu juga memperpanjang orang-orang yang ditaklukkan. Misalnya, Pemberontakan Batavi dikatakan sebagian diprovokasi oleh serangan seksual militer Romawi terhadap anak laki-laki Batavia. Dalam skenario ini dan seks dengan budak laki-laki, homoseksualitas tampaknya menjadi ekspresi kejantanan jantan.


Ini sebenarnya bukan paradoks. "Kejantanan" dan salah satu orientasi seksual tertentu adalah konsep yang benar-benar ortogonal. Jika ada, lebih aneh lagi bahwa masyarakat barat modern datang untuk menyamakan mereka.

Lepaskan pikiran Anda dari hal itu, dan sebenarnya tidak terlalu sulit untuk membayangkan sebuah masyarakat di mana agresi pada umumnya, dan agresi seksual pada khususnya (terlepas dari targetnya), dilihat sebagai indikator kejantanan.


Kebajikan Romawi

Ini adalah kualitas hidup yang harus dicita-citakan oleh setiap warga negara (dan, idealnya, semua orang). Mereka adalah jantung dari Via Romana — Jalan Romawi — dan dianggap sebagai kualitas yang memberi Republik Romawi kekuatan moral untuk menaklukkan dan membudayakan dunia. Hari ini, mereka adalah tongkat yang dengannya kita dapat mengukur perilaku dan karakter kita sendiri, dan kita dapat berusaha untuk lebih memahami dan mempraktikkannya dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari.

"Otoritas Spiritual" Rasa status sosial seseorang, dibangun melalui pengalaman, Pietas, dan Industria.

"Humour" Kemudahan dalam berperilaku, sopan santun, keterbukaan, dan keramahan.

"Rahmat" Kelembutan dan kelembutan.

"Martabat" Rasa harga diri, kebanggaan pribadi.

"Keuletan" Kekuatan pikiran, kemampuan untuk tetap berpegang pada tujuan seseorang.

"Berhemat" Ekonomis dan kesederhanaan gaya, tanpa kikir.

"Gravitasi" Rasa akan pentingnya masalah yang dihadapi, tanggung jawab dan kesungguhan.

"Kehormatan" Citra yang ditampilkan seseorang sebagai anggota masyarakat yang terhormat.

"Kemanusiaan" Penyempurnaan, peradaban, pembelajaran, dan pembudayaan.

"Industriousness" Kerja keras.

"Ketaatan" Lebih dari kesalehan agama, penghormatan terhadap tatanan alam secara sosial, politik, dan agama. Termasuk ide-ide patriotisme dan pengabdian kepada orang lain.

"Kehati-hatian" Pandangan ke depan, kebijaksanaan, dan kebijaksanaan pribadi.

"Kesehatan" Kesehatan dan kebersihan.

Gravitasi "Ketegasan", pengendalian diri.

“Truthfulness” Kejujuran dalam berhubungan dengan orang lain.


Bagaimana Orang Romawi Merayakan Saturnalia

Selama Saturnalia, pekerjaan dan bisnis terhenti. Sekolah dan pengadilan ditutup, dan pola sosial yang normal dihentikan.

Orang-orang menghiasi rumah mereka dengan karangan bunga dan tanaman hijau lainnya, dan melepaskan toga tradisional mereka demi pakaian berwarna-warni yang dikenal sebagai perpaduan. Bahkan budak tidak harus bekerja selama Saturnalia, tetapi diizinkan untuk berpartisipasi dalam perayaan dalam beberapa kasus, mereka duduk di kepala meja sementara tuan mereka melayani mereka.

Alih-alih bekerja, orang Romawi menghabiskan Saturnalia dengan berjudi, bernyanyi, bermain musik, berpesta, bersosialisasi, dan saling memberi hadiah. Lilin lancip lilin disebut cerei adalah hadiah umum selama Saturnalia, untuk menandakan cahaya kembali setelah titik balik matahari.

Pada hari terakhir perayaan Saturnalia, yang dikenal sebagai Sigillaria, banyak orang Romawi memberi teman dan orang yang mereka cintai patung terakota kecil yang dikenal sebagai signillaria, yang mungkin merujuk kembali ke perayaan lama yang melibatkan pengorbanan manusia.

Saturnalia sejauh ini merupakan hari libur Romawi yang paling meriah, penyair Romawi Catullus dengan terkenal menggambarkannya sebagai “waktu terbaik.” Begitu riuhnya perayaan itu sehingga penulis Romawi Pliny dilaporkan membangun sebuah ruangan kedap suara sehingga dia bisa bekerja selama perayaan yang riuh itu. .


Semnificația acronimului [ modifikasi | modifikasi sursă ]

Acronimul LGBT face referire la personoanele a căror identitate sexual este de akuesbian , Gay, Bsau Trangen.

lesbian reprezintă femeile atrase emosional i seksual de alte femei pujangga greacă Sappho a compus poezii despre femei ce iubeau alte femei, iar insula ei natală (Insula Lesbos) a condus la denumirea acestei identități sexuale. ⎟]

Homoseksual (i . kolokvial gay, pronunțat [hei] ( bidadariă) ) reprezintă bărbații perawatan sunt atrași n mod emosional i seksual de alți barbați. n trecut, termenul "gay" era tradus ca "fericit", "lipsit de griji" (din franțuzescul gai), dar i ca "licențios" (istilah negativ care desemna lipsa restricțiilor morale i sexuale). ⎠]

biseksualitatea este una dintre cele trei orientări sexuale principale – hetero-, homo- i biseksual – clasificate până n prezent i reprezintă atracția romantică ori sexuală față de personal de același sex sau de sex opus cu toate că se crede că se crede ambele sexe, acest lucru nu este neapărat necesar. ⎡] Această identitate sexuală est asumată de către o personal fie ca un nivel tranzițional naintea identificării ca lesbiană sau gay, fie când individul dorește să tentukan perawatan seks l kemarahan din punct de vedere seksual i. ⎡] Deseori personal bisexuale mai sunt numite i pansexuale – adică cele care nu prezintă nicio preferință n fața sexului partenerului – nsă aceasta este i diferența ntre un bisexual i un pansexual. Chiar dacă un biseksual nu lebih suka seks, genul nu i este acuh tak acuh, spre deosebire de pansexuali, perawatan simt atracție seksuală față de orice fel de persoană, termasuk transeksual i hermafrodiți. ⎢]

Personel transgen reprezintă personal care simt că există o diferențiere ntre genul conferit la naștere i genul care i definește din punct de vedere interior. Informasi lebih lanjut tentang cara menentukan identitas diri dan interioare i, uneori, indivizii optează pentru tratament medis hormonal i chirurgical pentru dan dobândi o schimbare de sex, astfel ncât aspekul lor fizic s coreleze culor. Persoanele care simt că nu se potrivesc cu niciunul dintre cele două sexe pot utiliza termenul de "genderqueer" sau "genderfluid", putând simți că sunt fie bărbat sau femeie, fie ambele sexe sau se situează Totodată pot mempertimbangkan că această delimitare a sexelor este prea restritivă, identificându-se cu unul dintre numeroșii termeni genderqueer, precum "transboi", "bigendered" sau "al treilea gen". ⎣]

Dacă identitile sexuale ale lesbienelor, homosexualilor i bisexualilor fac referire la orientarea sexuală a unei persona, a fi transgen nu face acest lucru, deoarece este vorba strict despre genul față de care aparții pribadi transgen pot fi heteroseksual, homoseksual, homoseksual. ⎣]

Varian [ modifikasi | modifikasi sursă ]

Există multe variante, inclusiv cele n care doar se schimbă ordinea literelor, termenii cei mai comuni i frecvenți fiind LGBT i GLBT. Deși identice din punct de vedere al sensului, LGBT poate avea conotații mult mai feministe decât GLBT prin plasarea inițialei pentru lesbiene prima. Neincluderea persoanelor transgen face ca acronimul să fie scurtat la LG. ⎤]

Acronimul poate să includă un Q adițional pentru "queer" sau "questioning" (englezescul pentru "întrebator"), câteodată abreviat cu un semn de ntrebare i folosit pentru a desemna pe oricine care nu se identifică n primele patru categorii: LGBTQ, LGBTQQ, GLBTQ?. ⎥] ⎦] ⎧] Varian alternatif pot termasuk un kamu pentru cei nesiguri ("tidak yakin"), un Saya pentru interseks, ncă un T pentru travestiți, un TS sau cifra 2 pentru cei "cu două spirite", respectiv un A sau SA pentru aliați heteroseksuali (litera A este folosită i pentru a-i desemna pe asexuali). ⎨] ⎩] ⎪] Unii pot adăuga un P pentru panseksual sau poliamoroși saya tidak HAI pentru omniseksual. ⎫] Includerea aliaților heterosexuali n acronimul LGBT a stârnit controverse, după ce mai mulți aliați au fost acuzați de folosirea cauzei LGBT pentru promovarea personală i câștigul de popularitate. ⎬] De asemenea, diverși activiști LGBT au kritikat viziunea heteronormativă a unor aliați heterosexuali. ⎭]

Ordinea literelor nu este standardizat adiția literelor face ca acronimul să poată inversa inițialele L i G, iar restul să aibă o altă ordine. De obicei, diferitele variante ale termenului nu reprezintă diferențe de politică n interiorul comunității, ci apar pur i simplu din preferințele n utilizarea lor de către persona sau grupuri.

Termenii "panseksual", "omniseksual", "cair" i "aneh" sebelum mempertimbangkan bagian a comunității bi. n același trend, termenii "transeksual" i "interseks" sunt priviți de unele persoane ca fiind sinonimi cu termenul "transgen", deși multe persona transexuale i interseks au obiecții (motif ambele din diferite).

SGL ("pecinta gender yang sama" – "iubirea aceluiași gen") este de obicei folosit ntre bărbații homoseksuali afro-americani ca o modalitate de a se distinge de ceea ce ei mempertimbangkană ca fiind o comunitate LGBT dominată de albi. ⎮] MSM ("pria yang berhubungan seks dengan pria") este utilizat clinic pentru a descrie bărbații care ntrețin relaii sexuale cu alți bărbați, fără a face neapărat referire la orientarea lor sexuală. ⎯] ⎰]

Revista amerikaă Apapun Yang Bergerak (1990–2002) a creat acronimul FABGLITTER de la Fetiș (cum ar fi comunitatea BDSM), Aliați sau poliamoroși, Biseksual, Gay, akuesbiene, Sayainterseks, Trangen, Ttranseksual engendering Revolusi sau atracția interrasială totuși, acet termen nu a intrat n uzul comun. ⎱] Universitatea Wesleyan a introdus acronimul atotcuprinzător LGBTTQQFAGPBDSM pentru "akuesbiene, Gay, Biseksual, Trangen, Ttranseksual, Queer, Qbertanya, Fleksibilitas, Aseksual, Gsialan, Poliamoroși, Bondage/disiplin, Dominanță/supunere i Sadisme/Masokisme". ⎲]


HBO's Pendidikan Buruk Terinspirasi oleh Kasus Penggelapan Sekolah Terbesar dalam Sejarah AS

Hugh Jackman berperan sebagai Frank Tassone, seorang pengawas terkenal yang terlibat dalam penipuan $ 11 juta.

Pendidikan Buruk, film orisinal HBO baru yang dibintangi Hugh Jackman, Allison Janney, dan Ray Romano, menceritakan kisah nyata skema penggelapan terbesar yang pernah menargetkan distrik sekolah Amerika, yang mendapati siswa di Roslyn, New York merampok dana lebih dari $10 juta.

Film ini ditulis oleh Mike Makowsky, yang merupakan seorang siswa sekolah menengah di kota itu pada saat kasus itu terungkap. &ldquoSaya ingin menulis sesuatu yang lebih pribadi tentang kampung halaman saya,&rdquo Makowsky kepada Vanity Fair, &ldquodan kisah ini seolah-olah merupakan hal terbesar yang pernah terjadi di dalamnya.&rdquo Inilah yang harus Anda ketahui tentang peristiwa sebenarnya.

Siapakah Frank Tassone?

Tassone bergabung dengan Roslyn, distrik sekolah Long Island 1992, dan dengan cepat menjadi pengawas yang populer. Dia memperkenalkan inisiatif seperti persyaratan layanan masyarakat untuk siswa sekolah menengah, dan belajar bahasa asing untuk anak-anak taman kanak-kanak, program yang mendapatkan tulisan di New York Times.

Lahir di Bronx, Tassone telah meraih dua gelar master dan PhD di Universitas Columbia Teachers College. Di sana, ia belajar Dickens, dan terus mempromosikan sastra di Roslyn, mengadakan klub buku lokal dan meningkatkan keanggotaan klub sastra New York's Dickens Fellowship. hampir sepuluh kali lipat selama bertahun-tahun keterlibatannya dengan organisasi.

Pada tahun 1999, dia menulis sebuah op-ed untuk Times tentang upaya distriknya untuk menemukan guru yang berkualitas. &ldquoMeningkatnya tuntutan profesi yang masih belum terkompensasi dengan baik seperti banyak lainnya, dan ekonomi yang kuat. memperlebar kesenjangan pendapatan antara mengajar dan karier yang lebih menguntungkan,&rdquo tulisnya.

Namun, sekolah-sekolah di masyarakat berkembang selama masa jabatannya, dengan hampir semua siswa menyelesaikan sekolah menengah dan 95 persen melanjutkan ke perguruan tinggi. Seperempat dari setiap kelas senior melanjutkan ke universitas yang sangat selektif. Sekolah di kota-kota makmur seperti Roslyn, di mana pendapatan rata-rata pada tahun 2000 hampir 150 persen dari rata-rata negara bagian, sering membanggakan siswa tinggi pertunjukan. Tapi sekolah komunitas memenangkan pujian karena di antara yang terbaik di negara dan negara. Pada tahun 2004, Wall Street Journal menobatkan Roslyn High sebagai sekolah menengah umum terbaik ke-6 di negara ini.

Bagaimana dia menipu distrik sekolah?

Pada bulan Oktober 2002, asisten pengawas bisnis Pamela Gluckin (bermain di Pendidikan Buruk oleh Allison Janney), ditemukan telah mencuri $250.000. Pencurian itu terbongkar ketika seorang karyawan Home Depot menjadi curiga ketika putra Gluckin, John McCormick, menggunakan kartu kredit sekolah Roslyn untuk membeli bahan bangunan untuk dikirim ke rumahnya. Belakangan diketahui bahwa McCorkmick telah membeli senilai $85,o00 persediaan untuk bisnis kontraktornya menggunakan kartu kredit Roslyn. Tassone meyakinkan dewan sekolah untuk tidak mengajukan tuntutan terhadap Gluckin, dengan alasan bahwa sekolah akan mengeluarkan lebih banyak uang untuk terus membayar gaji tahunannya $160.000 selama bertahun-tahun pertempuran hukum yang akan terjadi daripada menuntut agar dia membayar kembali apa yang dia curi dan biarkan dia diam-diam mengundurkan diri.

Pada awal 2004, sebuah surat anonim dikirim ke dewan sekolah dan surat kabar lokal yang menuduh Tassone yang saat itu berusia 57 tahun mencuri dari sekolah. &ldquoKami percaya bahwa Dr. Frank Tassone berpartisipasi dalam skandal penggelapan ini untuk mendukung gaya hidup mewahNYA, dengan bantuan Ms. Gluckin,&rdquo membaca surat itu. &ldquoDia mengajukan . tagihan kartu kredit pribadinya, tagihan untuk liburan dan perjalanan pribadi, dan berbagai tagihan rumah tangga. dan memasukkan mereka ke dalam penyamaran.&rdquo Penulis surat itu tidak pernah disebutkan namanya, tetapi surat tersebut memicu penyelidikan terhadap Tassone, yang mengundurkan diri dari posisinya setelah diketahui bahwa kontraktor yang dibayar $800.000 oleh sekolah sebenarnya adalah mitra Tassone&rsquos lebih dari 30 tahun, Stephen Signorelli.

Tassone dan Gluckin menutupi jejak mereka dengan mengikat para konspirator dan membagikan uang haram itu secara luas. Pegawai distrik dengan pekerjaan pengawasan diberi bonus Debra Rigano, Keponakan Gluckin&rsquos, bekerja sebagai pegawai akuntansi untuk sekolah Rosalyn dan mencuri lebih dari $850.000. Penyidik ​​menemukan bahwa cek yang tampaknya sah ditulis kepada vendor dan kemudian diuangkan oleh para konspirator. Uang tunai satu juta ditarik dari ATM, sementara 74 kartu kredit sekolah Rosalyn yang tidak sah diedarkan di antara karyawan distrik dan teman serta anggota keluarga mereka.

Pada akhirnya, lebih dari $ 11 juta dolar dalam pencurian akan terungkap. Kabupaten memiliki membayar sewa di apartemen Upper East Side Tassone, mendanai lebih dari $55.000 untuk biaya dokter penurun berat badan, pembersih kering setempat senilai $33.000, dan $50.000 untuk penerbangan ke London di Concorde. Gluckin menggunakan uang distrik untuk beli empat rumah, sementara Tassone mempertahankan apartemennya di Manhattan, sebuah rumah di Bronx, dan membeli sebuah rumah di Las Vegas dengan seorang penari eksotis. Ratusan ribu dihabiskan untuk membeli mobil, termasuk Jaguar dan BMW Rigano membeli Rolex, dan Gluckin membayar pembersih kolam renangnya dengan dana distrik.

Di mana Frank Tassone sekarang?

Tassone, Gluckin, McCormick, Rigano, mitra Tassone Stephen Signorelli, dan auditor distrik sekolah Andrew Miller akhirnya mengaku bersalah untuk tuduhan terkait dengan jutaan pencurian. Gluckin adalah dibebaskan bersyarat pada tahun 2011, Tassone, yang gagal tampil untuk sembilan berturut-turut sidang hukuman sebelum akhirnya dijatuhi hukuman pada tahun 2006, dibebaskan bersyarat pada tahun 2010.

Para administrator yang dipermalukan masih menerima pensiun mereka, yang menurut hukum negara bagian, mereka berhak dapatkan selama sisa hidup mereka, meskipun mereka telah dihukum karena kejahatan. Tassone menerima $173.495 per tahun.

Pada tahun 2005, Tassone menulis surat kepada New York Times yang menyangkal aspek liputan mereka. &ldquo&lsquolush hidup&rsquo saya yang Anda tulis termasuk 14 jam sehari selama bertahun-tahun sementara saya memajukan distrik dan memenuhi banyak tujuan Dewan Pendidikan,&rdquo dia menulis. &ldquoSaya harap para ibu dan ayah yang bekerja keras di Roslyn juga mengingat betapa banyak sekolah meningkat sebagai hasil dari kepemimpinan saya. Nilai real estat mereka meningkat tidak seperti di tempat lain di negara ini terutama karena sekolah. Populasi siswa meningkat sebesar 33 persen selama 12 tahun saya di distrik tersebut.&rdquo

Newsday melaporkan bahwa, selama wawancara baru-baru ini di Coach Mike Podcast, Tassone mengungkapkan bahwa dia berencana untuk menonton Pendidikan Buruk. &ldquoSaya&rsquom takut melihat diri saya digambarkan sebagai pembohong dan penipu dan pencuri,&rdquo katanya. &ldquoDan saya adalah seorang pencuri, tidak diragukan lagi.&rdquo

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Recunoașterea căsătoriilor ntre persona de același sex [ modifikasi | modifikasi sursă ]

n momentul de față, n România, cuplurile gay nu se pot căsători, nici adopta copii pentru că nu sunt recunoscuți legal ca o familie. ⏓] ⏔] De asemenea, legislația românească interzice recunoașterea căsătoriilor ntre persona de același sex sau a uniunilor civile ncheiate legal n străinătate. ⏕] România este, astfel, printre ultimele ri din UE care nu recunosc nicio formă de uniune civilă ntre personoane de același sex. ⏖] Cu toate acestea, după o decizie a Curții de Justiție a Uniunii Europene din 5 iunie 2018, România nu poade mpiedica libertatea de edere a soților de același sex pe teritoriul său. ⏗] Ulterior, pe 18 iulie 2018, Curtea Constituțională a decis că statusul trebuie să recunoască dreptul de edere n România al persoanelor de același sex căsătorite, dacă unul dintre membrii cuplului este. ⏘]

Constituția României definește familia ca fiind bazată pe căsătoria liber consimțită ntre soți,for a specifica genul acestora. ⏙] Legislația care este n vigoare la acest moment nu lasă loc nsă de interpretare pentru reprezentanții stării civile. Csătoria poate fi ncheiată legal doar ntre bărbați i femei, fără ca un cuplu format din persona de același sex să poată beneficia legal de protecția statului ca i familie. ⏚]

Cstoria dintre personaele de același sex este interzis de Codul Civil ⏛] i nu existingă dificultăți de aplicare a acestor prevederi. ⏚]

5 tahun 2013, comisia parlamentară pentru revizuirea constituției a votat pentru a include un articol despre protejarea minorității sexuale mpotriva discriminării n noua Constituție. csi comisie a votat a doua zi schimbarea actualei legi a căsătoriei, care descrie căsătoria ca o uniune consensuală ntre soți”, la un format mai restriktif, decriind-o ca fiind o uniune ntre ntre un bărbat rbat ntre pribadi de același seks. ⏜] Confruntat cu o serie de proteste din societatea civilă i organizațiile interne i internaționale, cum ar fi ACCEPT i Amnesty International, ⏝] comisia a retras ambele amendamente din forma finală prezentat la Curtea . perlindungan dasar ONG-uri au protestat față de această acțiune a comisiei parlamentare (pentru a retrage protecția constituțională mpotriva discriminării pe bază de orientare seksuală) i au declarat următoarele: membrii revisi mpotriva discriminării” i că n calitate de stat membru a Uniunii Europene, este obligatoriu ca România să pună n aplicare dispozițiile dreptului comunitar n legislația națională”. ⏟]

Unul dintre puținii politicieni care acordă sprijin public comunitii LGBT din România este Remus Cernea, co-președintele Partidului Verde. n 2010, sebuah fost singurul om politic care a participat la GayFest”. ⏠] n 2011, el i colegul lui, Claudiu Crăciun, au participat la parada gay, iar europarlamentarele Daciana Sârbu i Monica Macovei i-au arătat susținerea față de organizatori. Pada bulan april 2013, Remus Cernea anunța o propunere de lege privind parteneriatul civil ntre heterosexuali i ntre personoanele de același sex . ⏡] Propunerea acestuia a fost ntâmpinată cu kritiki din partea oponenților. ⏢] Pe 7 iulie, Cernea a prezentat proiectul de lege n Senat, așteptând rapoarte i aprobări din partea comisiilor parlamentare kompetene. ⏣] Pe 17 decembrie, proiectul de lege a fost respins de Senat cu 110 voturi mpotrivă i doar două pentru. După trimiterea n Camera Deputaților, proiectul de lege a fost respins oficial pe 11 iunie 2014, cu o majoritate covârșitoare de 298 de voturi mpotrivă. ⏣] Totuși, Cernea nu a renunțat la această inițiativă legislativă. Mai mult, n 2014, pentru a-i convinge să voteze o lege privind parteneriatul civil ntre personaele de același sex, Cernea le-a prezentat parlamentarilor două cupluri de homosexuali. ⏤] n februari 2017, proiectul parteneriatului sipil, iniiat tot de Remus Cernea, a primit aviz favorabil n Comisia pentru drepturile omului di Kamera Deputaților. ⏥]

O altă inițiativă legislativă privind parteneriatul civil a fost depusă la Parlament pe 31 octombrie 2018, temukan semnată de 42 de aleși de la PSD, PNL, USR i UDMR. Iniiativa s-a bazat pe un proiect al Consiliului Național pentru Combaterea Discriminrii, realizat cu sprijinul asociației MENERIMA i asumat i de organizațiile neguvernamentale din Coaliția Antidiskriminare i MozaiQ. ⏦] Pe 28 martie 2019, Executivul a avizat negativ proiectul, arătând că, prin adoptarea Codului civil, Parlamentul i-a exprimat opțiunea politică legislativă n materia relațiilor de familie i că unica formă de convient. ⏧] n consecință, n iunie 2019, apte cupluri gay, sprijinite de asociația ACCEPT, au dat n judecată status român la CEDO, reclamând că acesta i-a ncălcat obligaia acordativoa format din cupluri de persona de același sex. ⏨]


Inanna

Inanna adalah dewi cinta Sumeria kuno, sensualitas, kesuburan, prokreasi, dan juga perang. Dia kemudian diidentifikasi oleh orang Akkadia dan Asyur sebagai dewi Ishtar, dan selanjutnya dengan Sauska Het, Astarte Fenisia dan Aphrodite Yunani, di antara banyak lainnya.

Dia juga dilihat sebagai bintang terang pagi dan sore, Venus, dan diidentifikasi dengan dewi Romawi. Inanna adalah salah satu kandidat yang dikutip sebagai subjek dari Relief Burney (lebih dikenal sebagai Ratu Malam), sebuah relief terakota yang berasal dari pemerintahan Hammurabi dari Babel (memerintah 1792-1750 SM) meskipun saudara perempuannya Ereshkigal adalah dewi kemungkinan besar digambarkan.

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Dalam beberapa mitos dia adalah putri Enki, dewa kebijaksanaan, air tawar, sihir dan sejumlah elemen dan aspek kehidupan lainnya, sementara di mitos lain dia muncul sebagai putri Nanna, dewa bulan dan kebijaksanaan. Sebagai putri Nanna, dia adalah saudara kembar dari dewa matahari Utu/Shamash. Kekuatan dan provokasinya hampir selalu menjadi ciri khas dalam setiap kisah yang diceritakan tentangnya.

Inanna dalam Mitos

Melalui karya penyair Akkadia dan pendeta tinggi Enheduanna (l. 2285-2250 SM), putri Sargon dari Akkad (memerintah 2334-2279 SM), Inanna secara khusus diidentifikasi dengan Ishtar dan menjadi terkenal dari dewa vegetatif lokal orang Sumeria ke Ratu Surga dan dewi paling populer di seluruh Mesopotamia. Sejarawan Gwendolyn Leick menulis:

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Inanna adalah dewi Sumeria terkemuka, dewa pelindung Uruk. Namanya ditulis dengan tanda yang melambangkan tangkai alang-alang yang diikat melingkar di bagian atas. Ini muncul dalam teks tertulis paling awal dari pertengahan milenium keempat SM. Dia juga disebutkan dalam semua daftar dewa awal di antara empat dewa utama, bersama dengan Anu, Enki, dan Enlil. Dalam prasasti kerajaan dari Periode Dinasti awal, Inanna sering disebut sebagai pelindung khusus raja. Sargon dari Akkad mengklaim dukungannya dalam pertempuran dan politik. Tampaknya selama milenium ketiga sang dewi memperoleh aspek bela diri yang mungkin berasal dari sinkretisme dengan dewa Semit Ishtar. Tempat perlindungan utama Inanna adalah Eanna (`Rumah Surga') di Uruk, meskipun dia memiliki kuil atau kapel di sebagian besar kota. (89)

Sang dewi muncul dalam banyak mitos Mesopotamia kuno, terutama Inanna dan Pohon Huluppu (mitos penciptaan awal), Inanna dan Dewa Kebijaksanaan (di mana dia membawa pengetahuan dan budaya ke kota Uruk setelah menerima hadiah dari dewa kebijaksanaan, Enki, saat dia mabuk), Pacaran Inanna dan Dumuzi (Kisah pernikahan Inanna dengan dewa tumbuh-tumbuhan), dan puisi yang paling terkenal Keturunan Inanna (c. 1900-1600 SM) di mana Ratu Surga melakukan perjalanan ke dunia bawah.

Selain karya-karya ini dan himne pendek untuk Inanna, dia juga dikenal melalui himne yang lebih panjang dan rumit yang ditulis oleh Enheduanna untuk menghormati dewi pribadinya dan pelindung Uruk: Inninsagurra, Ninmesara, dan Inninmehusa, yang diterjemahkan sebagai 'The Great-Hearted Mistress', The Exaltation of Inanna', dan 'Goddess of the Fearsome Powers', ketiga himne kuat yang memengaruhi generasi Mesopotamia dalam pemahaman mereka tentang dewi dan meningkatkan statusnya dari lokal menjadi seorang dewa tertinggi. Ambisi pribadi Inanna dibuktikan dalam sejumlah karya yang menampilkan dirinya. Dr Jeremy Black menulis:

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Keras dan bernafsu akan kekuasaan, dia berdiri di samping raja-raja favoritnya saat mereka bertarung. Dalam puisi Sumeria, Inanna berkampanye melawan Gunung Egih. Perjalanannya ke Eridu untuk mendapatkan meh dan keturunannya ke dunia bawah keduanya digambarkan dimaksudkan untuk memperluas kekuatannya. (108)

Ambisi ini juga dapat dilihat melalui manipulasi Gilgamesh dalam kisah Pohon Huluppu: ketika dia tidak dapat menangani masalah hama yang menyerang pohon, dan gagal menemukan bantuan dari saudaranya Utu/Shamash, dia menarik perhatian Gilgamesh yang mengurus situasi untuknya. Namun, niatnya yang dinyatakan dalam cerita ini adalah jujur. Dia hanya ingin menanam pohon untuk memanen kayu dan tidak bisa menangani hama serius dan mengancam yang menjadikannya rumah mereka. Hadiahnya berupa drum suci dan stik drum kepada Gilgamesh karena membantunya akhirnya menghasilkan perjalanan Enkidu ke dunia bawah untuk mengambilnya kembali dan wahyu menarik yang dibawa rohnya kembali ke Gilgamesh.

Dalam puisi Sumeria/Babilonia yang terkenal Epik Gilgames (c. 2700 - 1400 SM) Inanna muncul sebagai Ishtar dan, dalam mitologi Fenisia, sebagai Astarte. Dalam mitos Yunani Penghakiman Paris, tetapi juga dalam kisah-kisah Yunani kuno lainnya, dewi Aphrodite secara tradisional dikaitkan dengan Inanna melalui kecantikan dan sensualitasnya yang luar biasa. Inanna selalu digambarkan sebagai seorang wanita muda, tidak pernah sebagai ibu atau istri yang setia, yang sepenuhnya menyadari kekuatan femininnya dan menghadapi hidup dengan berani tanpa takut bagaimana dia akan dianggap oleh orang lain, terutama oleh pria.

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Di dalam Epik Gilgames, sebagai Ishtar, dia dipandang sebagai orang yang suka pilih-pilih, cemburu, dan pendendam. Ketika dia mencoba merayu Gilgamesh, dia mendaftar banyak kekasih lain yang semuanya telah bertemu dengan akhir yang buruk di tangannya. Marah atas penolakannya, dia mengirim suami saudara perempuannya Ereshkigal, Gugulana (Banteng Surga) untuk menghancurkan wilayah Gilgamesh. Gugulana kemudian dibunuh oleh Enkidu, sahabat dan rekan seperjuangan Gilgamesh, yang karenanya dia dikutuk oleh para dewa untuk mati. Kematian Enkidu adalah katalis untuk pencarian terkenal yang dilakukan Gilgamesh untuk menemukan makna hidup. Inanna, kemudian, adalah pusat dari kisah salah satu epos kuno terbesar.

Aspek Dewi

Dia sering ditampilkan di perusahaan singa, yang menunjukkan keberanian, dan kadang-kadang bahkan menunggangi singa sebagai tanda supremasi nya atas 'raja binatang'. Dalam aspeknya sebagai dewi perang, Inanna digambarkan dalam baju besi laki-laki, dalam pakaian perang (patung sering menunjukkan dia bersenjata dengan anak panah dan busur) dan juga diidentifikasi dengan dewi Yunani Athena Nike. Dia telah dikaitkan lebih lanjut dengan dewi Demeter sebagai dewa kesuburan, dan dengan Persephone sebagai sosok dewa yang sekarat dan bangkit kembali, tidak diragukan lagi merupakan bawaan dari inkarnasi aslinya sebagai dewi pertanian pedesaan.

Meskipun beberapa penulis mengklaim sebaliknya, Inanna tidak pernah dilihat sebagai Dewi Ibu seperti dewa-dewa lain, seperti Ninhursag. Catatan Dr. Jeremy Black:

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Salah satu aspek dari [kepribadian Inanna] adalah dewi cinta dan perilaku seksual, tetapi terutama berhubungan dengan seks di luar nikah dan - dengan cara yang belum sepenuhnya diteliti - dengan prostitusi. Inanna bukan dewi pernikahan, juga bukan dewi ibu. Apa yang disebut Perkawinan Suci di mana dia berpartisipasi tidak membawa implikasi moral untuk pernikahan manusia. (108)

Rather, Inanna is an independent woman who does as she pleases, quite often without regard for consequences, and either manipulates, threatens, or tries to seduce others to fix the difficulties her behaviour creates. There are no poems, tales, or legends which in any way portray her differently and none which depict her in the role of the Mother Goddess.

In the Mesopotamian pantheon Inanna's geneology varies with the era of the myth and the tale told. She is the daughter of the supreme god Anu but also is depicted as the daughter of the moon-god Nanna and his consort Ningal. Alternately, she is the daughter of the god of wisdom Enki and sister to Ereshkigal (goddess of the underworld), twin sister of the sun god Utu/Shamash, and sister of Ishkur (also known as Adad), god of storms. She is also sometimes referenced as the daughter of the Supreme God of the Air, Enlil.

Her husband Dumuzi - who suffers for her rash choices in the poem The Descent of Inanna - transforms in time into the dying-and-reviving god Tammuz and, annually at the autumn equinox, the people would celebrate the sacred marriage rites of Inanna and Dumuzi (Ishtar and Tammuz) as he returned from the underworld to mate again with her, thus bringing the land to life. The Sacred Marriage of Inanna and Dumuzi was central to the fertility of the land and was re-enacted at important festivals (such as the Akitu Festival at Babylon) by the king and a priestess having sexual intercourse or, perhaps, only symbolically mating in a kind of pantomime.

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Worship of Inanna

Her temple at Uruk was her central cult center but throughout Mesopotamia her temples and shrines were numerous and sacred prostitutes, of both genders, were employed to ensure the fertility of the earth and the continued prosperity of the communities. Male transgenders, known as kurgarra, castrated themselves, females who identified as males were known as galatur both were thought to have either been transformed by Inanna/Ishtar herself or created by the Father God Enki to rescue Inanna from the underworld. NS Descent of Inanna notes that Enki made them "neither male nor female" and the clergy of Inanna's temple honored this tradition by embodying it. Scholar Colin Spencer comments:

Sacred prostiution was the central part of the ritual in the Temple. The priestess performed a sacred marriage to ensure the fertility of the country and the great fortune of the new king, for the king copulated with the holy priestess at the beginning of his reign. There were lesser priestesses who were also musicians, singers, and dancers, certainly some of these were men who also copulated with both men and women. The goddess Ishtar had turned these men into women as a demonstration of her awesome powers. Yet though Ishtar was an all-powerful presence and through prostitution was revered and was also an important economic factor in the running of the Temple, women's role in society began to be secondary to that of men. (29)

Inanna continued as a powerful and popular goddess until the decline of the prestige of female deities during the reign of Hammurabi which, according to scholar Samuel Noah Kramer, coincides with women's loss of status and rights in society. Still, as Ishtar of the Assyrians, she continued to be widely venerated and inspired the visions of similar deities in other cultures of the Near East and beyond.

The Enduring Goddess

Inanna is among the oldest deities whose names are recorded in ancient Sumer. She is listed among the earliest seven divine powers: Anu, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna. These seven would form the basis for many of the characteristics of the gods who followed. In the case of Inanna, as noted above, she would inspire similar deities in many other cultures.

A vastly different personality from that of the traditional Mother Goddess (as exemplified in Ninhursag), Inanna is a brash, independant young woman impulsive and yet calculating, kind and at the same time careless with other's feelings or property or even their lives. Jeremy Black writes:

The fact that in no tradition does Inanna have a permanent male spouse is closely linked to her role as the goddess of sexual love. Even Dumuzi, who is often described as her `lover', has a very ambiguous relationship with her and she is ultimately responsible for his death. (108)

The fact that the Sumerians could conceive of such a goddess speaks to their cultural value and understanding of femininity. In Sumerian culture women were regarded as equals and even a cursory survey of their pantheon shows a number of significant female deities such as Gula, Ninhursag, Nisaba, and Ninkasi, among many others. In time, however, these goddesses lost status to male deities.

Under the reign of the Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 BCE) goddesses were increasingly replaced by gods. Inanna kept her position and prestige through her adoption by the Assyrian and Neo-Assyrian empire as Ishtar, goddess of war and sex, but many others did not fare so well. Nisaba, formerly the scribe of the gods and patroness of the written word, was assimilated into the god Nabu under Hammurabi's reign and this was the fate of many others.

Inanna endured, however, because she was so accessible and recognizable. Women and men both could relate to this goddess and it was no coincidence that both sexes served her as priests, temple servants, and sacred prostitutes. Inanna made people want to serve her because of who she was, not what she had to offer, and her devotees remained faithful to her long after worship in her temples had ceased. She was closely associated with the morning and evening star and, even the present day, she continues to be - even if few remember her name.


Gay marriage and homosexuality were part of moral landscape in Ancient Rome

June 26, 2012 (CatholicWorldReport.com) - Given that the gay marriage agenda will be increasingly pressed upon Catholics by the state, we should be much more aware of what history has to teach us about gay marriage—given that we don’t want to be among those who, ignorant of history, blithely condemned themselves to repeat it.

Contrary to the popular view—both among proponents and opponents—gay marriage is not a new issue. It cannot be couched (by proponents) as a seamless advance on the civil rights movement, nor should it be understood (by opponents) as something that’s evil merely because it appears to them to be morally unprecedented.

Gay marriage was—surprise!—alive and well in Rome, celebrated even and especially by select emperors, a spin-off of the general cultural affirmation of Roman homosexuality. Gay marriage was, along with homosexuality, something the first Christians faced as part of the pagan moral darkness of their time.

What Christians are fighting against today, then, is not yet another sexual innovation peculiar to our “enlightened age,” but the return to pre-Christian, pagan sexual morality.

So, what was happening in ancient Rome? Homosexuality was just as widespread among the Romans as it was among the Greeks (a sign of which is that it was condoned even by the stolid Stoics). The Romans had adopted the pederasty of the Greeks (aimed, generally, at boys between the ages of 12 to 18). There was nothing shameful about such sexual relations among Romans, if the boy was not freeborn. Slaves, both male and female, were considered property, and that included sexual property.

But the Romans also extended homosexuality to adult men, even adult free men. And it is likely that this crossing of the line from child to adult, unfree to free—not homosexuality as such—was what affronted the more austere of the Roman moralists.

And so we hear from Tacitus (56-117 AD), the great Roman historian, of the shameful sexual exploits of a string of Roman emperors from Tiberius to Nero. Nero was the first imperial persecutor of the Christians. His tutor and then advisor was the great Stoic moralist Seneca himself. Unfortunately, Seneca’s lessons must have bounced right off the future emperor. When he took the imperial seat, complete with its aura of self-proclaimed divinity, no trace of Stoic austerity remained.

In Nero, Tacitus tells the reader, tyrannical passion, the hubris of proclaimed divinity, the corruption of power, and “every filthy depraved act, licit or illicit” seemed to reach an imperial peak. He not only had a passion for “free-born boys” but also for quite literally marrying other men and even a boy, sometimes playing the part of the woman in the union and sometimes the man.

As Tacitus relates one incident (Grant’s translation): “Nero was already corrupted by every lust, natural and unnatural. But he now refuted any surmises that no further degradation was possible for him. For…he went through a formal wedding ceremony with one of the perverted gang called Pythagoras. The emperor, in the presence of witnesses, put on the bridal veil. Dowry, marriage bed, wedding torches, all were there. Indeed everything was public which even in a natural union is veiled by night.”

Such was only one instance. We also have from historian Seutonius, a contemporary of Tacitus, a report of Nero’s marriage to Doryphorus (who was himself married to another man, Sporus).

Martial, the first-century A.D. Roman poet, reports incidences of male-male marriage as kinds of perversions, but not uncommon perversions, speaking in one epigram (I.24) of a man who “played the bride yesterday.” In another (12.42) he says mockingly, “Bearded Callistratus gave himself in marriage to…Afer, in the manner in which a virgin usually gives herself in marriage to a male. The torches shone in front, the bridal veils covered his face, and wedding toasts were not absent, either. A dowry was also named. Does that not seem enough yet for you, Rome? Are you waiting for him to give birth?”

In Juvenal’s Second Satire (117), we hear of one Gracchus, “arraying himself in the flounces and train and veil of a bride,” now a “new-made bride reclining on the bosom of her husband.” Such seems to have been the usual way of male-male nuptials among the Romans, one of the men actually dressing up as a woman and playing the part of a woman.

The notoriously debauched emperor Elagabalus (ruled 218-222) married and then divorced five women. But he considered his male chariot driver to be his “husband,” and he also married one Zoticus, an athlete. Elagabalus loved to dress up as a queen, quite literally.

Our reports of homosexual marriage from Rome give us, I hope, a clearer understanding of what is at stake. As is the case today, it appears that the incidence of male-male marriage followed upon the widespread acceptance of homosexuality that is, the practice of homosexuality led to the notion that, somehow, homosexual unions should share in the same status as heterosexual unions.

We must also add that heterosexuality among the Romans was also in a sad state. Both concubinage and prostitution were completely acceptable pornography and sexually explicit entertainment and speech were entirely normalized the provision of sex by both male and female slaves was considered a duty by masters. Paeans to the glory of marriage were made, not because the Romans had some proto-Christian notion of the sanctity of marriage, but because Rome needed more citizen-soldiers just when the Romans were depopulating themselves by doing anything to avoid having children.

The heterosexual moral disrepair in Rome therefore formed the social basis for the Roman slide into homosexual marriage rites. We hear of them from critics bent on satirizing such unions. The problem for the Romans wasn’t homosexuality as such, but that a Roman man would debase himself and play the part of a woman in matrimony.

Christians had a problem with the whole Roman sexual scene. We are, of course, not surprised to find that the first Christians accepted and carried forward the strict rejection of homosexuality inherent in Judaism, but this was part of its more encompassing rejection of any sexuality outside of heterosexual, monogamous marriage. Christians are not to be lauded for affirming that marriage must be defined as a union of a man and a woman, because that is the natural default of any people intent on not disappearing in a single generation. What was peculiar to Christianity (again, not just following Judaism, but intensifying it) was the restriction of sexuality only to monogamous, heterosexual marriage.

The Christians found themselves in a pagan culture where there were few restrictions on sexuality at all, other than the imagination—a culture that, to note the obvious but exceedingly important, looks suspiciously like ours.

The first-century A.D. catechetical manual, the Didache, makes refreshingly clear what pagans will have to give up, in regard to Roman sexuality, once they entered the Church. It begins with the ominous words, “There are two ways: one of life and one of death—and there is a great difference between the two ways.” The pagan converts are then confronted with a list of commands. Some of which would have been quite familiar and reasonable to Romans, such as, “You will not murder” and, “You will not commit adultery” (although for Romans, abortion wasn’t murder, and a husband having sex with slaves or prostitutes was not considered adulterous).

But then followed strange commands (at least to the Romans), “You will not corrupt boys” “You will not have illicit sex” (ou porneuseis) “You will not murder offspring by means of abortion [and] you will not kill one having been born.” Against the norm in Rome, Christians must reject pedophilia, fornication and homosexuality, abortion, and infanticide. The list also commands, “You will not make potions” (ou pharmakeuseis), a prohibition against widespread practices in the Roman Empire which included potions that stopped conception or caused abortion.

I include the prohibitions against sexual practices heartily affirmed by the Romans alongside prohibitions against contraception, abortion, and infanticide for a very important reason. Christians defined the goal of sexuality in terms of the natural ability to procreate. What was different, again, was not recognizing the obvious need for a man and a woman to make a child—Stoics argued along the same lines. What was peculiar to Christianity was removing all other expressions of sexuality from legitimacy (many Stoic men had male paramours). The Roman elevation of sexual pleasure above procreation, and hence outside this tightly-defined area of sexual legitimacy defined by Christianity, led to the desire for contraceptive potions, abortifacients, and infanticide.

It also led to seeing marriage as nothing but an arena for sexual pleasure, which in turn allowed for an equivalency of heterosexual and homosexual marriage.

The Theodosian Code, drawn up by Christian emperors in the fifth century, A.D. made same-sex marriage illegal (referring, as precedent, to edicts published under fourth-century emperors Constantius II and Constans).

We can see, then, that Christians face nothing new in regard to the push for gay marriage. In fact, it is something quite old, and represents a return to the pagan views of sexuality that dominated the Roman Empire into which Christianity was born.

[Editor’s note: The years for the reign of Elagabalus were incorrect in the original posting his reign ended in AD 222, not AD 212.)

This article originally appeared in Catholic World Report and is re-published with permission.


Cultural imperialism

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Cultural imperialism, in anthropology, sociology, and ethics, the imposition by one usually politically or economically dominant community of various aspects of its own culture onto another nondominant community. It is cultural in that the customs, traditions, religion, language, social and moral norms, and other aspects of the imposing community are distinct from, though often closely related to, the economic and political systems that shape the other community. It is a form of imperialism in that the imposing community forcefully extends the authority of its way of life over the other population by either transforming or replacing aspects of the nondominant community’s culture.

While the term cultural imperialism did not emerge in scholarly or popular discourse until the 1960s, the phenomenon has a long record. Historically, practices of cultural imperialism have almost always been linked with military intervention and conquest. The rise and spread of the Roman Empire provides some of the earliest examples of cultural imperialism in the history of Western civilization and highlights both negative and positive aspects of the phenomenon. During a period known as the Pax Romana, the Romans secured a fairly long period of relative peace and stability among previously war-torn territories through a unified legal system (Lihat Roman law), technological developments, and a well-established infrastructure. However, this peace was secured, in part, by the forced acculturation of the culturally diverse populations Rome had conquered.

Later, cultural imperialism became one of the primary instruments of colonization. While colonization was almost always initiated by some kind of military intervention, its full effects were achieved through practices of cultural imperialism. Fueled by a belief in the superiority of their own way of life, colonizers used law, education, and/or military force to impose various aspects of their own culture onto the target population. Motivated, in part, by a desire to purge local populations of allegedly barbaric, uncivilized customs and mores, colonizers also knew that the best way to mitigate resistance by the colonized was to eradicate as far as possible all traces of their former way of life.

One of the clearest examples of the forced acculturation of a colonized population was the Spanish influence in Latin America, beginning with the conquest of the Aztec empire by Hernán Cortés during the early 16th century. After securing their physical presence in the region, the Spanish suppressed Mesoamerican culture, forbidding the Indians to learn and transmit their culture while simultaneously requiring them to read and write Spanish and convert to Christianity. This kind of behaviour was certainly not unique to the Spanish other examples include the influence of the British in India, the Dutch in the East Indies, and the French in Africa.

During the 20th century, cultural imperialism was no longer so closely linked with military intervention but rather with the exertion of economic and political influence by some powerful countries over less powerful countries. Many observers viewed the Soviet Union’s forceful attempts to impose communism on other countries as a form of cultural imperialism. Charges of cultural imperialism have been aimed at the United States by critics who allege that cultural-imperial control was being sought economically by creating a demand for American goods and services in other parts of the world through aggressive marketing. This “Americanization” of other cultures is said to occur when the mass exportation of American films, music, clothing, and food into other countries threatens to replace local products and to alter or extinguish features of the traditional way of life. Some countries have attempted to thwart this cultural threat through various kinds of legal action—for example, by banning the sale of certain products. Lihat juga cultural globalization.


Ara Pacis Augustae

The Ara Pacis Augustae or Altar of the Augustan Peace in Rome was built to celebrate the return of Augustus in 13 BCE from his campaigns in Spain and Gaul. The marble structure, which once stood on the Campus Martius, is a masterpiece of Roman sculpture and, in particular, of portraiture. Senators, officials and the Imperial family are depicted on the wall reliefs of the monument in an animated procession, perhaps, the very procession which consecrated the altar site on 4th July 13 BCE or the celebratory procession to welcome the emperor's return.

Voted for by the Senate in 13 BCE the monument was completed within four years using Italian Luna marble and dedicated on 30th January 9 BCE. The structure has a central altar set on a podium surrounded by high walls (11.6 x 10.6 m) composed of large rectangular slabs. There are two entrances, one on the east and the other on the west (back) side, the latter having a short flight of steps due to the lower ground elevation on that side in its original position.

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The 3 m tall altar itself stands on a 6 x 7 m podium and has relief scenes depicting Vestal Virgins, priests and sacrificial animals. The interior sculpture of the surrounding walls depicts fruit and flower garlands hanging from ox heads (bucrania) above fluting. The lower portion of the exterior walls has richly sculpted acanthus scrolls whilst the upper portions carry relief figures. The cornice of the surrounding wall is a modern addition and is, therefore, plain whereas the original cornice would have been highly decorative with palmettes at each corner. The whole structure, including the reliefs, would have been richly painted and have had touches of gilding.

On the east and west sides of the exterior walls are panels with mythological scenes including a version of the she-wolf nursing Romulus and Remus, Roma seated on a pile of armour flanked by Honos and Virtus, Aeneas sacrificing to the Penates and a female figure with two children who may be Pax, Venus Genetrix or Tellus (Mother Earth).

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The relief figures on the north and south exterior walls are arranged in two groups. On the south side are Augustus and the Imperial family. On the north side are officials such as magistrates, senators, priests and their families. All are captured in a single moment as they participate in a procession. Some figures are speaking to each other, one figure (possibly Augustus' sister) holds a finger to her lips and calls for silence whilst elsewhere some children look decidedly bored with one small child pulling the toga of an adult in order to be picked up. The animation and individuality of the figures is a high point of Roman sculpture and the relief is also graded to give the scene depth and a further reality.

Interestingly, although Augustus is present in the scene, the emperor is actually not so easy to pick out, which is in great contrast to later Imperial sculpture where the emperor of the time is very much the focal point of the monument. As Charles Wheeler stated, 'If we would understand the Augustan period - its quiet good manners and its undemonstrative confidence - in a single document, that document is the Ara Pacis Augustae.'

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The altar came to represent Pax (Peace), a concept particularly forwarded during the reign of Augustus and it was probably for this reason that the Ara Pacis appeared on the coins of Nero between 64 and 67 CE. Various pieces of the altar were re-discovered c. 1568, 1859 and 1903 CE and a more concerted excavation of the site was carried out between 1937 and 1938 CE. The hundreds of altar fragments, which had been dispersed across several European museums, were collected together and the altar reassembled. Largely complete, the altar now stands in the purpose built Museo dell'Ara Pacis, an elegant glass and stone structure next to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome.


Where to Buy Fleur-de-Lis Jewelry

You can find Fleur-de-Lis jewelry in specialist shops that sell charm and symbol-themed jewelry. We find that shopping online is the best way to go.

Online marketplaces like Etsy and Amazon are perfect to take your search, as you’ll find many hand-made, artisan pieces of high-quality. These come in a range of prices to suit a variety of jewelry styles.

Always check the after sales polices prior to purchase and also look for customer reviews.


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