Garis Waktu Batu Scone

Garis Waktu Batu Scone


The Stone of Destiny - Garis waktu 2.000 tahun

496 AD (sekitar) Fergus Mor Mac Earca - atau Fergus Agung - tiba di Argyll dan dinobatkan sebagai raja pertama Skotlandia Dalriada duduk di Batu Takdir

841 AD (sekitar) Tradisi menyatakan bahwa Kenneth MacAlpin membawa batu ke Scone untuk penobatannya. Dia menyatukan Skotlandia Dalriada dengan Picts dan dianggap sebagai Raja Pertama Skotlandia

1040 - Macbeth dinobatkan di Moot Hill, Scone, duduk di Batu Takdir

1296 - Stone of Destiny diambil dari Scone oleh Edward I dalam upaya untuk menegaskan otoritas totalnya atas Skotlandia

1301 - Kursi Penobatan di Westminster Abbey dibuat untuk menampung batu dan digunakan selama hampir 700 tahun

1950 - Batu itu 'dibebaskan' dari gereja kerajaan oleh empat siswa Glasgow dan dibawa kembali ke Skotlandia

1953 - Stone of Destiny dikembalikan ke Westminster untuk Penobatan Elizabeth II setelah ditemukan di Arbroath Abbey di bawah garam


Batu Scone memiliki berat 152 kg

Raja diyakini telah menjarah Skotlandia dan membawa Stone of Scone pada tahun 1296 ke Inggris. Dia mengatakan kepada Kepala Biara Westminster untuk memastikan perawatan penuh untuk batu itu. Batu seberat 152 kg itu diyakini terdiri dari batu pasir.

Kursi kekaisaran yang megah dihiasi dengan pola binatang, dedaunan dan burung. Sosok raja, baik Edward I atau Edward the Confessor, dilukis di punggung kursi. Stone of Scone ditempatkan di bawah kursi.

Jika beberapa pendapat dapat dipercaya, kursi setinggi hampir 7 kaki itu digunakan dalam upacara penobatan Henry IV pada tahun 1399. Menurut catatan, itu digunakan dalam setidaknya 38 upacara penobatan raja-raja Inggris yang memerintah di Biara. Dari 38, 14 upacara adalah untuk permaisuri.

Penobatan Ratu Elizabeth II, 1953. (Arsip Biblio / Arsip Perpustakaan dari Kanada)

Beberapa dari mereka yang dinobatkan di kursi termasuk William III dan Mary II (1689), Oliver Cromwell, dan Ratu Victoria pada tahun 1887.


mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_170,h_234,al_c,q_80,blur_3/170px-Coronation_Chair_and_Stone_of_Scon.jpg" />

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_116,h_69,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/stone%201.jpg" />

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_116,h_76,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/stone%203.jpg" />

mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_164,h_123,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/CORONATIONS%2BAT%2BSCONE%2BIt%2Bwas%2Ba%2Btradition%2B.jpg" />

The Stone of Scone ditangkap oleh Edward 1 pada 1296 sebagai rampasan perang, kemudian dibawa ke Inggris dan ditempatkan di kursi kayu di Westminster Abbey di London, yang dikenal sebagai King Edwards Chair. Sebagian besar Raja dan Ratu Inggris saat itu telah dimahkotai di Kursi Raja Edwards.

Edward 1 ingin mengklaim status &ldquoLord Paramount&rdquo Skotlandia dengan hak untuk mengawasi Raja Skotlandia.

Ada beberapa keraguan tentang kisah penangkapan Batu karena dikatakan bahwa para biarawan di Tempat Scone menyembunyikan batu asli di Sungai Tay atau menguburnya di Bukit Dunsinane dan bahwa pasukan Inggris ditipu untuk mengambil batu palsu.

Ada juga klaim bahwa deskripsi sejarah batu itu tidak cocok dengan batu yang ada sekarang.

Pada tahun 1328 Dalam Perjanjian Northampton antara Kerajaan Skotlandia dan Kerajaan Inggris, Inggris setuju untuk mengembalikan Stone of Scone kembali ke Skotlandia, Namun orang banyak berkumpul untuk mencegah pemindahan batu dari Westminster Abbey. Batu itu tetap berada di Inggris selama 6 abad, bahkan setelah James V1 dari Skotlandia mengambil alih Tahta Inggris dan menjadi Raja James 1 dari Inggris.

Selama seratus tahun berikutnya, para Raja dan Ratu Stuart duduk di atas batu, tetapi itu adalah saat penobatan mereka sebagai Raja atau Ratu Inggris. Pada tahun 1950 empat Mahasiswa Skotlandia, Ian Hamilton, Gavin Vernon, Kay Matherson dan Alan Stuart memindahkan Batu scone dari Westminster Abbey pada Hari Natal untuk mengembalikannya ke Skotlandia. Namun selama pemindahan batu itu pecah menjadi dua bagian, Mereka mengubur bagian yang lebih besar di sebuah lapangan di Kent tempat mereka berkemah selama beberapa hari, Mereka menemukan batu yang terkubur dan kembali ke Skotlandia bersama dengan kaki tangan baru yang bernama John Josselyn .

Menurut seorang diplomat AS yang ditempatkan di Edinburgh pada saat itu, batu itu telah disembunyikan untuk waktu yang singkat di bagasi di ruang bawah tanah Pejabat Urusan Publik Konsulat, tanpa dia ketahui, sebelum dipindahkan. Meskipun Inggris, John Josselyn, yang saat itu menjadi mahasiswa Universitas Glasgow, adalah seorang Nasionalis Skotlandia Edward I adalah kakek buyut ke-21 John Josselyn. Potongan yang lebih kecil dibawa ke utara di lain waktu. Seluruh batu itu diserahkan kepada seorang politisi senior Glasgow, yang mengatur agar batu itu diperbaiki secara profesional oleh tukang batu Glasgow Robert Gray.

Pemerintah Inggris memerintahkan pencarian ekstensif untuk batu itu tetapi terbukti tidak berhasil. Batu yang pernah diperbaiki dikatakan ditempatkan di altar Biara Arbroath pada 11 April 1951 di penyimpanan Gereja Skotlandia.

Polisi London diberitahu tentang keberadaannya, dan batu itu kemudian dikembalikan ke Westminster empat bulan setelah dipindahkan. Setelah itu, desas-desus beredar bahwa batu itu telah dibuat salinannya, dan batu yang dikembalikan itu bukan yang asli.

Pada tahun 1996, sebagai tanggapan simbolis terhadap ketidakpuasan yang berkembang di antara orang-orang Skotlandia pada penyelesaian konstitusional yang berlaku, Pemerintah Inggris memutuskan bahwa batu itu harus disimpan di Skotlandia bila tidak digunakan pada penobatan. Pada 3 Juli 1996, diumumkan di House of Commons bahwa batu itu akan dikembalikan ke Skotlandia, dan pada 15 November 1996, setelah upacara serah terima di perbatasan antara perwakilan Home Office dan Kantor Skotlandia, batu itu diangkut ke Kastil Edinburgh. Batu itu tiba di Istana pada tanggal 30 November 1996, Hari St Andrew, di mana upacara penyerahan resmi dilakukan. Pangeran Andrew, Duke of York, mewakili Ratu Elizabeth II, secara resmi menyerahkan Royal Warrant untuk mentransfer batu itu ke penyimpanan Komisaris untuk Regalia. Saat ini tetap berada di samping permata mahkota Skotlandia, Kehormatan Skotlandia, di Ruang Mahkota.


Garis Waktu Stone of Scone - Sejarah

Disusun oleh Henrik Palmgren | Red-Ice.net


Batu Scone, lebih dikenal sebagai Batu Takdir atau Batu Penobatan (meskipun nama sebelumnya kadang-kadang mengacu pada Lia F il) adalah blok batu pasir yang secara historis disimpan di biara yang sekarang hancur di Scone, dekat Perth. Ia juga dikenal sebagai Batu Bantal Yakub, Batu Pilar Yakub dan sebagai Batu Tanist.

Secara tradisional, itu seharusnya menjadi batu yang digunakan Yakub sebagai bantal. Ini awalnya seharusnya digunakan sebagai Batu Penobatan dari Skotlandia Dalriada awal ketika mereka tinggal di Irlandia. Ketika mereka menginvasi Kaledonia, konon dibawa bersama mereka untuk tujuan itu. Teori lain menyatakan bahwa batu itu sebenarnya adalah altar perjalanan yang digunakan oleh St Columba dalam kegiatan misionarisnya di seluruh tempat yang sekarang disebut Skotlandia. Tentu saja, sejak zaman Kenneth Mac Alpin sekitar tahun 847, raja-raja Skotlandia duduk di atas batu selama upacara penobatan mereka. Saat ini batu itu terletak di Scone, beberapa mil di utara Perth.

Pada tahun 1996 Pemerintah Inggris memutuskan bahwa Batu itu harus disimpan di Skotlandia ketika tidak digunakan pada penobatan, dan pada tanggal 15 November 1996, setelah upacara serah terima di Perbatasan antara perwakilan Kantor Dalam Negeri dan Kantor Skotlandia, batu itu dikembalikan ke Skotlandia dan diangkut ke Kastil Edinburgh di mana ia tetap berada. Meskipun Batu itu kembali ke Skotlandia, Kastil Edinburgh adalah markas militer tentara Inggris di Skotlandia, dan beberapa orang Skotlandia berpendapat bahwa batu itu harus disimpan di tempat yang hanya milik Skotlandia, tempat yang tidak dapat diartikan sebagai simbol persatuan Inggris. Ketentuan telah dibuat untuk mengangkut batu ke Westminster Abbey ketika diperlukan di sana untuk upacara penobatan di masa depan.

Batu Pilar-Bantal Yakub - Batu Impian Yakub
Yakub's Pillow-Pilar Stone mengacu pada sebuah episode dalam Kitab Kejadian 28:10-18 [1] ketika patriark Ibrani Yakub melarikan diri dari rumah setelah mendapatkan berkat anak sulung dari ayahnya Ishak (dan yang saudaranya Esau juga ingin), dia datang ke tempat di mana dia meletakkan kepalanya di atas sebuah batu dan kemudian menguduskannya setelah Tuhan menampakkan diri kepadanya dalam mimpi.)

Tangga Yakub (Alkitab)
Yakub kemudian menamai tempat itu Bethel (harfiah, "Rumah Tuhan". "El" adalah salah satu bentuk singkat dari "Elohim"). Nama "Rumah Tuhan" dan istilah "gerbang surga" adalah sugestif dari metafora bait suci sebagai tempat tinggal dewa duniawi. Hal ini diperkuat oleh gambaran dalam mimpi Yakub tentang sebuah tangga antara langit dan bumi yang malaikat-malaikatnya Tuhan dan (menurut pembacaan teks "di sampingnya") Tuhan sendiri yang turun ke bumi.

Di mana Gerbang Surga? - Menara BabyLon (don)?


Yakub Mendengar Suara Tuhan
. Pengalaman Yakub di Charan, di mana dia melarikan diri untuk menghindari murka saudaranya Esau, yang marah kepadanya karena dia mencuri berkat (Bereishit 27). Yakub meninggalkan Beersheba, dalam perjalanannya ke pengasingan, berhenti untuk istirahat malam di tempat yang dikenal sebagai "Beit El" (rumah Tuhan) dan di sana dia bermimpi. Dalam mimpinya: "Lihatlah sebuah tangga didirikan di bumi, dan kepalanya mencapai langit dan lihatlah para malaikat Allah naik dan turun di atasnya" (Bereishit 28:12). Setelah ini Allah menyatakan diri-Nya dan berjanji untuk melindungi Yakub ke mana pun dia pergi, untuk memberinya "tanah tempat kamu berbaring" (ayat 13) dan bahkan banyak keturunan: "Benihmu akan menjadi seperti debu tanah dan kamu akan menyebar ke barat, ke timur ke utara dan ke selatan" (Ayat 14). Kelanjutan dari narasi menceritakan: "Dan Yakub terbangun dari tidurnya dan dia berkata: Sesungguhnya Tuhan ada di tempat ini: dan aku tidak mengetahuinya. Dan dia takut dan dia berkata: Betapa mengerikan tempat ini! Ini tidak ada selain rumah Tuhan dan inilah pintu gerbang surga" (ayat 16-17).

Deskripsi tinggi tangga yang dilihat Yakub "kepalanya mencapai langit", mengingatkan kita pada deskripsi menara Babel, oleh pembangunnya: "Kami akan membangun kota dan menara dengan kepalanya mencapai langit" (Bereishit 12:4). Kisah pembangunan menara Babel adalah kisah kebanggaan manusia yang tidak mengenal batas. Manusia ingin membangun sebuah menara dan membuat nama bagi dirinya sendiri (ibid ayat 4), melintasi batas antara langit dan bumi, antara manusia dan Tuhan. Hukuman manusia tidak lambat datang: Tuhan menceraiberaikan mereka di muka bumi dan membagi mereka menurut bahasa mereka sehingga tidak ada yang mengerti sesamanya. Kisah ini diakhiri dengan seorang Midrash yang mengejek dan mengolok-olok nama Babel: “Oleh karena itu mereka menamakannya Babel karena Tuhan balal (membingungkan) bahasa-bahasa di bumi” (ayat 9). Selanjutnya kita akan melihat bagaimana penduduk Babel menjelaskan nama kota yang mereka tinggali dalam Taurat dalam hal apapun menjelaskannya dalam hal kebingungan dan pembauran.

Di seluruh Alkitab kita tidak menemukan frasa lain yang serupa dengan dua yang disebutkan di atas: "dan kepalanya [tangga itu] mencapai surga" dan "sebuah menara dengan kepalanya mencapai langit". Kesamaan antara kedua frasa tersebut harus menarik perhatian pembaca dan menyebabkan mereka membandingkan dua cerita di mana mereka ditemukan. Tetapi satu hal yang harus diingat: pembaca tidak boleh puas dengan menemukan kesamaan tetapi yang lebih penting harus mencari perbedaan dan bahkan ketidaksepakatan di antara mereka, karena bisa jadi di sanalah letak pesannya. Berikut ini adalah perbandingan antara kisah menara Babel dan tangga Yakub.

1. Sementara menara menghubungkan antara bumi dan surga, itu adalah inisiatif manusia wahyu tangga dalam mimpi Yakub adalah ekspresi dari kehendak Tuhan. Manusia tetap di bumi tetapi, jika Tuhan menghendakinya, manusia dapat menyaksikan wahyu yang menghubungkan antara langit dan bumi.

2. Rencana manusia untuk naik ke surga tidak berhasil dan Tuhan menghentikan proses pembangunannya. Sebaliknya, tangga memang menghubungkan antara surga dan bumi dan malaikat yang melayani naik dan turun di atasnya, karena hanya mereka yang mampu dan diizinkan untuk melakukannya.

3. Untuk melihat karya manusia, bangunan menara, Tuhan turun dari tempatnya: "Dan Tuhan turun untuk melihat kota dan menara yang dibangun manusia" (12:5). Ketika berbicara dengan Yakub, Tuhan berdiri di puncak tangga: "Dan lihatlah Tuhan berdiri di atasnya dan berkata 'Aku Hashem, Allah Abraham" (28:13).

4. Saat membangun kota dan menara, pembangun menggunakan batu bata: "dan mereka memiliki batu bata untuk batu" (11:3), dan mungkin di sini kita memiliki ekspresi keheranan - dan bahkan mungkin ejekan - dari mereka yang menaruh kepercayaan mereka pada kekuatan dan daya tahan batu bata, yang dibuat oleh tangan manusia. Sebaliknya, Yakub menempatkan sebuah batu asli: "Dan Yakub bangun pagi-pagi sekali dan mengambil batu yang telah diletakkannya di bawah kepalanya dan meletakkannya sebagai monumen" (28:18). Batu yang ditempatkan Yakub adalah fondasi rumah Tuhan yang akan didirikan di tempat itu: "dan batu yang telah kutempatkan sebagai monumen ini akan menjadi rumah Tuhan" (ibid 22)

5. Dalam pekerjaan konstruksi oleh para pembangun menara ada ekspresi pembangkangan terhadap surga. Penempatan batu oleh Yakub - dan pembangunan rumah Tuhan di tempat ini di masa depan - adalah untuk menghormati Tuhan.

6. Pembangun menara memulai inisiatif mereka ketika mereka "bepergian dari timur" (12:2). Yakub pergi "ke tanah orang-orang di timur" (29:1) setelah dia bersumpah untuk mendirikan rumah Allah ketika dia kembali ke rumah ayahnya.

7. Ketakutan para pembangun menara, "jangan sampai kita bubar di muka bumi" (12:4), terjadi ketika Tuhan menghukum mereka: "Dan Tuhan membubarkan mereka di muka bumi dan dari sana Allah membubarkan mereka di muka bumi" (12:8-9). Tuhan berjanji kepada Yakub bahwa dia akan membawanya kembali ke negerinya dari tempat pembuangannya: "Dan Aku akan membawamu kembali ke negeri ini karena Aku tidak akan meninggalkanmu" (29:15).

8. Seperti dalam kisah menara Babel, dalam kisah tangga, nama tempat juga dijelaskan. Dalam hal ini nama "Beit-El" (rumah Tuhan) dijelaskan secara positif, yang mengungkapkan kehadiran Tuhan di tempat itu: " Betapa mengerikannya tempat ini! Ini tidak lain adalah rumah Tuhan " (ayat 17), "Dan menamai tempat itu Beit El" (ayat 19), "dan batu yang telah Kutempatkan sebagai monumen itu akan menjadi rumah Allah" (ayat 22).

9. Dan yang paling penting untuk diskusi kita: Yakub melanjutkan dan menyatakan bahwa tempat di mana celah dibuka baginya untuk melihat Allah dan malaikat-malaikatnya naik dan turun di tangga adalah "gerbang surga" (ayat 18). Ini adalah ekspresi polemik yang jelas terhadap pandangan Babilonia, yang melihat kota mereka dengan cara ini, karena nama "Babel" dijelaskan oleh orang Babilonia sebagai "gerbang Tuhan" (bab-ili) atau "gerbang para dewa". " (bab-il?ni), dengan kata lain "pintu surga".

10. Kisah kami menyatakan bahwa gerbang surga ditemukan di tanah Israel dan bukan di tanah Shen'ar, di Beit-El dan bukan di Babel tempat di mana orang percaya menyatakan syukur kepada Tuhannya yang diwahyukan kepadanya dan bukan tempat di mana manusia ingin menaklukkan tempat kediaman Tuhan. Babel tidak lagi layak disebut "gerbang surga" dan sekarang mengacu pada Beit-El.

Pemindahan tempat "gerbang surga" dari Babel ke Beit-El bukanlah akhir dari proses tersebut. Dalam kisah lantai pengirikan Arvana, kisah pentahbisan Yerusalem pada zaman Daud, seperti yang diceritakan dalam kitab Divrei Hayamim (Tawaran), kita menemukan sebuah ayat yang tidak ada bandingannya dalam bab 24 dari Shmuel II, yang merupakan sumber asli penyusun Divrei Hayamim: "Dan Daud berkata: Ini adalah rumah Tuhan dan ini adalah altar pengorbanan untuk Israel" (Divrei Hayamim I 22:1). Ungkapan ini sangat mirip dengan Yakub dalam kisah tangga ("Ini tidak lain adalah rumah Tuhan dan ini adalah pintu gerbang surga" [ayat 17]), dan tampaknya ini adalah upaya untuk mengidentifikasi berbagai tempat penting seremonial, Beit-El dan Yerusalem, sebagai satu tempat.

Gagasan ini disebutkan kemudian dalam Midrash. Di sana diceritakan bahwa Yakub pergi ke "Gunung Moria - dan dia berbaring untuk tidur di sana karena matahari telah terbenam - dan dia tiba-tiba terbangun dengan sangat ketakutan dan berkata: Ini adalah rumah Yang Kudus, terpujilah Dia, di sini. tempat dikatakan 'ini adalah gerbang surga'". Setelah Yakub mendirikan sebuah monumen, "apa yang dilakukan Yang Kudus, terpujilah Dia? Dia meletakkan kaki kanannya dengan kuat dan mendorong batu itu ke kedalaman bumi dan di atasnya berdiri Bait Allah seperti yang tertulis "dan batu ini yang saya tempatkan sebagai monumen akan menjadi rumah Tuhan" (Pirkey D'Rabi Eliezer, bab 35).

Apakah Stone of Scone atau Yakub's Pillow/Pilar stone merupakan batu penjuru atau batu kunci dari Bait Suci Salomo atau dari Menara Babel/Babel?

Apakah kita berbicara tentang batu yang sama, Batu Penobatan, yang dulu ada di Westminster Abbey, London? Dari mana Aturan Federasi Dunia Inggris-Israel. Apakah mereka bagian dari suku-suku Israel yang hilang, sekarang di bawah panji Kerajaan Inggris Surga?

Catatan tambahan: Apakah ini ada hubungannya dengan Menara (Baby)London? (Altar Kurban)

Dalam sebuah artikel yang saya temukan, mereka mengajukan pertanyaan "Apakah London Yerusalem Baru, Kota Wahyu?":

Situs Suci Kuno London Terletak dalam Pola yang Sangat Signifikan
Selama delapan belas tahun terakhir, penulis telah meneliti hubungan antara situs suci kuno tertua di London. Lokasi mereka menentukan pola besar geometri suci di lanskap: Desain yang luas dan indah yang mencakup seluruh London Raya. Keberpihakan utamanya menghubungkan ke situs kuno lainnya sepanjang dan luasnya tanah.

Penemuan monumental, seperti menemukan stonehenge lain di bawah sirkus oxford
Dasar dari pola-pola ini adalah denah candi. Ini adalah konstruksi geometri suci yang paling penting dan yang telah digunakan dalam desain kuil selama berabad-abad. Memang, contoh tertua penggunaannya adalah dalam konstruksi Stonehenge. Untuk menemukan desain yang persis sama, tetapi pada skala yang jauh lebih besar, tersembunyi di dalam lanskap London paling tidak mengejutkan. Menemukan bahwa itu ditentukan oleh beberapa situs kuno paling penting di London, Westminster Abbey, Katedral St. Paul, Menara London dan lainnya yang terlalu banyak untuk disebutkan di sini, adalah bukti yang mencengangkan bahwa penemuan ini memiliki dasar yang kuat dalam kenyataan.

Apakah London Yerusalem Baru, Kota Wahyu?
Geometri Earthstars sangat penting, menggabungkan hubungan harmonis dengan struktur dan dimensi Bumi dan Bulan. Hal ini telah dicatat sebelumnya oleh tidak kurang otoritas pada subjek ini dari John Michell yang juga mengaitkan konstruksi geometris ini dengan ukuran dan proporsi yang dikaitkan dengan Kota Wahyu, Yerusalem Baru, yang dijelaskan oleh St. John dalam Kitab Wahyu. Hebatnya, ini adalah konfirmasi yang tidak biasa dari visi William Blake tentang Yerusalem dalam dimensi spiritual London.

Karena Kota Wahyu dikatakan muncul di akhir zaman, mungkin bukan suatu kepastian bahwa penemuan ini terungkap pada titik balik milenium. Agak mengkhawatirkan, lebih mungkin para pencinta lingkungan yang memperingatkan kita bahwa akhir zaman sudah dekat, daripada para visioner seperti St, John atau William Blake.

Koneksi Rennes Le Chateau
Ada legenda bahwa Ksatria Templar menyelundupkan harta karun yang mereka gali dari bawah Kubah Batu di Yerusalem (tempat Kuil Solomon dulu). Harta karun ini akhirnya berakhir di Rennes le Chateau di Prancis Selatan, dengan semacam koneksi ke Cathar (suku lain yang hilang?).


Kami telah membaca tentang pernyataan 'Tempat ini mengerikan' di atas pintu gereja, yang merupakan kutipan dari Kitab Kejadian, khususnya kisah di mana patriark Yakub tertidur di atas batu dan memiliki visi sebuah tangga menuju ke Surga, dengan malaikat naik dan turun di atasnya. Batu ini sama dengan Batu Takdir yang dibawa ke Skotlandia oleh nabi Yeremia, dan itu menjadi batu tempat raja Inggris dimahkotai hingga hari ini. Yang perlu diperhatikan adalah bahwa di bawah kata-kata 'Tempat ini mengerikan' di ambang pintu, kita memiliki sisa kutipan dari Kejadian: 'Ini adalah rumah Tuhan dan pintu gerbang ke Surga.' Dengan demikian, ini bukan kutukan tetapi kutukan. pernyataan tentang sifat ganda keilahian. Ini sebenarnya bagaimana kutipan dari Kami juga menemukan sedikit ikonografi terukir di atas pintu yang belum pernah dicatat sebelumnya, termasuk dua salib Templar, dua Salib Lorraine, dan gambar Masonik dari 'Bintang Berkobar' yang konon jatuh dari langit untuk mencerahkan umat manusia.

Dan Yakub terbangun dari tidurnya, dan dia berkata, Sesungguhnya Yehuwa ada di tempat ini dan aku tidak mengetahuinya. Dan dia takut, dan berkata, Betapa mengerikan tempat ini! ini tidak lain adalah rumah Tuhan, dan ini adalah pintu gerbang surga.

Berikut ini tautan ke artikel yang menunjukkan bahwa mungkin ada hubungan mendalam antara semua tempat ini (bahkan dengan koneksi ke Mars): Mars, Rennes-le-Chateau, dan Hall of Records

Perlu diingat juga bahwa ritus Freemasonry Skotlandia mungkin secara langsung berasal dari Knights Templar yang melarikan diri ke Rosslyn, Skotlandia dan membangun Kapel Rosslyn. Mereka melarikan diri karena gereja katolik.

Artikel di atas dari wikipedia tentang Stone of Scone menyatakan: "Ini awalnya seharusnya digunakan sebagai Batu Penobatan dari Skotlandia Dalriada awal ketika mereka tinggal di Irlandia. Ketika mereka menyerang Kaledonia, dikatakan telah dibawa bersama mereka untuk penggunaan itu. Teori lain menyatakan bahwa batu itu sebenarnya altar perjalanan yang digunakan oleh St Columba (Peringatan Illuminati) dalam kegiatan misionarisnya di seluruh tempat yang sekarang disebut Skotlandia."

Mungkinkah ada hubungan Fenisia/Kanaan dengan Dalriada Scots atau Picts dan oleh karena itu dengan Kuil Sulaiman?

Raja Fenisia Hiram dari Tirus (989-936 SM) membangun sebuah istana untuk Daud dan dua istana dan sebuah kuil untuk Salomo. Alkitab menyediakan banyak sekali informasi tentang mereka.

Istana Daud - Raja Hiram dari Tirus mengirim misi dagang kepada Daud. Dia memberinya kayu cedar dan tukang batu serta tukang kayu untuk membangun istana. (1 Tawarikh 14:1)

Para sarjana telah menulis selama berabad-abad tentang orang-orang pelaut kuno yang dikenal dalam buku-buku sejarah modern sebagai Tuatha de Danan yang mendirikan peradaban di Yunani, Spanyol, Inggris, dan Irlandia. Para sarjana sekarang tahu bahwa kata, Tuarth, berarti 'suku'. Dr Gordon juga telah menetapkan bahwa akhiran, 'AN' ditambahkan ke nama yang tepat di masa awal untuk menandakan orang atau komunitas. Dengan demikian, nama kolonis Eropa awal yang penting ini harus diterjemahkan, 'suku Dan'. Apakah ini orang-orang Alkitab, salah satu dari dua belas suku Israel?

. Sarjana yang berani melihat pengaruh Danites dalam cerita rakyat Irlandia. dan atas nama Danmark (Denmark): tanah Dan

Sarjana barang antik awal, Aylett Sammes, menerbitkan penelitian ekstensifnya pada tahun 1676 dalam sebuah karya berjudul, THE ANTIQUITIES OF ANCIENT BRITAIN DERIVED FROM THE PHOENICIANS. Dia menunjukkan (hal. 58) bahwa Danites juga dikenal dalam sejarah Inggris sebagai 'Damnonii', tetapi 'transposisi sangat mudah dan biasa, dan sama sekali tidak menyembunyikan aslinya, Dan.' The Danites menetap terutama di barat daya Distrik timah 'Phoenician' di Inggris, katanya, menambahkan bahwa di daerah ini banyak sungai, kota, dan bukit memiliki nama yang digabungkan dengan nama suku, 'Dan.'

. Britannia, dari Fenisia, 'Baratac, negara timah. Logam seperti timah dan timbal ditambang dan diekspor dari pantai barat Cornwall dan pulau-pulau Scilly.'.

Apakah Anda percaya ini adalah Anda (Yesaya berkata kepada "pulau-pulau yang jauh")? Apakah mereka keturunan Kepulauan Inggris, Irlandia, negara-negara Eropa barat laut, Amerika Serikat, dan bahkan Jepang?

Salah satu link/kunci penting adalah istilah Scythians (Celt) "orang-orang yang tinggal di bilik".

Scythians (Iran) & Celtic (Skotlandia & Picts) Apakah mereka sama?


Baca Lebih Lanjut tentang ini: Asal Usul Picts & Skotlandia

Apakah nabi Yeremia (seorang Kepala Iber) meninggal di Irlandia?

Apakah dia melakukan perjalanan ke sana pada 583-560 SM dari Mesir sekitar waktu yang sama penghancuran Yerusalem, dengan: juru tulis Barukh, Ebed-Melekh, Teh Tephi (putri Zedekia & pewaris takhta Pharez), dan putra raja Irlandia yang berada di Yerusalem pada saat pengepungan? Apakah Yeremia datang ke Irlandia untuk membangun bangsa Israel di Kepulauan Barat dan menanam garis keturunan raja Daud di atas takhta Israel dalam pribadi putri Zedekia, Tea Tephi? Tea Tephi adalah nama ratu paling terkenal di awal sejarah Irlandia. Bersamanya, singa menjadi lambang Irlandia, lambang bangsa Israel, terutama suku Yehuda. Dengan Teh Tephi juga batu seberat 400 pon yang paling luar biasa datang ke Irlandia yang disebut Lia Fail, atau batu indah, atau Batu Scone di mana garis raja Irlandia dimahkotai sampai sekitar 500 M. Setelah itu dibawa ke Skotlandia dan digunakan sebagai batu penobatan. sana sampai 1296 AD Kemudian Edward I membawanya ke Westminster Abbey di mana telah sejak itu, sampai baru-baru ini ketika dikembalikan ke Skotlandia, sebagai Batu Penobatan Inggris Raya.

Tea Tephi menikah dengan raja Irlandia, Eiochaid, Heremonn, sehingga bergabung dengan cabang Pharez dan Zarah dari garis kerajaan Yehuda, dan dari mereka melalui garis raja Irlandia dan Skotlandia seseorang dapat melacak keturunan ke George VI dan menunjukkan bahwa garis Davids tidak selang waktu karena Yahweh menepati perjanjian garam-Nya. (2 Tawarikh 13:5)

Apakah Yeremia patriark berambut putih tua, kadang-kadang disebut sebagai "santo," yang datang ke Ulster dalam tradisi Irlandia? Bukankah Yeremia adalah kakek dari Raja Zedekia (raja terakhir Yehuda) dan dengan demikian, Wali Tuhan dari Garis Darah dan Tahta Daud? Dari sumber-sumber ini kita mengetahui bahwa sekitar 565 SM, segera setelah Yeremia dan putri raja menghilang dalam sejarah timur, muncul di Irlandia di Tara, tahta raja-raja Irlandia, seorang tokoh yang luar biasa dan misterius, seorang nabi bernama Ollam Fola, yang melembagakan sekolah para nabi di Irlandia. Dari jumlah kata Ibrani yang berhubungan dengan sosok misterius ini, ia terbukti sebagai seorang nabi Ibrani. Satu-satunya nabi Ibrani yang menghilang dengan misi seperti akan membawanya ke Kepulauan Barat, adalah Yeremia, yang patungnya ada di Kastil Dublin. Nama Yeremia tetap ada di mana-mana di bagian-bagian itu bahkan sampai hari ini.

Bisakah seorang wanita melanjutkan garis keturunan?

Apakah Yeremia membawa batu penobatan Yahudi kuno ke Irlandia (apakah tahta itu kemudian digulingkan 3 kali, dan sekarang ada di London?)?

Apakah itu dipindahkan tiga kali (akhirnya ke Inggris) untuk menggenapi nubuat Yehezkiel yang disebutkan dalam pasal 21, ayat 25-27? Apakah St. Andrew melakukan perjalanan ke Skotlandia? Apakah Israel hari ini Efraim? Apakah Inggris dan Amerika Serikat Manasye?

Legenda mengatakan Irlandia sudah dihuni oleh orang Ibrani sebelum kedatangan Yeremia. Jauh sebelum 700 SM. koloni kuat lainnya yang disebut "Tuatha de Danaan" (suku Dan) tiba dengan kapal, mengusir suku lain, dan menetap di sana. Kemudian, pada zaman Daud, sebuah koloni dari garis Zara tiba di Irlandia dari Timur Dekat. Mengingat hal ini, bayangkan betapa bermanfaatnya kelaparan kentang Irlandia yang telah terbukti. Atau, apakah semua di atas adalah rekayasa yang dimulai melalui sebuah buku ("England the Remnant of Judah." London, 1861) oleh ekspositor Inggris-Israel bernama Rev. F.R.A. Glover yang menggabungkan dua orang yang berbeda Tea dan Tephi dari dua periode waktu yang berbeda? Apakah Gereja Tuhan Sedunia berada di balik kebingungan ini? Atau, apakah itu semua benar??

Kitab Tephi, Ratu Tara dan Gibraltar
Teia Tephi adalah putri (Tender Twig) dari raja Yerusalem (the Cedar) yang Yeremia pergi ke TANAMAN di Irlandia setelah ROOTING-OUT dan KEHANCURAN Zedekia, raja Yerusalem di c. 588 SM

Kitab Tephi menjelaskan secara rinci perjalanan yang diambil Yeremia dengan Teia Tephi, The Lia Fail (Batu Takdir) dan Tabut Perjanjian dari Yerusalem ke Irlandia, melalui Tanis di Mesir (seperti dalam "Raiders of The Lost Ark") kemudian ke Gibraltar (di mana dia dinyatakan sebagai ratu Israel Gadite yang tinggal di sana) Breogan di Spanyol Cornwall dan akhirnya mendarat di Howth, dekat Dublin, di Irlandia pada tanggal 18. Juni 583 SM

Buku itu kemudian melanjutkan untuk menggambarkan banyak peristiwa penting yang terjadi pada waktu itu dalam sejarah dan terkait dengan perjalanannya dari Yerusalem ke Irlandia. Itu juga penuh dengan Nubuat tentang banyak peristiwa besar yang telah terjadi di dunia antara dia dan zaman kita (2.500 tahun) termasuk Kedatangan Pertama Kristus dan penjajahan dunia oleh Kerajaan Inggris. Kitab ini juga memberikan beberapa nubuat yang sangat penting tentang zaman yang kita jalani sekarang.

Mungkin ramalannya yang paling relevan, yang merupakan satu-satunya dalam "Kitab Tephi, ratu Tara dan Gibraltar" yang masih harus dipenuhi, adalah tentang waktu (kita) dalam sejarah ketika dia memprediksi bahwa dia akan pulih dari makam bawah tanahnya di Bukit Tara, di Co. Meath, Irlandia bersama dengan The Ark of The Covenant dan sekali lagi membawa perdamaian dan persatuan ke seluruh Irlandia seperti yang telah dilakukannya dua setengah ribu tahun yang lalu dan bahwa Kristus akan keluar makamnya bersamanya, untuk dilantik sebagai Raja seluruh Irlandia, di Batu Takdir, di Tara, dan kali ini, juga membawa perdamaian dan persatuan ke seluruh dunia.

http://jahtruth.net/tephi.htm
Mengapa ada Bintang Yahudi/Bintang Daud (Magen David) atau Perisai Daud, Segel Solomon pada Bendera Ulster simbol dan lambang Irlandia Utara?



Orde Oranye adalah nama lain dari gerakan separatis Ulster yang sama. Ini adalah gerakan Protestan freemasonik Irlandia Utara dengan William of Orange sebagai "pahlawan". Lihat: Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland untuk informasi lebih lanjut.

Apakah Anda ingat pemberontakan "Oranye" Israel? Sangat mirip dengan "Revolusi Oranye" Ukraina dengan Viktor Yuschenko sebagai frontman.

Ada pesan di sini guys!

Mengingat seluruh Federasi Kata Inggris-Israel sedang berlangsung, saya menemukan semua hubungan ini sangat menarik.

Apakah ada hubungan antara lokasi geografis ini? Apakah mereka mencoba menyatukan suku-suku yang hilang dan mendirikan Kerajaan Tuhan yang Bersatu? Apa rencananya di sini?

Investigasi lebih lanjut diperlukan!


Lebih Banyak Tautan: Batu Takdir


Garis Waktu Stone of Scone - Sejarah

Batu Takdir (Liath F il) dan Kehormatan Skotlandia

Liath F il, "Batu Takdir" atau Penipuan?

Apakah "Batu Takdir" yang terkenal di Skotlandia (juga dikenal sebagai "Batu Penobatan", ""Batu Scone", "" "Liath F il", "" "Bantal Jacob", ""Pilar Jacob") dan "Batu Tanis" adalah jimat palsu, artefak sejarah , or a medieval cess-pit cover fobbed off on the English by the Scots as a rather crude (albeit well-deserved) practical joke? Or is it, perhaps, "all the above?"

How important is the Stone of Destiny to Scotland? The web site of Scotland's Board of Tourism proclaims: "It is arguably NS greatest symbol and touchstone of Scottish nationhood and, as such, has been a very potent icon for more than a thousand years."

The Highland Heritage Society web site says, "Today, the stone is still the greatest Scottish icon of all times."

And the Scottish people heartily concur! On St. Andrew's Day, November 30, 1996, the Stone of Destiny was returned to Scotland, exactly seven hundred years after King Edward I of England "carted it off to Westminster Abbey" in 1296. According to one account, "About 10,000 people lined the Royal Mile to watch the procession of dignitaries and troops escort the stone from Holyrood Palace to the castle. In a service at St. Giles Cathedral, the Church of Scotland Moderator, the Right Reverend John MacIndoe, formally accepted the stone's return saying it would 'strengthen the proud distinctiveness of the people of Scotland.'"

What do the poets have to say?

Except old seers do feign and wizard wits be blind,
the Scots in place must reign where they this stone shall find!

What do the prophets have to say?

He who is crowned upon the Liath F il is destined be the true King of Milesian people and rule all the lands.

According to legend, The Liath F il was lent to the Scots by the Milesians (Irish) for the coronation of their new king the Scots neglected to return it. It was later stolen by King Edward I of England, "the Hammer of the Scots" (more below). The Liath F il may have both taken revenge dan fulfilled its purpose, for the next king of England was of the Milesian line and no relation of Edward's! The Liath F il was one of the "thirteen hallows (gifts) of Ireland," and is the only known to exist today.
The Stone of Destiny is a large (152 kg) slab of sandstone on which Scottish kings used to be crowned, when there were indeed such mythic and fabulous creatures as Scottish kings, and as such it has connotations of the rock into which Merlin legendarily thrust Excalibur. The English, hated and despised by the Scots, put their faith in the sword as proof of legitimate kingship. The Scots, hated and despised by the English, put their faith in the rock itself. Must the English and the Scots always be a loggerheads? Unfortunately for them, but entertainingly for us, it seems they must! Whether they were one and the same rock is, of course, a matter of speculation, and there is no real reason to believe they were. But, as simbol, the sword and the stone are utterly compelling and seem to tell us a tale beyond mere historical facts and words.

The Celtic name of the Scottish Coronation Stone is Liath F il, "the speaking stone" because it named the king it would soon enthrone, and might sing or roar with joy when he sat on it! Cambray in his Monuments Celtiques claims to have seen the stone when it bore this inscription: Ni fallat fatum, Scoti quocumque locatum Invenient lapidiem, regnasse tenetur ibidem ("If the Destiny prove true, then the Scots are known to have been Kings where'er men find this stone"). Methinks the poets said it better:

Except old seers do feign and wizard wits be blind,
the Scots in place must reign where they this stone shall find!

At Scone the Coronation Stone was "reverently kept for the consecration of the kings of Alba" and, according to one chronicler, "no king was ever wont to reign in Scotland unless he had first, on receiving the royal name, sat upon this stone at Scone, which by the kings of old had been appointed to the capital of Alba."

The Stone appears in the legends of the great Celtic kings and heroes. For instance, Riabhdhearg (Lugaid Riab nDerg, R oderg, Sriab nDearg, "Red Stripes") was a legendary High King of Ireland and the foster-son of C chulainn, the greatest of all Celtic heroes. C chulainn split the Liath F il with his sword when it failed to roar under Riabhdhearg. According to legend, it never roared again except under Conn C tchathach ("Conn of the Hundred Battles").

The Coronation Stone was used to inaugurate Scottish kings going back at least as far as Kenneth I, also known as Kenneth Mac Alpin, "the Hardy" and "the raven feeder" (presumably because ravens dined well on the bodies of those he had slain in battle). Kenneth I (c. 810-858 AD) was the first king to unite the Scotti and the Picts, two warlike tribes, in 843. The Stone was thereafter used to coronate Scottish kings famous and infamous (and sometimes both, like MacBeth), and thus was a highly visible (and hard to misplace) symbol of Scottish power. But when the English took the Stone to Westminster Abbey, they inserted it into the base of the new English coronation throne, St. Edward's Chair, which had been commissioned by Edward I and was specifically designed to house the Stone. The chair was named after Edward's namesake, Edward the Confessor, England's only canonized king. Thus, subjugated to "English arses," the Stone of Destiny became symbolic of England's destiny to rule over Scotland.

All British sovereigns since 1308 have been seated in St. Edward's Chair at the moment of their coronations, with the exception of Queen Mary I, whose coronation chair was given to her by the Pope. However, if what the Scots actually handed Edward I in 1296 was, as has been claimed, the cess-pit cover from Scone Castle rather than the real Stone of Destiny, "a long succession of English and British monarchs have been crowned while atop a medieval toilet-seat lid!"

Coronations of Scottish kings took place at Moot Hill at Scone Palace. John Balliol was the last Scottish king to be crowned on the Stone at Scone in 1292 he was defeated four years later by Edward I. Today there is now only a replica of the stone at Scone. That is, unless the "Stone of Scone" at Edinburgh is a replica, or a toilet-seat lid, in which case the stone at Scone might be the real thing .

For those who wonder about such things, there is a reason Edward I was not the first King Edward of England (he was actually the fourth, with "the Confessor" being the third). Edward the Confessor (1004-1066) was England's penultimate "Englisc" or "Anglisch" king (i.e., Angle or Anglo-Saxon king). Edward the Confessor was devout, so devout that when he married Edith of Wessex in 1045, he refused to consummate their marriage and thus died without heirs. In those days there were two classifications of saints: martyrs (who died for their faith) and confessors (who died natural deaths). Hence it would seem the third Edward died in bed, albeit not from over-indulging his wife or himself! The Battle of Hastings was fought in 1066 by his successor, Harold Godwinson, England's last Anglo-Saxon king, and William "the Bastard" of Normandy. William won, obtaining the sobriquet "the Conqueror" and the crown of England. The regnal numbers assigned to English kings began with the Normans, hence Edward I rather than Edward IV. Edward I was known as "Longshanks" because he stood six foot two, a veritable giant in those days, and as "the Hammer of the Scots" for obvious reasons. His tombstone read: Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, "Here lies Edward the First, Hammer of the Scots." To which epitaph the Scots might add, "Whose heirs were all coronated on a toilet lid!"

The Stone of Destiny has now joined the Scottish crown jewelsthe "Honours of Scotland"in a museum in Edinburgh Castle.

The Scottish royal regalia, the Honours, consist of a crown, a broadsword, a scabbard and a scepter—like the Stone of Destiny, they too fall into the category of "things mysterious." For reasons to be explained shortly, unlike the Stone of Destiny, the Honours are no longer used today. The Honours were first used in the coronation of the nine-month-old Mary "Queen of Scots" in 1543. The crown was last worn at the coronation of Charles II at Scone in 1651.

According to Scotland's National Tourism Board: "The Sceptre of Scotland and the Sword of State were both gifts given to James IV by the Papacy, the sceptre in 1494 and the sword in 1507. The original silver-gilt sceptre was restyled and lengthened in 1536 to its present design, which has a polished rock globe atop a finial featuring various religious figures. The sword is 4.5 feet (1.4 m) in length with an elaborately decorated silver gilt handle and etched blade. It is accompanied by a wooden scabbard covered in velvet and silver and a woven silk and gold thread belt. The Crown of Scotland was refashioned in 1540 from an earlier crown for James V. The base circlet is made from Scottish gold and encrusted with 22 gemstones and 20 precious stones taken from the previous crown freshwater pearls from Scotland's rivers were also used."

The following article has been excerpted (with slight rewordings) from Historic-UK.com with marginalia added in square brackets .

The Honours were among the most potent symbols of Scottish nationhood, and thus during Oliver Cromwell's occupation of Scotland in the 1650s, they were among his most sought-after targets. Cromwell executed Charles I, King of Scotland and England, in 1649. The following year his son (soon to be Charles II) arrived in northeast Scotland in a bid to retake the two kingdoms. Cromwell then invaded Scotland. Charles II was crowned in haste at Scone, but the Honours could not be returned to Edinburgh Castle, as it had recently fallen to Cromwell's army. The English crown jewels had already been destroyed by Cromwell and the Honours, symbols of the Scottish monarchy, were next on his list. His army was fast advancing on Scone and the new King ordered Sir John Keith, the Earl Marischal [the "High Marshall," later to be made Knight Marischal and Earl of Kintore] to take the Honours and many of his personal papers to safety at Dunnottar Castle. The Earl Marischal oversaw all ceremonial activities in the Scottish Court, including coronations. It was not long before Dunnottar was under siege and a scratch garrison of only seventy men held out for eight months against the invading forces. Soon it became obvious that the castle would fall, and that something must be done to save the Honours. The crown, sceptre and sword were lowered over the seaward side of the Castle and received by a serving woman, there on pretence of gathering seaweed. She took them to Kinneff, a village several miles to the south, where they were temporarily hidden at the bottom of the bed in the Rev. James Grainger's house. The minister and his wife then wrapped the jewels in linen cloths and buried them at night under the clay floor of Kinneff Kirk [church]. Every three months the minister and his wife would dig up the Regalia at night to air them and preserve them from damp and injury. The Honours remained hidden for nine years during the Commonwealth while the English army searched for them in vain [and thus the Scottish crown jewels were preserved through the Rock of the church, while the English crown jewels were destroyed by the sword!—MRB]

When Queen Elizabeth I died, King James VI of Scotland became the King of England, thus uniting England and Scotland. From that day forward there has been no King or Queen of Scotland who is not primarily the King or Queen of England, and the English Crown Jewels have sufficed for the entire "United Kingdom," with the result that the Scottish crown jewels were no longer used. The Treaty of Union on March 7, 1707 dissolved the Scottish Parliament and stipulated that the Scottish regalia would remain in Scotland, but soon after the Treaty of Union was signed, the crown jewels mysteriously "vanished." Many Scots believed the English had purloined them. In 1818 the Prince Regent, who later became George IV, gave one of Scotland's most famous literary personages, Sir Walter Scott, permission to rummage through Edinburgh castle in search of them. The jewels were found in a "little strong room" where they had been wrapped in linen cloths, locked in an oak chest, and walled up. The were found "exactly as they had been left in 1707." It seems Walter Scott was both the Arthur Conan Doyle and Sherlock Holmes of his day!

Now, on to unraveling the mysterious shroud surrounding the Stone of Destiny! The following article is taken from Brigadoonery Canada with marginalia added in square brackets .

According to legend, it [the Stone of Destiny] came from the Holy Land, where Jacob supposedly used it as a pillow in Biblical times. Transported through Egypt, Sicily and Spain, it was taken to Ireland, where Saint Patrick himself blessed this rock for use in crowning the kings of the emerald isle.

[According to the Old Testament, Jacob, who later changed his name to Israel and thus became the first Israelite, lay his head on a stone "pillow" at Bethel, fell asleep, and had a dream of "Jacob's Ladder," upon which he saw angels ascending and descending. A tradition that explains the kingmaking aspect of the stone goes like this: Jacob used the stone as a pillow. While sleeping on it, he received a vision from God, who claimed that his seed would spread across the Earth and rule as kings until their return to the Promised Land. Jacob took the stone after awaking and anointed it with oil, as kings are anointed with oil. For a time the stone rested in the temple at Jerusalem. In 602 BC, Jerusalem was sacked and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. It is said that Jeremiah along with two daughters of King David's line escaped with the stone, and after a journey through Egypt, Sicily and Spain, the stone arrived in Ireland. That the one stone seems to have disappeared from Israel shortly before the other stone appeared in Ireland is of interest, if the dates are correct. Also of interest is the Irish story of the Tuatha de Danann, which when translated apparently means "the people of Danann." One of the twelve tribes of Israel was known as Dan. There is even a prophecy that the Stone will be returned to Israel ahead of a great number of its people, and that when it does, the Temple of Jerusalem will be rebuilt! . For a very interesting, and very mysterious, timeline of the Stone "from Jacob to today", please click here.]

It is certainly possible that the Stone may have been used in the coronation ceremonies of the Irish Kingdom of Dalriada from roughly 400 AD until 850 AD, when Kenneth I, the 36th King of Dalriada, moved his capital of his expanding empire from Ireland to Scone (pronounced "scoon") in what is now Perthshire, Scotland. The Stone was moved several times after that, and used on the remote, western island of Iona, then in Dunadd, in Dunstaffnage and finally in Scone again for the installation of Dalriadic monarchs.

The Stone was last used in a coronation in Scotland in 1292, when John Balliol was proclaimed King. Four years later, in 1296, the English monarch, Edward I (infamous as the "hammer of the Scots," and nemesis of Scottish national hero William Wallace) invaded Scotland. Among the booty that Edward's army removed was the legendary Stone, which the English king apparently regarded as an important symbol of Scottish sovereignty. The present Coronation Throne was made to house the stone in 1301.

According to the treaty of Northampton of 1328, peace was restored between the warring neighbors, and King Edward III of England [yes, yet another Edward!] promised to return the Stone to its rightful owners forthwith. But somehow the English never got around to fulfilling their end of the bargain, and the Stone of Destiny remained in London until British Prime Minister John Major, with the approval of Her Majesty the Queen, arranged to right this persistent, historical oversight last fall [1996].

But is the stone that finally rests securely in Edinburgh Castle the real Stone of Destiny? After so many centuries, it is impossible to know. According to one legend, the Stone never left Ireland at all. One tale suggests that the original Stone of Destiny was white marble, carved with decorative figures—in no way resembling the plain slab of yellow sandstone with a single Latin cross carved on it that sat beneath the throne in Westminster Abbey for these past seven centuries. To make matters more confusing, there may have been several copies made down through the ages! It is entirely within the realm of possibility that some canny Scots fobbed off a fake on Edward I, seven hundred years ago, hiding the original coronation stone where it would never be found. One story particularly satisfying to Scottish nationalists with long memories claims that Edward actually took the rough rock used to hold down the cover of the cess-pit at Scone Castle, and that subsequent English monarchs have ceremoniously seated themselves on this medieval plumbing accessory for their coronations ever since 1308! At least one acknowledged copy of the "Westminster" Stone exists, on public display at beautiful Scone Palacein Perthshire, where it serves as a favorite roost for the elegant peacocks and camera-toting tourists who stroll the grounds.

Are there additional copies? On Christmas Day, 1950, four Scottish students, inspired by nationalist sentiment, heisted the Stone from under the Coronation Throne in Westminster Abbey, dumped it in the trunk of their car, and drove off with it. About four months later the rock was recovered from the Arbroath Abbey, where it had been deposited by the stone-nappers. Atau apakah itu? Rumours have always persisted that there was plenty of time for the students to fashion a replica to be “returned” to Westminster, while the original Stone was spirited north to a secret location in Scotland. One seemingly far-fetched theory even suggested that the actual stone was hiding in plain sight for decades—that the purported replica on public display at Scone Palace was in fact the real Stone of Destiny!

Only the thieves would know for sure. Alan Magnus-Bennett recently wrote us to say that the evidence that the Stone was in fact returned to Scotland and eventually left in Abroath Abbey to be returned to the safe keeping of the Church of Scotland is to be found in Ian R. Hamilton's book, No Stone Unturned, (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1952). This is an autobiographical account of how, when and why the Stone was heisted.

Lingering doubts about the provenance of the Stone are unlikely to be resolved: fables are always much more fun than mere facts. But few would debate the symbolic significance of restoring what is at least presumed to be the original Stone of Destiny to Scotland. Most Scots were pleased, if somewhat bemused by this unexpected turn of events, although some express reservations about the legal niceties surrounding the return of the pilfered artifact. Technically, under British law the Crown still "owns" the Stone—the assumption apparently being that, after seven centuries, possession is ten tenths of the law. However, Her Majesty has decided to lend it permanently to her Scottish subjects, on the understanding that it can be temporarily taken back to London whenever it might be required for future coronations.

The last time the Stone was used was in 1953 for the formal Coronation ceremony of Queen Elizabeth II , who had succeeded to the throne the previous year on the death of her father the King. Whomsoever this hefty rock really belongs to, Her Majesty's Canadian subjects hope that the famous “Stone of Scone”—whether it be the fabled original or a reasonable facsimile thereof—will not be needed again for official duty any time soon. God Save the Queen!

Seton Gordon relates a tale (perhaps a tall tale) that might explain why the Stone of Scone we now have seems of local Scottish origin (excerpted and slightly reworded):

An interesting tradition had been given me by the Earl of Mansfield, whose family have owned the lands of Scone for more than 300 years. This tradition, which has been handed down through several generations, is that, somewhere around the dates 1795-1820, a farm lad had been wandering with a friend on Dunsinnan, the site of MacBeth's Castle, soon after a violent storm. The torrential rain had caused a landslide, and as a result of this a fissure, which seemed to penetrate deep into the hillside, was visible. The two men procured some form of light and explored the fissure. They came at last to the broken wall of a subterranean chamber. In one corner of the chamber was a stair which was blocked with debris, and in the centre of the chamber they saw a slab of stone covered with markings and supported by four stone "legs". As there was no other evidence of "treasure" in the subterranean apartment the two men did not realise the importance of their "find" and did not talk of what they had seen. Some years later one of the men first heard the local tradition, that on the approach of the King Edward I, the monks of Scone hurriedly removed the Stone of Destiny to a place of safe concealment and took from the Annety Burn a stone of similar size and shape, which the English King carried off in triumph. When he heard this legend, the man hurried back to Dunisinnan Hill, but whether his memory was at fault regarding the site of the landslide, or whether the passage of time, or a fresh slide of earth, had obliterated the cavity, the fact remains that he was unable to locate the opening in the hillside. It may be asked why the monks of Scone, after the English king had returned to England, did not bring back to the abbey the original Stone of Destiny, but the tradition accounts for this, explaining that it was not considered safe at the time to allow the English to know that they had been tricked, and that when the days of possible retribution were past, the monks who had known the secret were dead. This tradition, it is held, explains why the Coronation Stone [at that time] in Westminster Abbey resembles geologically the sandstone commonly found in the neighbourhood of Scone.

In closing, I would like to point out an interesting coincidence and paradox, keeping especially in mind that the Scottish Coronation Stone lay beneath the English Coronation Throne for so many years. In the following account, the two Andrews and their two flags seem both significant and highly symbolic .

On St Andrews Day, 30th November 1996, Scotland's coronation stone, the Stone of Destiny, was installed in Edinburgh Castle. About 10,000 people lined the Royal Mile to watch the procession of dignitaries and troops escort the stone from Holyrood Palace to the castle. In a service at St. Giles Cathedral, the Church of Scotland Moderator, the Right Reverend John MacIndoe, formally accepted the stone's return saying it would "strengthen the proud distinctiveness of the people of Scotland.

Once inside the castle the stone was laid on an oak table before the grand fireplace of the early 16th century Great Hall. The Scottish Secretary of State Michael Forsyth ceremoniously received it from Prince Andrew, who was representing the Queen.

Outside the castle, under clear blue skies, a twenty-one gun salute was fired from the Half-Moon Battery, echoed by the HMS Newcastle lying anchored off Leith harbour in the Firth of Forth. When asked of an official why the Scottish flag, the Saltire (St. Andrews Cross) was not flying at the highest point, he replied that because Prince Andrew, (second son of the Queen) was inside, the flag of the United Kingdom, the Union Jack, had to fly on top.

This seemed to summarize the paradox: The Stone of Destiny, traditional coronation stone of Scottish Kings and Queens, was stolen by English King Edward the First 700 years ago and is still a powerful symbol of Scottish independence. But its return comes with no promises of real or even partial independence for today's Scotland.

And yet perhaps the Stone of Destiny has spoken, and still speaks! Here's another account, again excerpted and slightly reworded .

Dalriadic Kings were enthroned at sacred ceremonies in which the enthroning stone, blessed by St. Patrick, was used. The Stone embodied St. Patrick's message that wherever the Stone lay, the race of Erc should reign. Hence the Stone's title—Stone of Destiny. Erc was the first King of the Antrim Dal Riata tribe, and Antrim is, of course, in Ireland. After many years and battles with the Picts, Britons and Saxons alongside others, Kenneth I, 36th King of Dalriada, moved his seat to Scotland. He moved it, in fact, to Scone, in Perthshire.

The Stone was used at Iona, Dunadd, Dunstaffnage and Scone for enthroning Dalriadic monarchs. In 1292 John Balliol became the last King to use the Stone in Scotland, as it was removed by Edward I of England in 1296, taken south and placed in Westminster Abbey. Edward believed, mistakenly, that possession of the Stone gave him sovereignty over Scotland. In 1328 the Scots seemed to have won the Stone's return under the Treaty of Northampton, but the Stone never moved from underneath the Coronation Throne in the Abbey, as the English reneged on the promise.

So, by now you might be asking yourself why St. Patrick's blessing embodied in the Stone has Failed? Well, it hasn't really. If you'll remember that wherever the Stone rests, the race of Erc shall rule, we'll go on.

The Scottish Kings were descended from the Irish Kings. It follows that the royal line of Scots are descendants of the first Dalriadic King—King Erc. The English royal line Failed with Elizabeth I in 1603 thereafter, James VI of Scotland also became James I of England. Apart from a brief spell between 1649 and 1660, when the English refused to hold Charles II of Scotland as their monarch, the Scots have been the true descendants of what is now held to be the British royal family. So Elizabeth II, the present Queen, is in fact a descendent of Erc. St. Patrick's blessing seems to have worked, and the Stone of Destiny has fulfilled its promise. King Erc's family still reigns.

From 1603, when James VI of Scotland took the throne in England, to the present day, the Stone of Destiny has been used in the Westminster coronation of every single 'British' monarch.

Perhaps Elizabeth II, whose coronation was held in Westminster Abbey in 1952, should have travelled to Scone! [In the eyes of many Scots, the "legitimacy" of kings and queens to rule over Scotland depends on whether or not the current Stone of Scone (currently ensconced at Edinburgh, not Scone) is the true Liath F il, the true Stone of Destiny. If the true Liath F il is still at Scone, the Scots may yet be able to prove the English monarchs to be "illegitimate."—MRB]

If you're interested in "things mysterious," you may be interested in these other Mysterious Ways pages:

No Hell in the Bible
A Direct Experience with Universal Love
Two Tales of the Night Sky
Genie-Angels
Darkness
Michael, Wonderful and Glorious
The Poisonous Tomato
Of Mother Teresa, Angels and the Poorest of the Poor
Thy Will Be Done (Iron Lung)
Did Jesus Walk on the Water?
Mysterious Ways Index


Symbolic gesture

Five months later the students placed the stone, also known as the Stone of Scone, in Arbroath Abbey.

The authorities had it taken back to Westminster Abbey, but in 1996 it was returned to Scotland as a symbolic gesture and is now kept at Edinburgh Castle.

Ms Matheson, who later became a teacher and Gaelic scholar, and the others were not prosecuted.

Mr Hamilton told The Observer newspaper in 2008, when a film based on his book about the 1950s incident was released, that the government had feared Scots would take to the streets if the students had ended up in the courts.

American actress Kate Mara portrayed Ms Matheson in the movie, Stone of Destiny. Charlie Cox, Billy Boyd and Robert Carlyle also starred.

Another film, An Ceasnachadh, focused on Ms Matheson's interrogation by the authorities. Gaelic singer Kathleen MacInnes played the role of Ms Matheson.

It also told of her dedication to Gaelic and how she drew inspiration from the works of Victorian Gaelic poet Mairi Mhor nan Oran - Big Mary of the Songs.

Ms Matheson was living in a care home at Aultbea, near Loch Ewe, when she died.

Rob Gibson, SNP MSP for Caithness, Sutherland and Ross, paid tribute to her.

He said: "Her exploits in retrieving the stone made her one of the immortals in Scottish nationalist history."

Mr Gibson said she had worked hard to revive the use of Gaelic in Wester Ross and was a popular and respected teacher and figure in the local community.

Lib Dem MP Charles Kennedy described Ms Matheson as an "inspirational force".

He said: "The redoubtable Kay was a truly remarkable character, one of whom I was truly fond and someone who was tremendously kind towards me.

"I was apprehensive in the extreme when I first stood locally in 1983 to find Kay - of Stone of Destiny fame - as my SNP opponent.

"In fact we hit it off so well that a firm friendship was formed."


Just history.

The Stone of Destiny Photo Credit- www.englishmonoarchs.co.uk

The Stone of Scone doesn’t look like much. It is a simple red sandstone block 26 inches in length by 16.75 inches wide, and 10.5 inches deep with chisel marks on its flat top. There is also a carved cross and iron rings on each end. However, it has been used in the coronation of Scottish Kings since the time of the kingdom of Dal Riata (Dalriada). Legend says it was the rock that pillowed Jacob’s head in Bethel after he wrestled with angel, and was later used as the pedestal for the Ark of the Covenant. Then it ended up in Scotland by way of Spain and Ireland. The Celtic name of it is An Lia Fàil or “the speaking stone”. In legend, it was supposed to proclaim the rightful king.

In 574, St. Columba used the Stone as a coronation seat when crowning Aedan as King of Dal Riata. From there a tradition was born. When Kenneth I moved the capital to Scone in Perthshire around 840, the Stone came too giving it one of its names. The traditional site of the coronation moved to Moot Hill near Scone Castle. There it stayed for over 400 years.

In 1296, Edward I, the self proclaimed Hammer of the Scots, had the Stone removed from Scone and taken to Westminster Abbey. The Stone was then fitted into bottom of a wooden throne known as King Edward’s Chair. All subsequent English monarchs were crowned using this chair, symbolically cementing their triumph over Scotland. The Treaty of Northampton in 1358, guaranteed the return of the Stone to Scotland, but crowds descended on Westminster Abbey rioting against its removal. It was left in the coronation chair, and after the ascension of James I it became a Moot point.

The coronation chair in Westminster Abbey, at a time when the Stone of Destiny was still in situ. Photo Credit- http://www.philipcoppens.com/stone_destiny.html

Still, the Scots were not thrilled at this bit of theater and it continued to grate some of them long after the Act of Union. Christmas Day 1950, Scottish nationalists stole the Stone. It was returned by April of the next year, but questions abound. Was it the same Stone returned?

The mystery deepens as legends say Edward I did not take the real Stone to England in 1296. Monks at Scone were thought to have hidden the true stone in the River Tay or buried in Dunsinnan Hill near Scone or sent for safekeeping to the Isle of Skye or the Hebrides. Geologists confirm that the Stone is “old lower red sandstone”, similar to the type quarried around Scone. Earlier descriptions say the Stone was a darker color, possibly marble or basalt. This theory has some prominent adherents, including former First Minister of Scotland, Alex Salmond. In an interview in 2008, he said, “If you’re the abbot of Scone and the strongest and most ruthless king in Christendom is charging toward you in 1296 to steal Scotland’s most sacred object and probably put you and half of your cohorts to death, do you do nothing and wait until he arrives or do you hide yourself and the stone somewhere convenient in the Perthshire hillside? I think the second myself.”

Forgery or artifact, the Stone kept at Westminster Abbey was returned to Scotland on November 30, 1996. On that St. Andrew’s Day, 10,000 watched the Stone solemnly process up the Royal Mile to be formally accepted back by Scotland in a service at St. Giles Cathedral. A powerful symbol of Scottish independence was home.


The Myths of the Stone of Scone/Destiny


Stone of Destiny as it used to be "housed" in the Coronation Throne.

The Celtic name of the stone now in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey is Lia Fail, "the speaking stone", which named the king who would be chosed. Cambray in his "Monuments Celtiques" claims to have seen the stone when it bore the inscription: Ni fallat fatum, Scoti quocumque locatum Invenient lapidiem, regnasse tenetur ibidem: If the Destiny prove true, then the Scots are known to have been Kings where'er men find this stone.

A few miles up the river from Perth is the site of the historic Abbey of Scone, where the kings of Scotland were crowned. But the glory of Scone has long departed, for, even in the time of the writing of the old "Statistical Account". "on the spot where our ancient kings were crowned there now grows a clump of trees." At Scone the Coronation Stone or Stone of Destiny was "reverently kept for the consecration of the kings of Alba" and, according to an old chronicler, "no king was ever wont to reign in Scotland unless he had first, on receiving the royal name, sat upon this stone at Scone, which by the kings of old had been appointed to the capital of Alba." The Stone of Destiny, now in Westminster Abbey (at the time this was written), is an oblong block of RED SANDSTONE, some 26 inches long by 16 inches broad, and 10 1/2 inches deep: on the flat top of the stone are the marks of chiselling.

Tradition (legend) affirms that it is the same stone stone which Jacob used as a pillow at Bethel and then set up as a pillar and anointed with oil: later, according to Jewish tradition (possible legend), it became the pedestal of the ark in the Temple. The stone was brought from Syria to Egypt by Gathelus, who in order to escape the plague, sailed, on the advice of Moses, from the Nile with his wife and the Stone of Destiny, and landed in Spain. Gathelus sent the stone to Eire when he had invaded that country, and it was later brought to Scotland where it remained in the Abbey of Scone until, in the year 1296, Edward I of England carried it off to Westminster Abbey in England.

An interseting tradition (again possibly legend) that had been given me (Seton Gordon) by the Earl of Mansfield, whose family have owned the lands of Scone for more than 300 years. The tradition, which has been handed down through several generations, is that, somewhere around the dates 1795-1820, a farm lad had been wandering with a friend on Dunsinnan, the site of MacBeth's Castle, soon after a violent storm. The torrential rain had caused a landslide, and as a result of this fissure, which seemed to penetrate deep into the hillside, was visible. The two men procured some form of light and explored the fissure. They came at last to the broken wall of a subterranean chamber. In one corner of the chamber was a stair which was blocked with debris, and in the centre of the chamber they saw a slb of stone covered with markings and supported by four stone "legs". As there was no other evidence of "treasure" in the subterranean apartment the two men did not realise the importance of their "find" and did not talk of what they had seen. Some years later one of the men first heard the local tradition, that on the approach of the King Edward I , the monks of Scone hurriedly removed the Stone of Destiny to a place of safe concealment and took from the Annety Burn a stone of similar size and shape, which the English King carried off in triumph. When he heard this legend, the man hurried back to Dunisinnan Hill, but whether his memory was at fault regarding the site of the landslide, or whether the passage of time, or a fresh slide of earth, had obliterated the cavity, thefact remains that he was unable to locate the opening in the hillside. It may be asked why the monks of Scone, after the English king had returned to England, did not bring back to the abbey the original Stone of Destiny, but the tradition accounts for this explaining that it was not considered safe at the time to allow the English to know that they had been tricked, and that when the days of possible retribution were past, the monks who had known the secret were dead. This tradition, it is held, explains why the Coronation Stone in Westminster Abbey resembles geologically the sandstone commonly found in the neighbourhood of Scone.

This states clearly that the stone is of red sandstone and although in person appears brown-grey, geologists assure it is indeed sandstone inside.
Many scientists believe that the stone, despite all the high-flying mythical background, probably came from a local area considering the type of stone. It most likely came from the times of the Dal Riata kings of Scotland and Ireland (Circa 500 AD, see Story of Scotland, Ch. 1 for details), and possibly brought to Scotland from Ireland to coronate early Scots kings in Dunadd, and was later moved. Taken from "Highways and byways in the Central Highlands".


1996: The Stone of Destiny

On St Andrews Day, 30th November 1996, Scotland's coronation stone, the Stone of Destiny, was installed in Edinburgh Castle. About 10,000 people lined the Royal Mile to watch the procession of dignitaries and troops escort the stone from Holyrood Palace to the castle. In a service at St Giles cathedral the Church of Scotland Moderator, the Right Reverend John MacIndoe, formally accepted the stone's return saying it would "strengthen the proud distinctiveness of the people of Scotland".

Once inside the castle the stone was laid on an oak table before the grand fireplace of the early 16th century Great Hall. The Scottish Secretary of State Michael Forsyth ceremoniously received it from Prince Andrew, who was representing the Queen.

Outside the castle, under clear blue skies, a twenty-one gun salute was fired from the Half-Moon Battery, echoed by HMS Newcastle lying anchored off Leith harbour in the Firth of Forth. When asked of an official why the Scottish flag, the Saltire (St Andrews Cross) was not flying at the highest point. He replied that because Prince Andrew, (second son of the Queen) was inside, the flag of the United Kingdom, the Union Jack, had to fly on top.

This seemed to summarize the paradox: The Stone of Destiny, traditional coronation stone of Scottish Kings and Queens was stolen by English King Edward the First 700 years ago and is still a powerful symbol of Scottish independence. But its return comes with no promises of real or even partial independence for today's Scotland.


Stone of Scone Timeline - History

CAPSULE REPORT: The history of the scone and its companion, clotted cream. This is Page 1 of a two-page article. Click on the black links below to visit Page 2.

Scone History

Scones are traditionally connected with Scotland, Ireland and England, but exactly who deserves the honor of invention, no one knows for sure. Scones may well have originated in Scotland. The first known print reference, in 1513, is from a Scottish poet. However, in earlier eras, when communications were more limited, the creation of an actual item can have predated the first appearance of printed references by many years. Centuries ago, there weren&rsquot newspapers that reported on the minutiae of life the way ours do. There were no food columns in the local papers proclaiming that &ldquoMcTavish Bakery has created a new griddle-fried oatcake called a scone&mdashnow available at 3 Sheepshead Lane.&rdquo In fact, there were few newspapers. Much of the population was not literate. So, culinary historians rely on cookbooks and mentions in literature and other printed records. Given the perishability of these items, it is logical to think that many first-printed mentions of foods and other items may not have survived.

Scones are related to the ancient Welsh tradition of cooking small round yeast cakes (leavened breads) on bakestones, and later on griddles. One claim, probably not the best, says that scones are named for the Stone (scone) of Destiny, a stone upon which Scottish kings once sat when they were crowned (the Abbey of Scone can still be found, upriver from Perth but the Stone of Destiny was long ago removed to Westminster Abbey). Other contenders include the Gaelic &ldquosgonn&rdquo (rhymes with gone), a shapeless mass or large mouthful the Dutch &ldquoschoonbrot,&rdquo fine white bread and the closely-related German &ldquosconbrot,&rdquo fine or beautiful bread. The Oxford English Dictionary favors the latter two.

Originally, scones were made with oats, shaped into a large round, scored into four or six wedges (triangles) and griddle-baked over an open fire (later, a stovetop). With the advent of oven baking, the round of dough was cut into wedges and the scones were baked individually.

Today&rsquos scones are quick breads, similar to American biscuits. They are traditionally made with wheat flour, sugar, baking powder or baking soda, butter, milk and eggs, and baked in the oven&mdashboth in the traditional wedge form and in round, square and diamond shapes. This recipe produces a hard, dry texture.

Traditional English scones may include raisins or currants, but are often plain, relying on jam, preserves, lemon curd or honey for added flavor&mdashperhaps with a touch of clotted cream (see definition below). Fancy scones&mdashwith dried fruit such as cranberries and dates, nuts, orange rind, chocolate morsels and other flavorings&mdashare best enjoyed without butter and jam.

You may have heard two different pronunciations for &ldquoscone.&rdquo Which is the authentic one? They both are! The word is pronounced &ldquoskahn&rdquo in Scotland and Northern England (rhymes with gone) and &ldquoskoan&rdquo in the south of England (rhymes with own), the pronunciation adopted by the U.S. and Canada.

Lifestyle Direct, Inc. All rights reserved. Photographs are the copyright of their respective owners.

© Copyright 2005-2021 Lifestyle Direct, Inc. All rights reserved. All images are copyrighted to their respective owners.


Tonton videonya: The Ultimate Healthy Blueberry Scones. Amys Healthy Baking