Jenderal Alexander Antoine Hureau de Senarmont, baron (1769-1810)

Jenderal Alexander Antoine Hureau de Senarmont, baron (1769-1810)

Jenderal Alexander Antoine Hureau de Senarmont, baron (1769-1810)

Jenderal Alexander Antoine Hureau, baron de Senarmont (1769-1810) adalah komando artileri Prancis yang terkenal karena 'serangan artilerinya' di pertempuran Friedland.

Senarmont lahir di Strasbourg, putra seorang perwira artileri di tentara Kerajaan. Dia dididik di sekolah artileri di Metz, dan ditugaskan ke Artileri pada tahun 1785, begitu juga anggota tentara pra-revolusioner. Meskipun demikian karirnya berlanjut ke tentara Revolusioner.

Pada tahun 1800 ia menjadi perhatian publik karena keterampilan yang ia gunakan untuk memindahkan artileri Tentara Cadangan Napoleon melintasi Pegunungan Alpen ke Italia, dan karena cara ia memimpin artileri pada pertempuran Marengo.

Senarmont bertempur di Austerlitz. Dia dipromosikan menjadi jenderal de brigade pada tahun 1806 dan menjadi komando sekolah lamanya.

Saat penobatan Senarmont datang selama Perang Koalisi Keempat (1806-1807). Pada pertempuran Friedland sayap kanan Napoleon diperlukan untuk mendorong Rusia kembali di sepanjang tanjung sempit antara sungai dan aliran sisi curam. Senarmont membentuk dua baterai artileri yang maju bersama infanteri terkemuka. Kedua baterai artileri ini maju semakin dekat ke Rusia, akhirnya menembaki mereka dari jarak dekat. Mereka bahkan mengalahkan serangan kavaleri Rusia. Serangan ini membuktikan bahwa artileri bisa menjadi senjata ofensif dalam situasi yang tepat. Senarmont diangkat menjadi baron sebagai hadiah atas prestasinya di Friedland.

Senarmont ditunjuk sebagai kepala artileri untuk Korps I Victor di Spanyol. Dia bertempur di pertempuran Somosierra (29-30 November 1808), dan dipromosikan menjadi jenderal divisi. Dia menggunakan taktik baterai artileri massal yang sama pada pertempuran Ocana (19 November 1809). Dia kemudian mengambil bagian dalam pengepungan Cadiz yang panjang dan gagal (5 Februari 1810-24 Agustus 1812). Pada Oktober 1810, selama pengepungan, dia terkena peluru dan terbunuh.

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Alexandre-Antoine Hureau, Baron de Sénarmont

Alexandre-Antoine Hureau, Baron de Sénarmont war ein französischer Général de division und ein Pionier der modernen Artillerie Taktik.
Di der Schlacht von Friedland, demonstrierte er Napoleon am 14. Im Juni 1807, die Effizienz einer konzentrierten Artillerie-Massierung. Der Kaiser verwendet diese Technik erfolgreich in der Schlacht von Wagram, die Schlacht bei Borodino und der Feldzug von 1813.
Sein Name ist verewigt in der Krypta des Pantheons, wo seine einbalsa minimiert Herz ruht in einer Urne.

1. Karriere. (Karier)
Als der Sohn des Général Alexandre-François de Senarmont, trat er am 1. Agustus 1784 als ein Aspirant in die "Ecole dapplication de lartillerie et du génie" zum Beispiel: die Artillerie-und Pionier Sachen pusat pelatihan di Metz. Am 1. September 1785, trat er wieder und zugewiesen wurde, den Rang eines Leutnants in der "3 e régiment dartillerie" di Besançon natürlich. Er diente dann seinem Vater als Aide de camp von der Armée du Centre der Armée du Nord.
Im Jahre 1792 lebih baik dari sebelumnya Hauptmann der Artillerie und nahm di dieser Eigenschaft im Jahre 1794 bei der Belagerung von Charleroi und die Schlacht von Fleurus. 13. November des gleichen Jahres wurde er zum Chef de Bataillon und die Abordnung der Sous-arah sub-arah von Douai. Im Jahr 1797 nahm er an der Schlacht von Neuwied und wurde behandelt, danach als Chef de Bataillon das Comité central dartillery zentralen Artillerie-Ausschuss. Im Jahre 1798, er war der Zustand des Chef-d-major de lartillery de larmée de réserve Stabschef der Artillerie der reserve-Armee bestellte. Im Jahr 1799 zog er mit der Italien-Armee über den Großen St. Bernard. Im Jahr 1800 nahm er Teil an der Schlacht von Montebello, 14. Juni, wurde gefördert, um temporäre Oberst des Regiments von Artillerie. Perang Der Anlass der Verdienst war, die volle Teilnahme an der Schlacht von Marengo. 21. Januar 1802, perang Ernennung zum Kommandeur der 6 e régiment dartillery pied 6. Artillerie-regiment zu Fu di Rennes. Am 8. Im Dezember 1803 wurde er übertragen auf das Büro des Chefs des Generalstabs der Artillerie im Lager von Brest. Hier die französische Armee sammelte sich für die Invasion von Großbritannien. Vier Tage später, die Reihenfolge der Legion der Ehre wurde ihm verliehen.
Am 9. Juni 1804 erhielt er die nächst höhere Stufe der Ehrenlegion, Officier de la Légion dhonneur. Im folgenden Jahr, er ging in das Lager bei Boulogne-sur-Mer zur Teilnahme an den Vorbereitungen für die Landung di Inggris zu beteiligen. Er schrieb an seinen Sohn:
Im Jahre 1806 erfolgte die Beförderung zum Général de brigade und erhielt das Kommando über die Artillerie der Grande Armée. Die Kampagnen di Preußen und Polen mit der Teilnahme an den Schlachten von Jena, Eylau, Friedland, und in den Verhandlungen über den Frieden von Tilsit folgte.
Während der Schlacht bei Eylau am 3. Im März 1807 wurde er zum Kommandeur der Ehrenlegion, Commandant de la Légion d honneur". die band und nahm eine Beurlaubung und übernahm das Amt des Präsidenten des Collège verfügbar d Eure-et-Loire.
Am 2. Juli 1808, wurde er vom Kaiser Napoleon zum Baron des Empire. 26. Im August erhielt er den Befehl, die Armee di Spanyol, zu präsentieren und zu berichten, um den Maréchal Victor. Am 2. Im September war er bei der Kapitulation von Madrid, di Anwesenheit von, und befördert wurde bei dieser Gelegenheit zum Général de division. 22. Im November erhielt er den Orden Chevalier de la Couronne de Fer, Ritter der Eisernen Krone. Er war dann beteiligt, im selben Jahr, auf den Sieg in der Schlacht bei Somosierra.
Am 9. Im März 1809 er panglima tertinggi Kommandant wurde Chef der Artillerie der Armee di Spanien, und ersetzt di dieser Funktion durch den General Jean Ambroise Baston de Lariboisière. Er nahm Teil an der Schlacht von Uclés, in der Schlacht von Talavera und die Schlacht von Almonacid de Toledo. Nach der Schlacht von Ocaña, ekspedisi und die nach Andalusien zu Folgen war.
26. Im Oktober 1810 wurde er verwundet von einer englischen Kugel getroffen, als er dabei war zu organisieren, die Belagerung von Cadiz und El Puerto de Santa María. Er perang begraben di der Kirche von Santa Ana de Chiclana.
Werden einbalsa minimiert Herz wurde auf Befehl von Napoleon, die ab dem 17. Januar 1811 di das Pantheon di Paris, übertragen und traf dort auf 5. Juni 1811, ein. Die Laudatio wurde gehalten von Jenderal Jean Ambroise Baston de Lariboisière.
Invasi Während der französischen di Spanien, der Général de division Vicomte schrieb Tirlet, der Kommandant der Artillerie von Amédée de Senarmont:

Schrenck, Alexander Gustav von.

Agassiz, Alexander 1835 1910 1 Ahlefeld, 1 Chamberlain, Alexander Francis 1865 1914 1 Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de 1744 1829 1 Lambert, Johann Senarmont, Henri Hureau de 1808 1862 1 ​. Biologiewerke dalam Alexander von Humboldts Bibliothek GRIN. Griechisch und Deutsch, mit Anmerkungen von Dr. Alexander von Frantzius. dan memiliki beberapa catatan pensil dalam tulisan tangan Baron Humboldt 1712 CATALOG de la Bibliothèque scientifique de M. Antoine Laurent Jussieu. Pierre Armand: Ses funérailles avec les discours de M. Henri Hureau de Senarmont, Marie. Index des Findbuchs Singkat von Wilhelm Wundt dan Friedrich Zarncke. Sainte Croix, Guillaume Emmanuel Joseph de Clermont Lodève, Baron de Salcedo, Schleinitz, Alexander Freiherr von → Schleinitz, Alexander, Graf von Schleinitz, Semper, Karl Gottfried Senarclens, Claude de Sénarmont, Henri Hureau de Silvestre de Sacy, Antoine Isaac → Sacy, Antoine Isaac Silvestre de. Geologi di Perpustakaan AvHs. Biologiewerke dalam Alexander von Humboldts Bibliothek Biologie dan memiliki beberapa catatan pensil dalam tulisan tangan Baron Humboldt 1712 KATALOG de la Bibliothèque scientifique de M. Antoine Laurent Jussieu. 2469 Dufrénoy, Pierre Armand: Ses funérailles avec les discours de M. Henri Hureau de Senarmont,. Alexandre Antoine Stockfotos dan bilder Kaufen Alamy. Abbildung Von Militäruniformen Gemerkt von: daniel aguilera fernandez. 1 Louis Alexandre Berthier 1753 1815 nel 1776 generale Marshal Masséna Baron Antoine Jean Gros 1771 1835 Marshal Massena.


Pierre Etienne DE BUSNEL

  • Menikah dengan Anne Catherine LEPOIRE , dibaptis 30 Oktober 1724 - , Philippeville, Province de Namur, Belgique, meninggal 17 Januari 1769 - , Philippeville, Province de Namur, Belgique berusia 44 tahun (Orang tua : Sébastien François LEPOIRE 1702-1765 & Marie Catherine GERBOUX 1705-1769 ) dengan
    • Pierre Marc René DE BUSNEL 1745-1745
    • Sébastien Pierre Marie DE BUSNEL 1746-1746
    • Marie Anne Josphe Rosalie DE BUSNEL 1747- Telah menikah 8 Februari 1768, , Philippeville, provinsi Namur, Belgia, kePhilippe Rémy Nicolas BIDET DE JUZANCOURT, Seigneur de Juzancourt 1737-1806 dengan
    • Rosalie Catherine Nicole BIDET DE JUZANCOURT 1768-
    • Pauline Louise Victoire BIDET DE JUZANCOURT 1770-
    • Jacques Etienne Henry BIDET DE JUZANCOURT 1771-1772
    • Henriette Pauline Anne BIDET DE JUZANCOURT 1774-1859 Menikah denganJean Jacques LIEBERT, baron de Nitray 1758-1814
    • Perrette Julie BIDET DE JUZANCOURT 1780-

    • Marie Joseph Henriette Rosalie HUFTY 1774-1815 Menikah denganAlexandre Antoine HUREAU de SENARMONT, Baron de SNARMONT 1769-1810 dengan :
    • Alexandre Hippolyte HUREAU de SNARMONT, Baron 1794-1870
    • Henriette HUREAU DE SENARMONT 1798-1798
    • Henriette Désirée HUREAU DE SENARMONT 1800-1874
    • />Hippolyte HUFTY 1812-1849
    • />Louis HUFTY 1814-
    • Victor HARDY 1798-1881
    • Felix HARDY 1800-1855
    • Edouard HARDY 1871

    Keluarga

    Alexandre-Antoine Hureau de Sénarmont hatte zwei Kinder, Alexandre-Hyppolyte (1794�) dan Henriette-Désirພ (1800�). Nachdem die erbliche Baronie im Jahre 1817 perang kata terbaik, pengembara Alexandre-Hippolyte auf die Île de la Réunion aus, wo er nach zwei Ehen eine zahlreiche Nachkommenschaft hinterließ.

    Sein Neffe Henri Hureau de Senarmont (1808�) wurde ein erfolgreicher Physiker und Geologe, der sich speziell mit der Erforschung des Nordlichts, der Wärmeleitfähigkeit der Kristalle, morphden optischen. besch๏tigte. Er hielt einen Lehrstuhl für Mineralogie an der französischen Bergbauschule.


    Apartemen Grand Versailles Palace – Queen’s (Prancis)

    Apartemen Grand Ratu (apartemen besar de la reine), suite kamar, dengan kemegahan luar biasa, di Istana Versailles yang disediakan untuk penggunaan pribadi sang ratu, menghadap ke Parterre du Midi dan membentuk enfilade paralel dengan Apartemen Agung Raja (apartemen besar du roi,).

    Apartemen ratu berfungsi sebagai kediaman tiga ratu Prancis, awalnya diatur untuk penggunaan Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche (istri Louis XIV, dia meninggal tidak lama setelah pindah, pada tahun 1683), oleh Marie Leczinska (istri Louis XV) dan, akhirnya, untuk Adipati Agung Austria Marie-Antoinette (istri Louis XVI). Selain itu, Putri Marie-Adélaïde dari Savoy (Duchesse de Bourgogne), menantu perempuan Louis XIV dan istri dari Petit Dauphin, menempati kamar-kamar ini dari tahun 1697 (tahun pernikahannya) hingga kematiannya pada tahun 1712.

    Ketika Louis Le Vau's amplop dari istana tua (kastil vieux) selesai, Queen’s Grand Apartment dilengkapi dengan suite tujuh kamar enfilade di lantai pertama di sayap kiri dengan tata letak simetris sempurna yang mencerminkan, hampir persis, Grand Apartment of the King di sayap kanan.

    Kapel itu berkorespondensi dengan Salon de Diane di Apartemen Agung Raja, the Salle de Gardes ke Salon Mars (Salon de Mars), Antichambre ke Salon Merkurius (Salon de Mercure), NS ruang ke Salon Apollo (Salon d'Apollon), Kabinet Agung ke Salon Jupiter (Salon de Jupiter), Oratorium ke Salon Saturnus (Salon de Saturne) dan Kabinet Petit ke Salon Venus (Salon de Venus).

    Berkaitan dengan dekorasi langit-langit, yang ada di Grand Apartment of the King menggambarkan tindakan heroik Louis XIV sebagai alegori dari peristiwa yang diambil dari masa lalu yang antik sedangkan dekorasi di Grand Apartment Queen's menggambarkan pahlawan wanita dari masa lalu yang antik dan diselaraskan dengan tema umum dekorasi ruangan tertentu.

    Pembangunan Hall of Mirrors, yang dimulai pada 1678, mengubah konfigurasi Apartemen Grand Queen's. Kapel diubah menjadi Ruang Pengawal Ratu (salle des gardes de la reine) dan dekorasi dari salon de jupiter digunakan kembali di sini. Ruang Penjaga Ratu berkomunikasi dengan loggia yang keluar dari Tangga Ratu (escalier de la reine), yang sesuai (walaupun contoh yang lebih kecil, meskipun didekorasi serupa) dengan Tangga Duta Besar (escalier des ambassadeurs ) di Apartemen Grand King's.

    Loggia juga menyediakan akses ke King’s Grand Apartment. Menjelang akhir masa pemerintahan Louis XIV, Tangga Ratu menjadi pintu masuk utama ke istana, dengan Tangga Duta Besar digunakan pada acara-acara kenegaraan yang langka. Pada tahun 1752, setelah penghancuran Tangga Duta Besar, Tangga Ratu menjadi pintu masuk utama ke istana.

    Namun, ini segera berubah ketika raja memutuskan untuk menyisihkan semua kamar di sekitar Halaman Marmer untuk apartemen barunya, membatasi ruang ratu untuk Apartemen Negara (yang dimodifikasi oleh Marie Leczinska dan kemudian Marie-Antoinette) dan beberapa kamar yang lebih kecil untuk penggunaan yang lebih pribadi, terletak di belakang apartemen resmi, menghadap ke dua halaman dalam. Apartemen Ratu terdiri dari Kamar Tidur Ratu (Chambre de la reine), Kamar Bangsawan, Ruang Depan ke Grand Couvert (sebelumnya Salle des gardes) dan Ruang Penjaga Ratu (Salle des gardes de la reine).

    Pada tahun 1729, untuk memperingati kelahiran putra satu-satunya dan pewarisnya, Louis, Louis XV memerintahkan dekorasi ulang ruangan secara menyeluruh. Elemen Kamar Tidur Ratu (chambre de la reine), seperti yang telah digunakan oleh Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche dan Putri Marie-Adélaïde dari Savoy, telah dihapus dan dekorasi baru yang lebih modern dipasang.

    Selama hidupnya di Queen's Grand Apartment, Marie Leszczynska (1703-1768) menganeksasi salon de la berbayar berfungsi sebagai ruang musik. Pada tahun 1770, ketika Marie-Antoinette menikahi dauphin (kemudian Louis XVI), dia tinggal di kamar ini dan, setelah Louis XVI naik takhta pada tahun 1774, memerintahkan dekorasi ulang besar-besaran dari Apartemen Grand Queen yang mencapai pengaturan yang kita lihat hari ini.

    Kamar Tidur, ruangan terpenting di apartemen, adalah tempat Ratu menghabiskan sebagian besar waktunya, tempat dia tidur (seringkali dengan raja) dan, di pagi hari, tempat dia menerima tamu selama dan setelah toiletnya (seperti Raja mendapatkan -up upacara, itu adalah urusan sopan yang dikendalikan oleh etiket yang ketat).

    Di sini juga ratu melahirkan, di depan umum (sebenarnya menyesatkan karena, pada kenyataannya, hanya dokter, dayang, pengasuh Pangeran dan Putri Kerajaan, Putri keluarga kerajaan dan beberapa anggota kerajaan. gereja diizinkan untuk masuk) ke Pangeran dan Putri Kerajaan. Ratu ditempatkan di ranjang persalinan yang khusus dibawa, dan disembunyikan di balik tirai atau tenda kanvas.

    Patung Marie Antoinette

    Setelah melahirkan, dia dikembalikan ke tempat tidurnya sendiri sementara seluruh pengadilan (menunggu di kamar lain di Apartemen yang pintunya semua secara simbolis dibiarkan terbuka) masuk untuk memberikan pujian mereka. Antara 1682 dan 1786, 19 Pangeran dan Putri Kerajaan lahir di sini dan dua ratu meninggal di sini (Maria-Theresa pada 1683 dan Marie Leszczyńska pada 1768).

    Dekorasi di kamar, masih mencerminkan tiga ratu yang pernah menempatinya, menampilkan partisi di langit-langit yang berasal dari masa pemerintahan ratu Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, lukisan abu-abu oleh François Boucher dan panel kayu ditambahkan untuk Marie Leszczyńska, semuanya elemen yang bertahan pada masa pemerintahan Marie-Antoinette yang menggantikan perabotan dan perapian dan memasang lukisan ibunya Permaisuri Maria-Theresa dan saudara laki-lakinya, Kaisar Joseph II.

    Lemari perhiasan, ditugaskan untuk Schwerdfeger oleh Marie-Antoinette, ditempatkan pada posisi aslinya di ceruk di sebelah kiri tempat tidur. Jam Baillo dan Bulan Sabit 1745 Marie-Antoinette yang ditempatkan di kamar tidur telah dikembalikan ke tempatnya. Barang-barang lain yang dikembalikan ke kamar termasuk cerobong asap Sené's, andirons oleh Boizot dan Thomire dan seprai oleh Desfarges.

    Perabotan lain yang dijual dalam lelang yang berlangsung setahun, seperti sofa yang dikirim untuk Countess of Provence (adik ipar ratu), telah diganti dengan barang serupa. Kursi berlengan oleh Tilliard dan bangku lipat diambil dari suite kamar milik Countess d’Artois. Kain, tergantung di tempat tidur dan dinding, ditenun ulang di Lyon menggunakan pola asli tempat tidur dan langkan telah dibuat ulang dan karpet Savonnerie ditenun menggunakan dokumen kuno.

    Kabinet Besar, sekarang Kamar Bangsawan (salon des bangsawan), digunakan sebagai ruang depan kedua di mana Ratu Marie Leszczyńska (dan, kemudian, Marie-Antoinette) mengadakan audiensi formal, duduk di bawah kanopi, serta Lingkarannya (nama yang diberikan untuk waktu yang dihabiskan dalam percakapan yang teratur oleh para wanita dari pengadilan). Saat tidak digunakan untuk audiensi formal, Kamar Bangsawan berfungsi sebagai ruang depan untuk kamar tidur ratu.

    Pada tahun 1785, Marie-Antoinette, yang tidak terlalu menyukai gaya ruangan Louis XIV, mempercayakan kepada Richard Mique, arsiteknya, untuk mendekorasi ulang sepenuhnya (kecuali langit-langit yang dipertahankan). Damask hijau apel, berbatasan dengan garis emas lebar, digantung di dinding, dan perabotan baru yang sangat modern dan halus dikirimkan.

    Saat membuat toilet megah dan lemari sudut untuk ruangan, pembuat lemari favorit ratu Riesener mengikuti mode Inggris terbaru dengan meninggalkan tatakan biasa demi panel besar dari kayu mahoni. Dalam koleksi yang luar biasa ini, dekorasi perunggu berlapis emas dan meja-meja kecil dari marmer Bleu Turquin cocok dengan dekorasi di perapian baru.

    Mercury Menyebarkan Pengaruhnya atas Seni (Michel Corneille)

    Lukisan langit-langit, oleh Michel Corneille, menggambarkan Mercury Menyebarkan Pengaruhnya atas Seni.

    Potret Permadani Louis XV (Cozette)

    Potret permadani Louis XV oleh Cozette tergantung di dinding, dengan lukisan mitologis karya Francois Boucher. Ornamen mantel menunjukkan pengaruh Turki sedangkan toilet dan lemari sudut, oleh Riesner dan Gouthière, bertanggal 1786. Pintu luar menggambarkan Pygmalion dan Dibutade oleh Regnault sedangkan ornamen perapian perunggu dibuat oleh Gouthière.

    Ruang Depan Grand Couvert

    Secara tradisional, jamuan makan umum di Royal Table atau Grand Couvert (upacara pengadilan yang mewah yang menarik banyak penonton yang penasaran dan berpakaian sopan), yang diambil oleh raja dan anggota keluarga kerajaan, diadakan di Royal Table Antechamber, sekarang Antechamber dari Grand Couvert (Antichambre du Grand Couvert). Duchess, putri atau mereka yang memegang posisi penting duduk di depan mereka di bangku sementara wanita dan orang-orang lain yang pangkatnya mengizinkan mereka masuk atau yang diterima oleh para pengantar berdiri di sekitar mereka. Pada 1680-an, ruangan itu terkadang digunakan sebagai teater untuk château.

    Hampir setiap malam, Louis XIV dengan ketat mengikuti pertunjukan upacara ini (duduk sendirian di meja di depan perapian, sendok, garpu, dan pisaunya dibawa kepadanya dalam kotak emas dan abdi dalem bisa menonton saat dia makan) sedangkan Louis XV , lebih sering, memilih makan malam pribadi. Louis XVI dan Marie-Antoinette hanya makan di Royal Table seminggu sekali, duduk membelakangi perapian. Louis XVI makan dengan baik tetapi Marie Antoinette, yang bosan, meminta agar musik dimainkan selama makan, memasang platform untuk musisi untuk tujuan ini.

    Marie Antoinette dan Anak-anaknya (Elizabeth Louise Vigee Le Brun)

    Dirancang untuk Ratu Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, panel bawah ruangan terbuat dari marmer dan dua lukisan terkenal Marie Antoinette digantung di dinding, termasuk semua anaknya. Potret bibi Louis XVI's oleh Madame Labille-Guiard adalah bagian dari dekorasi. Di atas pintu terdapat karya Madeline de Boulogne tertanggal 1675.

    Lukisan langit-langit Keluarga Darius’ di Kaki Alexander’s (Charles Le Brun)

    Lukisan asli pahlawan wanita kuno yang sangat besar di langit-langit, yang menggambarkan kebajikan kerajaan, oleh seniman Claude-François Vignon dan Paillet, dengan cepat rusak dan, pada tahun 1814-1815, diganti dengan kanvas Veronese Santo Markus Menghargai Kebajikan Teologis. Kemudian, pada tahun 1861, itu digantikan oleh kanvas marouflé yang sama besar saat ini, Keluarga Darius di Kaki Alexander, kartun permadani yang dilukis oleh Henri Testelin setelah karya Le Brun. Plesteran emas dipahat oleh Pierre I Le Gros the Younger dan Benoît Massou.

    Pada 2007, karena tonjolan camaieus di lengkungan, tindakan darurat diambil. Antara April 2009 dan Juli 2010, Ruang Depan Grand Couvert dipugar, berkat sponsor dari Martell & Co. Berkat inventaris 1788 furnitur di ruangan ini (potongannya didokumentasikan dengan baik tetapi sekarang hilang), furniturnya sekarang seperti ketika keluarga kerajaan terpaksa meninggalkan istana, dengan kursi dan bangku zaman Louis XV dengan pelapis pabrik Savonnerie dan meja besar ditempatkan di tengah ruangan seperti ketika Raja dan Ratu duduk untuk Grand Couvert. Untuk membangkitkan peralatan makan kerajaan yang mirip dengan yang digunakan oleh bangsawan Prancis tetapi menghilang selama Revolusi, Louvre meminjamkan peralatan makan perak yang diproduksi untuk George III dari Inggris oleh Robert-Joseph Auguste.

    Musim Gugur atau Kemenangan Bacchus dan Ariadne

    Menghadap ke jendela besar adalah permadani Musim Gugur atau Kemenangan Bacchus dan Ariadne, disimpan di sini oleh Mobilier National dari ansambel di galeri Château de Saint Cloud setelah kartun oleh Pierre Mignard. Kain damask merah tua, ditenun menurut deskripsi yang diberikan oleh dokumen dari paruh pertama abad ke-18, ditempatkan di dinding.

    Ruang Penjaga Ratu, di mana 12 Pengawal Ratu (terdiri dari tentara dari empat kompi elit Pengawal Raja) bertugas siang dan malam, mengontrol akses masuk ke Apartemen Ratu dari Tangga Ratu (juga disebut "Tangga Marmer" ). Pada 1672, ruangan itu digunakan sebagai Kapel dan, pada 1676-1681, menerima dekorasi terakhirnya.

    Karena Ratu tidak pernah menghabiskan waktu di sini dan oleh karena itu tidak perlu memodernisasinya, Ruang Penjaga Ratu adalah satu-satunya kamar di Apartemen di mana dekorasi abad ke-17 telah sepenuhnya dipertahankan, masih berisi panel marmer, disempurnakan dengan perunggu berlapis emas. dirancang oleh Le Brun dan dieksekusi oleh Le Gros dan Massou, karakteristik kondisi asli Apartemen Negara, serta lukisan-lukisan, oleh Noël Coypel, yang dibawa ke sini pada tahun 1680 dari Ruang Gambar Jupiter lama (kemudian digantikan oleh Ruang Perang ).

    Saat fajar pada tanggal 6 Oktober 1789, sekelompok perusuh yang menuntut roti mencoba memasuki Apartemen Ratu. Diperingatkan oleh salah satu penjaga ratu, salah satu wanita yang menunggu berhasil mengunci pintu ke Ruang Depan Grand Couvert dan membantu ratu bergegas, melalui koridor pribadi, ke apartemen raja, melalui kamar pribadinya, dan melarikan diri dari massa Paris.

    Kamar Penjaga Ratu (foto: www.chateauversailles.fr)

    CATATAN:

    Pada Januari 2016, Apartemen Queen ditutup untuk pekerjaan besar dan, pada 16 April, dibuka kembali untuk umum. Kemegahan kamar tidur Marie-Antoinette bergaya Rococo atau Kamar Penjaga Ratu dipulihkan, berkat perlindungan American Friends of Versailles dan Société des Amis de Versailles. Hari ini, rute tur melewati kamar-kamar yang berlawanan arah dengan tatanan tradisional selama kunjungan kami, sekarang dimulai di kamar tidur dan berakhir di Kamar Penjaga Ratu, yang awalnya menandai pintu masuk ke Apartemen Ratu selama Rezim Kuno.

    Apartemen Grand Queen: Lantai Pertama, Chateau De Versailles, Place d'Armes, 78000 Versailles, Prancis. Telp: +33 1 30 83 78 00. Situs web: www.chateauversailles.fr. Buka setiap hari (kecuali pada hari Senin dan 1 Mei), dari pukul 9.00 hingga 18.30. Tiket masuk terakhir pukul 18:00 sementara loket tutup pukul 17:45. Perkebunan Trianon dan Coach Gallery hanya buka pada sore hari sedangkan Park (07.00 hingga 20.30) dan Gardens (8.00 hingga 20.30, kunjungan terakhir: 19.00) buka setiap hari. Akses ke Gardens gratis kecuali pada hari-hari pertunjukan air mancur. Anda dapat mengakses perkebunan Trianon melalui Gardens atau melalui kota. Petit Trianon hanya mungkin melalui Grand Trianon.

    Penerimaan: 27 € untuk Paspor dengan Waktu Masuk (hari dengan Musical Fountains Shows atau Musical Gardens), 20 € untuk Paspor dengan Waktu Masuk (tanpa pertunjukan air mancur musik atau taman musik), 12 € untuk tiket Estate of Trianon (tanpa Musical Fountains Show atau Musical Gardens), 10 € untuk Paspor dengan Waktu Masuk (tiket masuk gratis, hari-hari dengan Musical Fountains Show atau Musical Gardens), 9,50 € untuk tiket Musical Fountains Show, 8,50 € untuk tiket Musical Gardens, 28 € untuk Fountains Night Show .


    Sketsa Biografi

    Hakim Joseph Dwight (1702-1765) adalah anggota Dewan Kolonial Massachusetts dan wali sekolah India di Stockbridge, Mass. Dia menjabat sebagai brigadir jenderal Perusahaan Artileri Kuno dan Terhormat Boston, komandan kedua pasukan kolonial dalam ekspedisi melawan Prancis di Louisbourg pada tahun 1745, dan memimpin brigade Milisi Massachusetts di Danau Champlain. Ia menikah dengan Mary Pynchon dan putri mereka Dorothy Dwight menikah Jedediah Foster (1726-1779).

    Hakim Jedediah Foster (1726-1779) adalah anggota Konvensi Wilayah Worcester dan delegasi ke Kongres Provinsi pada tahun 1774, anggota konvensi yang membingkai konstitusi Massachusetts, dan anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Massachusetts. Anak-anaknya adalah: Theodore Foster (1752-1828), Theophilus Foster, (1754-1838), Abigail Foster (1756-1779), Dwight Foster (1757-1823), dan Peregrine Foster (1759-1804).

    Hakim Dwight Foster (1757-1823) adalah hakim agung Worcester County, Mass., anggota Konvensi Konstitusi Massachusetts, Legislatif Massachusetts, dan Dewan Eksekutif Massachusetts, dan merupakan senator AS yang menjabat sebagai Federalis dari 1800 hingga 1803 Dia menikah dengan Rebecca Faulkner dan anak-anaknya adalah Lydia Stiles dan Alfred Dwight Foster (1800-1852).

    Alfred Dwight Foster (1800-1852) adalah perwakilan di Pengadilan Umum Massachusetts, dan terlibat dengan berbagai organisasi sipil termasuk dewan kota Worcester, Dewan Gubernur Massachusetts, Akademi Leicester, Amherst College, Suaka Lunatic Negara Bagian, dan Sekolah Reformasi Negara. . Dia adalah ayah dari Dwight Foster (1828-1884) dan kakek dari Alfred Dwight Foster (1852-1932).


    Keluarga

    • Yves de Bougainville 1615-1675
      • Yves de Bougainville 1656
        • Yves Pierre de Bougainville 1686-1756
            1722-1763
        • Marie Françoise Charlotte de Bougainville 1724-1813
        • Louis Antoine de Bougainville 1729-1811
            1781-1846
        • Alphonse de Bougainville 1788-1861
          • Claire de Bougainville 1826-1892
          • Alix de Bougainville
          • Paule de Bougainville 1832-1929

          Mariage dan keturunan

          Il épouse, le 25 janvier 1781 Brest, Marie Joséphine Flore de Longchamps Montendre [ 26 ] , fille de Claude Charles de Montendre, capitaine de vaisseau, et de Yvonne du Botdéru, jangan il aura quatre enfants :

            , né le 26 décembre 1781 Brest, mort le 10 oktober 1846 Paris, gentilhomme de la Chambre du roi Charles X et contre-amiral
        • Amand Charles Augustin de Bougainville, né en 1785, noyé le 24 mai 1801 , l'âge de 16 ans, Grisy-Suisnes, dans la rivière de l'Yerres, derrière le château de ses parent. Il est inhumé Montmartre, au Cimetière du Calvaire attenant à l'église Saint-Pierre de Montmartre, où reposeront par la suite aussi sa mère et le cœur de son père, morts et inhumés masing-masing pada tahun 1806 dan 1811, ainsi kadet putra Adolphe Louis Olympe, mati pada tahun 1854.
        • Jean-Baptiste Hyacinthe Alphonse de Bougainville, né le 19 novembre 1788 Paris, mort le 11 mai 1861 Paris, colonel de cavalerie, marié Henriette Eugénie Joséphine de Salvaing de Boissieu (1805-1884), fille du baron Jean Joseph de Boissieu , directeur du Génie maritime, et de Suzanne Homberg, le 7 fevrier 1825 Paris.
        • Adolphe Louis Olympe de Bougainville, né le 17 mars 1796 Paris, mort le 30 juillet 1854 Paris.

        • Isi

          Situs dan bangunan sebelumnya [ sunting ]

          Situs Panthéon memiliki arti penting dalam sejarah Paris, dan ditempati oleh serangkaian monumen. Itu di Gunung Lucotitius, ketinggian di Tepi Kiri di mana forum kota Romawi Lutetia berada. Itu juga merupakan situs pemakaman asli Saint Genevieve, yang memimpin perlawanan terhadap bangsa Hun ketika mereka mengancam Paris pada tahun 451. Pada tahun 508, Clovis, Raja kaum Frank, membangun sebuah gereja di sana, di mana ia dan istrinya kemudian dimakamkan di 511 dan 545. Gereja, awalnya didedikasikan untuk Santo Petrus dan Paulus, didedikasikan kembali untuk Santo Genevieve, yang menjadi santo pelindung Paris. Itu di pusat Biara Saint Genevieve, pusat beasiswa agama di Abad Pertengahan. Peninggalannya disimpan di gereja, dan dibawa keluar untuk prosesi khidmat ketika bahaya mengancam kota. Β]

          Konstruksi [ sunting ]

          Rencana awal Soufflot untuk Gereja Saint Genevieve (1756)

          Rencana akhir Soufflot: fasad utama (1777)

          Rencana Soufflot tentang tiga kubah, satu di dalam yang lain

          Melihat ke atas pada kubah pertama dan kedua

          Batang besi digunakan untuk memberikan kekuatan dan stabilitas yang lebih besar pada struktur batu (1758–90)

          Raja Louis XV bersumpah pada tahun 1744 bahwa jika dia sembuh dari penyakitnya, dia akan mengganti gereja Biara St Genevieve yang bobrok dengan bangunan megah yang layak untuk santo pelindung Paris. Dia memang pulih, tetapi sepuluh tahun berlalu sebelum rekonstruksi dan perluasan gereja dimulai. Pada tahun 1755 Direktur pekerjaan umum Raja, Abel-François Poisson, marquis de Marigny, memilih Jacques-Germain Soufflot untuk merancang gereja. Soufflot (1713-1780) telah mempelajari arsitektur klasik di Roma selama 1731–38. Sebagian besar pekerjaan awalnya dilakukan di Lyon. Saint Genevieve menjadi pekerjaan hidupnya yang tidak selesai sampai setelah kematiannya. Γ]

          His first design was completed in 1755, and was clearly influenced by the work of Bramante he had studied in Italy. It took form of a Greek cross, with four naves of equal length, and monumental dome over the crossing in the centre, and a classical portico with Corinthian columns and a peristyle with a triangular pediment on the main facade. Δ] The design was modified five times over the following years, with the addition of a narthex, a choir, and two towers. The design was not finalised until 1777. Ε]

          The foundations were laid in 1758, but due to economic problems work proceeded slowly. In 1780, Soufflot died and was replaced by his student Jean-Baptiste Rondelet. The re-modelled Abbey of St. Genevieve was finally completed in 1790, shortly after the beginning of the French Revolution.

          The building is 110 metres long by 84 metres wide, and 83 metres high, with the crypt beneath of the same size. The ceiling was supported by isolated columns, which supported an array of barrel vaults and transverse arches. The massive dome was supported by pendentives rested upon four massive pillars. Critics of the plan contended that the pillars could not support such a large dome. Soufflot strengthened the stone structure with a system of iron rods, a predecessor of modern reinforced buildings. The bars had deteriorated by the 21st century, and a major restoration project to replace them is being carried out between 2010 and 2020. Ζ]

          The dome is actually three domes, fitting within each other. The first, lowest dome, has a coffered ceiling with rosettes, and is open in the centre. Looking through this dome, the second dome is visible, decorated with the fresco The Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve by Antoine Gros. The outermost dome, visible from the outside, is built of stone bound together with iron cramps and covered with lead sheathing, rather than of carpentry construction, as was the common French practice of the period. Concealed buttresses inside the walls give additional support to the dome. Η]

          The Revolution – The "Temple of the Nation" [ edit ]

          The Panthéon in 1795. The facade windows were bricked up to make the interior darker and more solemn.

          The Church of Saint Genevieve was nearly complete, with only the interior decoration unfinished, when the French Revolution began in 1789. In 1790, the Marquis de Vilette proposed that it be made a temple devoted to liberty, on the model of the Pantheon in Rome. "Let us install statues of our great men and lay their ashes to rest in its underground recesses." ⎖] The idea was formally adopted in April, 1791, after the death of the prominent revolutionary figure, The Comte de Mirabeau, the President of the National Constituent Assembly on April 2, 1791. On April 4, 1791, the Assembly decreed "that this religious church become a temple of the nation, that the tomb of a great man become the altar of liberty." They also approved a new text over the entrance: "A grateful nation honors its great men." On the same day the declaration was approved, the funeral of Mirabeau was held in the church. ⎖]

          The ashes of Voltaire were placed in the Panthéon in a lavish ceremony on 21 July 1791, followed by the remains of several martyred revolutionaries, including Jean-Paul Marat, and of the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In the rapid shifts of power of the Revolutionary period, two of the first men honored in Pantheon, Mirabeau and Marat, were declared enemies of the Revolution, and their remains were removed. Finally, the new government of the French Convention decreed in February, 1795 that no one should be placed in the Pantheon who had not been dead at least ten years. ⎗]

          Soon after the church was transformed into a mausoleum, the Assembly approved architectural changes to make the interior darker and more solemn. The architect Quatremère de Quincy bricked up the lower windows and frosted the glass of the upper windows to reduce the light, and removed most of the ornament from the exterior. The architectural lanterns and bells were removed the facade. All of the religious friezes and statues were destroyed in 1791 it was replaced by statuary and murals on patriotic themes. ⎗]

          Temple to church and back to temple (1806–1830) [ edit ]

          Napoleon Bonaparte, when he became First Consul in 1801, signed a Concordat with the Pope, agreeing to restore former church properties, including the Panthéon. The Panthéon was under the jurisdiction of the canons of the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. Celebrations of important events, such as the victory of Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, were held there. However, the crypt of the church kept its official function as the resting place for illustrious Frenchmen. A new entrance directly to the crypt was created via the eastern porch (1809–1811). The artist Antoine-Jean Gros was commissioned to decorate the interior of the cupola. It combined the secular and religious aspects of the church it showed the Genevieve being conducted to heaven by angels, in the presence of great leaders of France, from Clovis I and Charlemagne to Napoleon and the Empress Josephine.

          During the reign of Napoleon, the remains of forty-one illustrious Frenchmen were placed in the crypt. They were mostly military officers, senators and other high officials of the Empire, but also included the explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville and the painter Joseph-Marie Vien, the teacher of Napoleon's official painter, Jacques-Louis David. ⎘]

          During the Bourbon Restoration which followed the fall of Napoleon, in 1816 Louis XVIII of France restored the entire Panthéon, including the crypt, to the Catholic Church. The church was also at last officially consecrated in the presence of the King, a ceremony which had been omitted during the Revolution. The sculpture on the pediment by Jean Guillaume Moitte, called The Fatherland crowning the heroic and civic virtues was replaced by a religious-themed work by David d'Angers. The reliquary of Saint Genevieve had been destroyed during the Revolution, but a few relics were found and restored to the church (They are now in the neighboring Church of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont). In 1822 François Gérard was commissioned to decorate the pendentives of the dome with new works representing Justice, Death, the Nation, and Fame. Jean-Antoine Gros was commissioned to redo his fresco on the inner dome, replacing Napoleon with Louis XVIII, as well as figures of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The new version of the cupola was inaugurated in 1824 by Charles X. As to the crypt where the tombs were located, it was locked and closed to visitors. ⎙]

          Under Louis Philippe I, the Second Republic and Napoleon III (1830–1871) [ edit ]

          The French Revolution of 1830 placed Louis Philippe I on the throne. He expressed sympathy for Revolutionary values, and on 26 August 1830, the church once again became the Pantheon. However, the crypt remained closed to the public, and no new remains were added. The only change made was to the main pediment, which had been remade with a radiant cross it was remade again by D'Angers with a patriotic work called The Nation Distributing Crowns Handed to Her by Liberty, to Great Men, Civil and Military, While History Inscribes Their Names.

          Louis Philippe was overthrown in 1848 and replaced by the elected government of the Second French Republic, which valued revolutionary themes. The new government designated the Pantheon "The Temple of Humanity", and proposed to decorate it with sixty new murals honouring human progress in all fields. In 1851 the Foucault Pendulum of astronomer Léon Foucault was hung beneath the dome to illustrate the rotation of the earth. However, on complaints from the Church, it was removed in December of the same year.

          Louis Napoléon, nephew of the Emperor, was elected President of France in December 1848, and in 1852 staged a coup-d'état and made himself Emperor. Once again the Pantheon was returned to the church, with the title of "National Basilica". The remaining relics of Saint Genevieve were restored to the church, and two groups of sculpture commemorating events in the life of the Saint were added. The crypt remained closed.

          The Third Republic (1871–1939) [ edit ]

          Saint Genevieve bringing supplies to Paris by Puvis de Chavannes (1874)

          Christ Showing the Angel of France the Destiny of Her People, mosaic by Antoine-Auguste-Ernest Hébert

          The National Convention by François-Léon Siccard (1921)

          Victory leading the Armies of the Republic by Edouard Detaille (1905)

          The Basilica suffered damage from German shelling during the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. During the brief reign of the Paris Commune in May 1871, it suffered more damage during fighting between the Commune soldiers and the French Army. During the early years of the Third Republic, under conservative governments, it functioned as a church, but the interior walls were largely bare. Beginning in 1874, The interior was redecorated with new murals and sculptural groups linking French history and the history of the church, by notable artists including Puvis de Chavannes and Alexandre Cabanel, and the artist Antoine-Auguste-Ernest Hébert, who made a mosaic under the vault of the apsidal chapel called Christ Showing the Angel of France the Destiny of Her People. ⎚]

          In 1881, a decree was passed to transform the Church of Saint Genevieve into a mausoleum again. Victor Hugo was the first to be placed in the crypt afterwards. The subsequent governments approved the entry of literary figures, including the writer Émile Zola (1908), and, after World War I, leaders of the French socialist movement, including Léon Gambetta (1920) and Jean Jaurès (1924). The Third Republic governments also decreed that the building should be decorated with sculpture representing "the golden ages and great men of France." The principal works remaining from this period include the sculptural group called The National Assembly, commemorating the French Revolution a statue of Mirabeau, the first man interred in the Pantheon, by Jean-Antoine Ingabert (1889–1920) and two patriotic murals in the apse Victory Leading the Armies of the Republic ke Towards Glory by Édouard Detaille, and Glory Entering the Temple, Followed by Poets, Philosophers, Scientists and Warriors , by Marie-Désiré-Hector d'Espouy (1906). ⎚]

          1945–present [ edit ]

          The short-lived Fourth Republic (1948–1958) following World War II pantheonized two physicists, Paul Langevin and Jean Perrin a leader of the abolitionist movement, Victor Schœlcher early leader of Free France and colonial administrator Félix Éboué and Louis Braille, inventor of the Braille writing system, in 1952.

          Under the Fifth Republic of President Charles de Gaulle, the first person to be buried in the Panthéon was the Resistance leader Jean Moulin. Modern figures buried in recent years include Nobel Peace Prize winner René Cassin (1987) known for drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Jean Monnet who was a moving force in the creation of the ECSC, the forerunner of the EU, was interred in the 100th anniversary of his birth Nobel laureates physicists and chemists Marie Curie and Pierre Curie (1995) the writer and culture minister André Malraux (1996) and the lawyer, politician Simone Veil (2018). ⎛]


          Versailles Palace – Gallery of Great Battles (Paris, France)

          The highlight of our visit of the Museum of the History of France is the 120 m. long and 13 m. wide (390 ft. x 43 ft.) Gallery of Great Battles (Galerie des Batailles). Occupying almost the entire the first floor of the Aile du Midi of the of the South Wing of the Palace of Versailles, is the largest room in the palace.

          Joining onto the grand and petit appartements de la reine, it is an epigone of the grand gallery of the Louvre and was intended to glorify nearly 15 centuries of French military history and successes, from the Battle of Tolbiac (traditionally dated 496), won by Clovis I, to the Battle of Wagram (July 5–6, 1809) won by Napoleon I..

          Battle of Austerlitz (François Gérard). Widely regarded as the greatest victory achieved by Napoleon, here the Grande Armée of France defeated a larger Russian and Austrian army led by Emperor Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (December 2, 1805). The Battle of Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition to a rapid end, with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians later in the month. The battle is often cited as a tactical masterpiece, in the same league as other historic engagements like Cannae or Gaugamela.

          Its creation an idea of Louis-Philippe I, it was designed in 1833 and its construction started the same year. The gallery was solemnly inaugurated on June 10, 1837.

          Battle of Fleurus (Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse). This engagement (June 26, 1794), between the army of the First French Republic (under General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan) and the Coalition Army (Britain, Hanover, Dutch Republic, and Habsburg Monarchy), commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, resulted in an Allied defeat that led to the permanent loss of the Austrian Netherlands and to the destruction of the Dutch Republic. The battle marked a turning point for the French army, which remained ascendant for the rest of the War of the First Coalition.

          The gallery replaced apartments which had been occupied in the 17th and 18th centuries by Philippe I, Duke of Orléans (Louis XIV‘s brother) and his second wife, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (regent during Louis XV‘s minority) and his wife Louis d’Orléans, Duke of Orléans (the regent’s son) Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (1731–1767) as dauphine Charles X of France (whilst Comte d’Artois) and Princess Élisabeth of France.

          Battle of Rivoli (Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux). A key victory (January 14-15, 1797) in the French campaign in Italy against Austria, here Napoleon Bonaparte’s 23,000 Frenchmen defeated an attack of 28,000 Austrians under General of the Artillery Jozsef Alvinczi, ending Austria’s fourth and final attempt to relieve the Siege of Mantua. Rivoli further demonstrated Napoleon’s brilliance as a military commander and led to the French consolidation of northern Italy.

          Its solemn decorative scheme, designed by Frédéric Nepveu and, almost certainly, with advice from architect Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine, evokes the latter’s projects for the Grande Galerie in the Louvre during the Consulat and the Empire.

          Battle of Fontenoy (Horace Vernet). A major engagement of the War of the Austrian Succession (May 11, 1745), was a battle fought 8 kms. outside Tournai (Belgium) by a French army of 50,000 under Marshal Saxe which defeated a Pragmatic Army of 52,000, led by the Duke of Cumberland.

          Its solemn space, with finely decorated with marble and painted and gilded stuccos, features a wide cornice supporting a coffered painted ceiling lit up by glass, with entablatures supported and punctuated by an avant-corps of Corinthian columns along the length of the gallery. On the walls are 13 bronze tablets inscribed with the names of princes, admirals, constables, marshals and warriors killed or wounded whilst fighting for France.

          Battle of Rocroi (Francois Joseph Heim, 1834). Fought on May 19, 1643, this major engagement of the Thirty Years’ War was fought between a French army, led by the 21-year-old Duke of Enghien, and Spanish forces, under Gen. Francisco de Melo only five days after the accession of Louis XIV to the throne of France following his father’s death. Rocroi is regarded as the graveyard of the myth of invincibility of the Spanish Tercios, the terrifying infantry units that had dominated European battlefields for 120 years up to that point.

          The main contents of the rooms are the 33 vast paintings showing major military events and the greatest battles that had influenced the history of France, some already in existence but mostly specially commissioned for the gallery between 1834 and 1845. All the dynasties (the Merovingians, Carolingians, Capetians, House of Valois, House of Bourbon,etc.) from the history of France are evoked.

          Battle of Marsaglia (Eugene Deveria). This battle, in the Nine Years’ War, was fought in Italy on October 4, 1693, between the French army of Marshal Nicolas Catinat and the army of the Grand Alliance under Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. Here, the greatly superior regimental efficiency of the French, and Catinat’s minute attention to details in arraying them, gave the new marshal a victory that was a worthy pendant to Neerwinden.

          Louis-Philippe’s skillfully incorporated depictions of the victories by the Revolution and the Empire had a simple message: France had built itself over the course of battles against enemies from both abroad and within the country is henceforth glorious, at peace and ready to enter a new era built on peace and prosperity. Today it is still one of the most impressive examples of Louis Philippe’s project for Versailles and one of the finest examples of major museum projects of the 19th century.

          Entry of Henry IV Into Paris (Francois Gerard)

          The four largest paintings were commissions from previous regimes. The 9.58 m. by 5.10 m. Battle of Austerlitz, an oil on canvas by François Pascal Simon Gérard (1770–1837), was commissioned by Napoleon I for the ceiling of the Salle du Conseil d’État at the palais des Tuileries in Paris. Henry IV‘s Entry into Paris, also by Gérard, measures 5.1 m. by 9.58 m. The 5.1 m. by 9.58 m. Battle of Bouvines (1827) and the 5.1 m. by 9.58 m. Battle of Fontenoy (1828), both by Horace Vernet, were commissioned during the Restoration.

          Battle of Taillebourg (Eugène Delacroix). This major medieval battle, fought in July 1242, was the decisive engagement of the Saintonge War. It pitted a French Capetian army, under the command of King Louis IX and his younger brother Alphonse of Poitiers, against forces led by King Henry III of England, his brother Richard of Cornwall and their stepfather Hugh X of Lusignan.

          All the other works were created especially for the Gallery by great historical painters of the time including Jean Alaux, Francois Bouchot, Louis Charles Auguste Couder (1790-1873), Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863), Devéria Eugène (1805–1865), Eloi Firmin Feron (1802-1876), Fragonard son, Jean-Pierre Franque (1774–1860), François Joseph Heim (1787–1865), Charles-Philippe Larivière (1798–1876), Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse, François-Édouard Picot (1786–1868), Ary Scheffer (1795–1858), Hendrik Scheffer, Henry Scheffer, Jean-Victor Schnetz, Henri Frederic Schopin and Charles de Steuben. A number of them were of questionable quality, but a few masterpieces, such as the Battle of Taillebourg by Eugène Delacroix, are displayed here.

          Battle of Bouvines (Horace Vernet, 1827). Fought on July 27, 1214 near the town of Bouvines in the County of Flanders, it was the concluding battle of the Anglo-French War of 1213–1214. Here, a French army of approximately 7,000 men, commanded by King Philip Augustus, defeated an Allied army of approximately 9,000, commanded by Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV.

          The 33 paintings, arranged chronologically, are:

            won by Clovis I over the Alamanni in 496. Artist: Ary Scheffer (1795–1858). Dimensions: 4.15 m. by 4.65 m. (October 732) showing Charles Martel, Odo the Greatand Abd-el-Rahman. Artist: Charles de Steuben. Date: 1837. Dimensions: 5.42 m. by 4.65 m. Receiving the Submission of Widukind, King of the Saxons at Paderborn in 785. Artist: Ary Scheffer (1795–1858). Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.42 m.
      • Count Eudes Defending Paris against the Normans in 885. Artist: Jean-Victor Schnetz. Date: commissioned by Louis-Philippe in 1834, signed 1837. Dimensions: 5.42 m. by 4.65 m. before the Battle of Bouvines (July 27 1214). Artist: Horace Vernet (1789–1863). Date: 1827. Medium: Oil on canvas, Dimensions: 5.1 m. by 9.58 m. (July 21, 1242) won by Saint Louis. Artist: Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863). Date: 1837. Dimensions: 4.89 m. by 5.54 m. (August 18, 1304) won by Philip the Fairagainst the Flemish Army. Artist: Charles-Philippe Larivière (1798–1876). Date: ca. 1839. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (August 23, 1328) won by Philippe de Valois, showing Philip and Nicolas Zonnekin. Artist: Hendrik Scheffer. Date: 1837. Dimension: 5.43 m. by 4.65 m. (May 16, 1364), near Évreux, won by Bertrand du Guesclinover the troops of Charles II of Navarre. Artist: Charles-Philippe Larivière (1798–1876). Dated: ca. 1837. Dimension: 4.25 m. by 2.6 m.
      • The Entry of Joan of Arc into Orleans (May 8, 1429. Artist: Henry Scheffer. Date: 1843. Medium: Oil on canvas. (July 17 1453) won by the Comte de Dunois over the English forces under Lord Talbot. Artist: Charles-Philippe Larivière (1798–1876). Medium: Oil on canvas. (September 14, 1515) won by Francis I of France, showing Francis ordering his troops to stop pursuing the Swiss. Artist: Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard (1780–1850). Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (January 9, 1558) by Francis, Duke of Guise. Artist: François-Édouard Picot (1786–1868). Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. ‘s Entry into Paris (March 22, 1594). Artist: François Pascal Simon Gérard (1770–1837). Dimensions: 5.1 m. by 9.58 m. (May 19, 1643), the Duc d’Enghien ordering his troops to stop fighting the Spanish, who have come to him to surrender. Artist: François Joseph Heim (1787–1865). Date: 1834. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (August 20, 1648), victory of the Grand Condé over the Spanish troops commanded by Archduke Leopold. Artist: Jean-Pierre Franque (1774–1860). Date: ca. 1835. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (June 1658) at the Siege of Dunkirk, won by the Maréchal de Turenne over the Spanish. Artist: Charles-Philippe Larivière (1798–1876). Date: 1837. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m.
      • Capture of Valenciennes (March 17, 1677) by Louis XIV. Artist: Jean Alaux. Medium: Oil on canvas, Date: 1837. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 4.15 m. (October 4, 1693) won by Nicolas Catinat over the Piedmontese troops of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia assisted by Prince Eugene of Savoy. Artist: Devéria Eugène (1805–1865). Date: 1837. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (December 10, 1710) won by Louis Joseph, Duke of Vendôme over Count Guido Starhemberg. Artist: Jean Alaux, known as Le Romain (1786–1864). Date: 1836. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (July 24, 1712) won by Claude Louis Hector de Villarsover Prince Eugene of Savoy. Artist: Jean Alaux, known as Le Romain (1786–1864). Date: 1839. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m.
      • The Battle of Fontenoy (May 11, 1745) showing Maurice de Saxe presenting the captured British and Dutch prisoners and colors to Louis XV and the dauphin. Artist: Horace Vernet (1789–1863). Date: 1828. Dimensions: 5.1 m. by 9.58 m. (July 2, 1747) shows Louis XV pointing out the village of Lawfeld to Maurice de Saxe. Artist: Pierre Lenfant (1704–1787). Dimensions: 2.75 m. by 2.5 m. . Général Rochambeau and George Washington give the final orders to attack (October 1781). Artist: Louis Charles Auguste Couder (1790-1873). Date: 1836. Dimension:65 m. by 5.43 m. (June 26, 1794) won by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan over the Austrian forces led by the princes of Coburg and Orange. Artist: Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse. Date: 1837. Medium: Oil on canvas. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (January 14, 1797) won by Napoleon Bonaparte. Artist: Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux (1798–1880). Medium: Oil on canvas. Date: 1844. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (September 25, 1799), showing André Masséna, the comte Nicolase, Charles Oudinot and Count Honoré Charles Reille. Artist: François Bouchot. Medium: oil on canvas. Date: Commissioned by Louis-Philippe in 1835, signed 1837. Dimension: 5.43 m. by 4.65 m. (December 3, 1800) showing Jean Victor Moreau, Michel Ney, Emmanuel de Grouchy (1835). Artist: Henri Frederic Schopin. Date: 1836. Medium: Oil on canvas. Dimensions: 4.65 m. by 5.43 m. (December 2, 1805) – showing Napoleon accompanied by Jean Rapp, oil on canvas, sketch after an original that in 1846 was in the Paillet collection, commissioned by Napoleon I for the ceiling of the Salle du Conseil d’État at the palais des Tuileries in Paris. Dimensions: 9.58 m. by 5.10 m. (June 14, 1807) – showing Napoleon I and Count Nicolas Charles Oudinot. Artist: Horace Vernet. Dimensions: 5.43 m. by 4.65 m., (October 14 1806) – showing Napoleon I, Joachim Murat and Louis Alexandre Berthier. Artist: Horace Vernet. Date: 1836. Dimensions: 5.43 m. by 4.65 m. (July 6, 1809) – showing Napoleon I and the duc d’Istrie. Artist: Horace Vernet. Dimensions: 5.3 m. by 4.65 m.
      • Some of the 80 busts on display

        The gallery, also designed as a Pantheon to national glory, also features a series of 80 busts of officers killed in combat, as well as tables in bronze bearing the names of princes, constables, Maréchals and admirals also killed or wounded for France.

        The busts are placed on supports against the columns and between the paintings. The 80 busts on display are those of:

          – Marshal of the Empire (1762–1813). Artist: François-Augustin Caunois (1787–1859). (Duke of Trévise) – Marshal of the Empire (1768–1835). Artist: Théophile-François Marcel Bra(1797–1863). (Duke of Istries) – Marshal of the Empire (1768–1813). Artist: François Masson (1745–1807). – Général of Brigade in French service (1784–1813). Artist: Charles-François Lebœuf. – Duke of Narbonne (c 1150–1218). Artist: Jean-Jacques Feuchère(1807–1852). – son of Otto IV and Mahaut d’Artois (died 1317). Artist: Jean-Jacques Flatters (1786–1845). – French admiral, died 1340. Artist: Charles Émile Seurre(1798–1858). – French admiral, died 1340. Artist: Bernard Seurre (1795–1867). , Général of Division (1732–1810). Artist: Antoine Laurent Dantan the Elder (1798–1878). – Général of Division (1768–1812). Artist: Louis-Denis Caillouette (1790–1868) , Duke of Athens– Constable of France in 1356 (died 1356). Artist: Justin-Marie Lequien (1796–1882). – Comte Lasalle, Général of Division (1775–1809). Artist: Auguste Taunay (1768–1824). (c 1311–1356). Artist: Louis-Eugène Bion (1807–1860). – Général of Division (1765–1809). Artist: Pietro Cardelli (1776–1822). (duc de Montebello) – Marshal of the Empire (1769–1809). Artist: François Masson (1745–1807). , général of division (1771–1809). Mortally wounded at Wagram (wearing the cross of the Légion d’Honneur and the cross of the Ordre de Saint-Henri of Saxony). Artist: Jean-Baptiste Joseph Debay (1802–1862) – Comte de La Coste, général of brigade (1775–1809). Artist: Claude Michel (known as Clodion) (1738–1814). Artist: Claude Michel Clodion. – Sire de Coëtivy, Admiral of France, killed at the Siege of Cherbourg in 1450. Artist: Honore Husson. , duke of Burgundy(1433–1477). Artist: Charles-François Lebœuf (1792–1865), Nanteuil, also known as Nanteuil-Lebœuf. – Général of Division (1759–1807), killed at the Battle of Eylau. Artist: Antoine Laurent Dantan (1798–1878) – Général of Brigade (1763–1806). Artist: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Debay (1779–1863). , Constable of France, killed at the Battle of Verneuilin 1424. Artist: Charles Rene Laitie.
    • Jacques Dampierre de Châtillon – Admiral of France, killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. Artist: Andre Eugene Oudine. – killed at Auray in 1364. Artist: Jacques Augustin Dieudonne. – Seigneur d’Essé, killed at the Siege of Terouanne in 1555. Artist: Jean Louis Jaley. – Marshall of France, killed at Thionville in 1553. Artist: Jean Louis Jaley. (1572–1567). Artist: James Pradier. – Marshall of France (c 1505–1562). Artist: Jean-François-Théodore Gechter (1796–1844). . Lieutenant-Général of the Armies of the King. Killed at Thionvillein 1640. Artist: Philippe Joseph Henri Lemaire. , Admiral of France, killed at the Battle of Orbetello in 1646. Artist: Jean-Francois Legendre-Heral. , Marshall of France, killed at Rothweil, 1643. Artist: Jean-Pierre Cortot. – Marshall of France, killed at Dunkirkin 1653. Artist: Jean-Bernard Deseigneur. – Marshall of France, killed at Lens in 1547. Artist: Jean Alaux , Lieutenant-Général of the Armies of the King, killed at Castellamare in 1654. Artist: Jean Bernard Duseigneur. , Bangsawan tinggiof Limburg, killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415. Artist: Pierre Simart. , Marshall of France, killed before the fort of Breme, 1636. Artist: Davitan the Younger. , killed at Fontanetoin the Milanais, 1636. Artist: Louis-Denis Caillouett. – Admiral of France, killed at the Siege of Candiain 1669. Artist: Michel-Louis Victor Mercier. – Vicomte de Turenne, Marshall of France, killed near Saltzbach in 1675. Artist: Jean-Jacques Flatters (1786–1845). – Lieutenant-Général of the Armies of the King, killed at the Battle of Fleurus in 1690. Artist: François Jouffroy. – Comte de Vertillac, marshal general of the king’s camps and armies, killed near Bossu. 1693. Artist: Joseph-Stanislaus Lescorne. –Duc de Longueville, killed during the Rhine crossing in 1672. Artist: François Jouffroy. – Marquis de Tilladet, Lieutenant-Général of the Armies of the King, killed at Steenkerque in 1692. Artist: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Debay (1779–1863). – général of brigade (1772–1807). Artist: Philippe Joseph Henri Lemaire(1798–1880). – Admiral of France, killed at the Battle of Nicopolisin 1396. Artist: Francisque Duret (1804–1865). , killed at the battle of Ravennain 1512. Artist: Jacques Augustin Dieudonne. –Maréchal de France, killed at Combourg in Brittany, 1595. Artist : Auguste-Alexandre Dumont (1801–1884), known as Auguste or Augustin Dumont – Seigneur de Villars, Admiral of France, killed at the Siege of Doullens in 1595. Artist: Victor Thérasse. – Constable of France, killed at the Battle of Brignaisin 1361. Artist: Nicolas Bernard Raggi. – Duke of Nemours, killed at Gérignole, 1503. Artist: Francois Rude – Seigneur de Bayard, killed at Rebec, 1524. Artist: Anonymous. – Admiral of France, killed at Pavia in 1525. Artist: Francois Lanno. (known as La Palice) – Marshal of France, killed at Pavia in 1525. Artist: Jean Bernard Duseigneur. – Comte de Soissons, killed at Saint-Quentin in 1557. Artist: Jean-Bernard Duseigneur. . Artist: Sylvestre-Joseph Brun – King of Navarre. Artist: Joseph Marius Ramus. . Artist: Isidore Hippolyte Nicolas Brion. – Duc d’Aumale, Colonel of the Peranciscavalry. Artist: Joseph Stanislas.
    • Fernand de Nogaret – Seigneur de Lavalette. Artist: Louis Desprez. . Lieutenant-Général of the Army of the King, killed at Villinghausen in 1761. Artist: Jean-Baptisten Joseph Debay. – Commander-in-Chief, killed at the Battle of the Black Mountain in 1794 Artist: Antoine-Denis Chaudet. . Général of Division, killed in the crossing of the River Po in 1796. Artist: Félix Lecomte. – Général of Brigade, killed at the Battle of Arcolein 1796. Artist: Gois Fils. – Général of Brigade, killed at Castiglionein 1796. Artist: Charles-Louis Corbet. – Général of Division, killed at Huningue in 1796. Artist: Vital Gabriel Dubray. – Général of Brigade, killed at Dego in 1796. Artist: Jacques-Edme Dumont. – Général of Brigade, killed at Cossaria, 1796. Artist: Lorenzo Bartolini. – Général of Division, killed at the Siege of Acrein 1799. Artist: François Masson (1745–1807) – Général-in-Chief of the Army of Italy, killed at the Battle of Noviin 1799. Artist: Louis-Simon Boizot. – Général of Brigade, killed in Cairo in 1798. Artist: Philippe-Laurent Roland. , Vice-Admiral, killed at the Battle of the Nilein 1799. Artist: Jean-Jacques Flatters (1786–1845). – Général of Brigade, died of wounds in Havana in 1804. Artist: Dantan Antoîné Laurent. . Général of Brigade, killed at the Battle of Jena in 1806. Artist: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Debay (1779–1863). – Général-in-Chief (1753–1800). Artist: Philippe Joseph Henri Lemaire (1798–1880). – killed at the Battle of Austerlitzin 1805. Artist: Julie Charpentier. – Comte de Zurlauben, Lieutenant-Général of the Army of the King, killed at Hochstett in 1704. Artist: François Jouffroy. – Marshall of France, killed at Turin in 1706. Artist: François Jouffroy. – Lieutenant-Général of the Army of the King, killed at the Battle of the Plains of Abrahamin 1759. Artist: Francisque Duret. , Marshall of France, killed at Épernayin 1592. Artist: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Debay (1779–1863) , marshal (1671–1734). Artist: Antoine-Laurent Dantan the Elder (1798–1878).
    • Jandy among the busts of the Gallery of Great Battles

      Today, the Royal Serenade and King’s Tour take place in the Gallery of Great Battles.

      Battle of Wagram (Horace Vernet). Fought July 5-6, 1809), this military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte’s French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France.

      Gallery of Great Battles: South Wing, Chateau De Versailles, Place d’Armes, 78000 Versailles, France. Tel: +33 1 30 83 78 00. Website: www.chateauversailles.fr. Open daily (except on Mondays and May 1), from 9:00 AM to 6:30 PM. Last admission is 6 PM while the ticket office closes at 5.45 PM. The estate of Trianon and the Coach Gallery only open in the afternoon while the Park (7 AM to 8:30 PM) and Gardens (8 AM to 8.30 PM, last admission: 7 PM) are open every day. Access to the Gardens is free except on days of fountains shows. You can access the estate of Trianon through the Gardens or through the city. The Petit Trianon is only possible via the Grand Trianon.

      Admission: 27 € for Passport with Timed Entry (days with Musical Fountains Shows or Musical Gardens), 20 € for Passport with Timed Entry (without musical fountains show or musical gardens), 12 € for Estate of Trianon ticket(without Musical Fountains Show or Musical Gardens), 10 € for Passport with Timed Entry (free admission, days with Musical Fountains Show or Musical Gardens), 9,50 € for Musical Fountains Show ticket, 8,50 € for Musical Gardens ticket, 28 € for the Fountains Night Show.


      Architecture and art [ edit ]

      Dome [ edit ]

      The final plan of the dome was accepted in 1777, and it was completed in 1790. It was designed to rival those of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and St Paul's Cathedral in London. Unlike the dome of Les Invalides in Paris, which has a wooden framework, the dome is constructed entirely of stone. It is actually three domes, one within the other, with the painted ceiling, visible from below, on the second dome. The dome is 83.0 metres (272 ft) high, compared with the tallest dome in the world, St. Peter's Basilica at 136.57 metres (448.1 ft).

      The Panthéon represented with a statue of Fame at its top

      The present-day cross atop the roof lantern

      The dome is capped by a cross. However, a statue of Saint Genevieve was initially supposed to sit at the top of the dome. A cross was put temporarily in 1790. After the transformation into a mausoleum in 1791, it was planned that the cross would be replaced by a statue representing Fame. The project was however abandoned. Between 1830 and 1851, a flag was put instead. The cross returned after Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte restored the building to church use. The cross was replaced with a red flag during the Paris Commune in 1871. A cross returned subsequently.

      The fresco by Gros seen from inside the dome

      NS Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve, in the dome by Antoine-Jean Gros (1811–1834)

      Looking up from the crossing of the transept beneath the dome, the painting by Jean-Antoine Gros, the Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve (1811–1834), is visible through the opening in the lowest cupola. The triangle in the center symbolizes the Trinity, surrounded by a halo of light. The Hebrew characters spell the name of God. The only character seen in full is Saint Genevieve herself, seated on a rocky promontory. The groups around the painting, made during the Restoration of the Monarchy, represent Kings of France who played an important role in protecting the church. To the left of Saint Genevieve is a group including Clovis, the first King to convert to Christianity. The second group is centred around Charlemagne, who created the first universities. The third group is centred around Louis IX of France, or Saint Louis, with the Crown of Thorns which he brought back from the Holy Land to place in the church of Sainte-Chapelle. The last group is centred around Louis XVIII, the last King of the Restoration, and his niece, looking up into the clouds at the martyred Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. The angels in the scene are carrying the Chartre, the document by which Louis XVIII re-established the church after the French Revolution. ⎜]

      The four pendentives, or arches, which support the dome are decorated with paintings from the same period by François Gérard depicting Glory, Kematian, Negara dan keadilan (1821–37).

      Facade, peristyle and entrance [ edit ]

      The pediment, with the central figures of the Nation and Liberty: statesmen and scholars to the left, soldiers to the right

      The facade and peristyle on the east side, modeled after a Greek temple, features Corinthian columns and sculpture by David d'Angers, completed in 1837. The sculpture on this pediment, replacing an early pediment with religious themes, represents "The Nation distributing crowns handed to her by Liberty to great men, civil and military, while history inscribes their names". To the left are figures of distinguished scientists, philosophers, and statesmen, including Rousseau, Voltaire, Lafayette, and Bichat. To the right is Napoleon Bonaparte, along with soldiers from each military service and students in uniform from the École Polytechnique. ⎝] Below is the motto: "To the great men, from a grateful nation". This was added in 1791, when the Panthéon was created. It was removed during the Restoration of the monarchy, then put back in 1830.


      Tonton videonya: King Albert of Belgium Visits Theodore Roosevelts Grave, October, 1919