Culbert Olson

Culbert Olson

Culbert Olson lahir di Filmore, Utah pada 7 November 1876. Ibunya terlibat dalam kampanye hak pilih perempuan dan akhirnya menjadi pejabat terpilih perempuan pertama di Utah. Dia dibesarkan di Gereja Yesus Kristus dari Orang-Orang Suci Zaman Akhir (Mormon) tetapi menolak agama pada usia dini.

Pada usia empat belas tahun Olson meninggalkan sekolah dan mendapatkan pekerjaan sebagai operator telegraf. Pada tahun 1890 Olson mendaftar di Universitas Brigham Young di Provo, Utah. Setelah lulus ia mendapatkan pekerjaan sebagai jurnalis untuk Daily Ogden Standard.

Olson tertarik pada politik dan pada tahun 1896 berkampanye untuk William Jennings Bryan. Dia kemudian pindah ke Washington sebagai koresponden surat kabar.

Olson belajar hukum di Universitas George Washington dan Universitas Michigan dan diterima di Utah Bar pada tahun 1901. Olson menjadi pengacara di Salt Lake City. Sebagai anggota Partai Demokrat, Olson terpilih menjadi anggota legislatif negara bagian Utah pada tahun 1916. Selama empat tahun berikutnya ia menganjurkan diakhirinya pekerja anak, perpajakan progresif, pensiun hari tua, kontrol pemerintah atas utilitas publik dan undang-undang untuk melindungi hak-hak. dari serikat pekerja.

Pada tahun 1920 Olson pindah ke Los Angeles. Dalam praktik hukumnya, ia mendapatkan reputasi untuk menyelidiki penipuan bisnis. Dalam pemilihan presiden 1924 ia berkampanye untuk Robert La Follette dan Partai Progresif dan kemudian untuk novelis, Upton Sinclair, ketika ia mencoba menjadi Gubernur California.

Seorang pendukung kuat Franklin D. Roosevelt dan New Deal, pada tahun 1934 Olson menjadi ketua negara bagian Partai Demokrat. Pada bulan November 1938 Olson terpilih sebagai Gubernur California, Demokrat pertama yang memegang jabatan ini selama empat puluh empat tahun.

Salah satu tindakan pertama adalah untuk mengampuni Tom Mooney, seorang pemimpin serikat pekerja yang telah dihukum karena pemboman yang terjadi di San Francisco pada tahun 1916. Meskipun ada bukti kuat bahwa Jaksa Distrik saat itu, Charles Fickert, telah menjebak Mooney, Gubernur Republik selama periode ini, William Stephens (1917-1923), Friend Richardson (1923-1927), Clement Young (1927-1931), James Rolph (1931-1934) dan Frank Merriam (1934-39) menolak untuk memerintahkan pembebasannya. . Pada Oktober 1939, Olson mengampuni Warren Billings, teman Mooney yang juga dipenjara karena pengeboman tersebut.

Saat gubernur Olson mencoba memperkenalkan Kesepakatan Baru yang canggih di California. Dalam kata-kata Olson yang akan memberikan "keamanan ekonomi dari buaian sampai ke liang lahat, di bawah pemerintahan yang mengakui hak atas pendidikan, pekerjaan atas dasar penghargaan yang adil, dan pensiun pada usia tua dalam kenyamanan dan kesopanan, yang tidak dapat dicabut seperti hak untuk hidup itu sendiri."

Olson dikalahkan dalam kampanyenya untuk terpilih kembali pada tahun 1942. Olson, seorang ateis, mengatakan kepada seorang teman bahwa dia kalah "karena permusuhan aktif dari perusahaan listrik milik swasta tertentu dan Gereja Katolik Roma di California."

Pada tahun 1957 Culbert Olson menjadi presiden United Secularists of America dan memegang jabatan tersebut sampai kematiannya di Los Angeles pada 13 April 1962.

Saya lahir di kota pedesaan kecil. Seluruh komunitas milik satu agama dan gereja, yang mengendalikan urusan pendidikan, budaya dan sipil masyarakat. Setiap murtad dianggap telah jatuh di pinggir jalan oleh pengaruh "Iblis". Mungkin saya secara alami skeptis, karena, terlepas dari pengaruh agama dari masa muda awal saya, saya tidak ikut serta dalam emosi yang tampaknya dinikmati anak-anak lain dalam respons emosional mereka terhadap khotbah-khotbah penuh semangat dari para guru gereja yang menceritakan tentang wahyu. dari Tuhan dan penampakan malaikat kepada nabi, pelihat, pewahyu dan pendiri gereja. Alasan memaksa saya untuk menyimpulkan bahwa pendirinya adalah seorang penipu yang berani dan ambisius yang pengungkapannya tidak masuk akal. Kesimpulan saya tidak tercapai dengan mudah karena keinginan saya untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan agama ibu saya yang sangat saya cintai - orang yang paling baik, paling manusiawi dan rela berkorban yang pernah saya kenal.

Olson mengunjungi saya minggu lalu dan menceritakan tentang keadaan menyedihkan yang dia alami sehubungan dengan keuangan yang diperlukan untuk melakukan kampanye yang gencar. Ini bukan penurut baginya dengan cara apa pun. Ini adalah satu-satunya kesempatan kami untuk kebebasan jika dia terpilih dan jika Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat gagal membebaskan saya di Musim Gugur.

Saya ingin meyakinkan setiap warga negara bahwa saya memasuki jabatan tinggi Gubernur Negara Bagian kita yang besar bebas dari semua prasangka, bahkan terhadap mereka yang paling keras, dan terkadang tidak adil, menentang pemilihan saya. Saya menghormati perbedaan filosofi dan sudut pandang yang jujur ​​tentang kebijakan publik. Perbedaan mencolok dalam pendapat partisan, sebagian besar, muncul dari perbedaan dalam memahami masalah kita bersama dan metode yang diperlukan untuk mengatasinya melalui pemerintah. Ini hanyalah atribut alami dan sehat dari demokrasi yang berfungsi.

Setiap orang di California, terlepas dari partai, warna kulit, keyakinan atau posisi dalam hidup, harus tahu bahwa, bukan hanya saya tanpa prasangka, tetapi saya menganggapnya sebagai tugas suci saya, di bawah sumpah yang saya ambil hari ini, untuk melindungi hak sipil setiap orang. kebebasan, dan persamaan di depan hukum, dengan segala kuasa atas perintahku. Ini adalah hak yang berharga. Para pendiri republik kita dan para pemelihara Persatuan membuat pengorbanan tertinggi untuk hak-hak ini. Mereka adalah pilar utama demokrasi kita.

Saat kita menyaksikan penghancuran demokrasi di tempat lain di dunia, disertai dengan penyangkalan kebebasan sipil dan penganiayaan tidak manusiawi, di bawah kekuasaan penguasa lalim dan diktator, yang begitu ekstrem sehingga mengejutkan rasa moral umat manusia, tampaknya tepat bagi kita orang California, pada kesempatan ini. , harus mengumumkan kepada dunia bahwa despotisme tidak akan berakar di Negara kita; bahwa pelestarian kebebasan sipil Amerika dan institusi demokrasi kita akan menjadi tugas pertama dan tekad kuat dari pemerintah kita.

Amerika telah membangun fasilitas yang sangat produktif untuk manufaktur. Ilmuwan, insinyur, dan teknisi kita benar-benar telah menciptakan kembali dunia tempat kita hidup. Sekarang diketahui bahwa kita memiliki kapasitas dan kemampuan untuk memproduksi secara melimpah untuk semua. Tetapi kemajuan-kemajuan ini, betapapun menakjubkannya, telah membawa masalah-masalah baru dan sangat sulit bagi mereka sendiri. Kita masih sangat jauh dari tujuan keadilan sosial. Kami masih gagal untuk memecahkan masalah distribusi yang menyertai keterampilan dan kapasitas produktif kami yang baru dikembangkan. Kegagalan ini telah menjerumuskan kita ke dalam masa-masa sulit dan depresi - yang paling lama dan paling gigih di zaman modern ini.

Tetapi dengan semua kegagalan kita yang tampak; dengan segala kesulitan dan ketidaksesuaian ekonomi kita; terlepas dari paradoks pengangguran dan kemiskinan yang membingungkan di tengah-tengah potensi yang melimpah, setiap warga negara yang berpikiran benar, penduduk asli atau asing, menganggap kewarganegaraan Amerikanya sebagai miliknya yang paling berharga. Dia tahu bahwa itu adalah bagian dari kekuatan kedaulatan rakyat untuk membimbing nasib mereka sendiri.

Dihadapkan pada krisis ekonomi dan sosial, apakah kita akan bergerak maju menuju takdir demokrasi sejati, atau mundur menuju jurang kediktatoran yang ketat?

Dalam analisis terakhir, ini tergantung pada kecerdasan yang digunakan rakyat untuk menjalankan hak mereka, pada kebijaksanaan dan integritas kepemimpinan mereka; dan atas keberanian kita menghadapi masalah kita.

Sampai semua pemilih mendapat manfaat dari pendidikan gratis untuk membantu mereka dalam menyatakan kewarganegaraan mereka, dapat diharapkan bahwa di masa depan, seperti di masa lalu, sebagian besar mungkin bingung dan menyimpang dari tujuan mereka untuk pergi. maju untuk kesejahteraan kolektif mereka, dengan propaganda palsu atau egois yang sengaja dibuat, pertimbangan yang dangkal, atau keadaan provinsi. Hambatan-hambatan seperti itu mungkin tertunda, tetapi mereka tidak boleh dibiarkan mengalahkan keberhasilan kerja demokrasi Amerika yang paling akhir.

Orang-orang California menginginkan pekerjaan, standar hidup yang layak, pendidikan, kesempatan untuk pemuda, jaminan sosial, pensiun hari tua, perlindungan terhadap kemiskinan dan kelaparan. Kegiatan di industri swasta dan perusahaan individu harus dipandu oleh tujuan sosial ini, jika ekonomi kita saat ini ingin bertahan.

Pemilik modal dan alat produksi dan distribusi harus menyadari tanggung jawab mereka kepada masyarakat - tidak secara radikal terlibat dalam eksploitasi manusia, tetapi secara konservatif terlibat dalam manajemen untuk kemajuan manusia. Mereka harus puas dengan stabilitas dan keabadian investasi untuk pengembalian yang sangat konservatif dan aman. Kebijakan kami di bidang hubungan industrial akan membantu dalam membangun dasar yang kuat untuk kegiatan industri ini.

Di bidang industri swasta, hak buruh terorganisir atas perundingan bersama yang jujur ​​harus dilindungi; upah minimum harus ditetapkan dan ditegakkan dengan penuh semangat untuk mempertahankan standar hidup Amerika yang layak; pelatihan kejuruan harus diperluas, dan pintu-pintu pekerjaan dan kesempatan untuk maju, melalui pelayanan yang bermanfaat dan berjasa, harus dibuka bagi pemuda-pemuda hebat yang bersemangat di Negara kita. Cita-cita pemuda yang berpikiran sosial, yang dikembangkan saat dalam pelatihan untuk pelayanan seumur hidup, tidak boleh dihancurkan saat mereka memasuki kehidupan dewasa oleh dunia yang egois dan dingin yang tidak disukai.

Warga lanjut usia California telah memimpin dalam membawa masyarakat umum pada realisasi penderitaan mereka yang, setelah menjalani tahun-tahun terbaik mereka di industri Amerika, harus dibiarkan menghabiskan hari-hari mereka yang menurun dalam kemiskinan dan kesengsaraan, kecuali program jaminan sosial menyediakan untuk pensiun mereka dalam kesehatan dan kenyamanan.

Program-program tersebut telah dimulai, dengan ketentuan untuk bantuan parsial untuk mendukung mereka yang membutuhkan yang telah mencapai usia enam puluh lima tahun. California telah lebih dari menyamai jumlah kecil ($15,00 per bulan) yang disediakan untuk memenuhi syarat tersebut oleh Pemerintah Federal untuk menghasilkan total tiga puluh lima dolar per bulan. Jumlah ini, betapapun tidak memadainya, lebih liberal daripada yang dibayarkan oleh Negara lain mana pun. Total tiga puluh dua setengah juta dolar per tahun sekarang dibutuhkan oleh Negara Bagian dan Kabupaten untuk memenuhi pensiun ini; namun jumlah pensiun terlalu rendah dan batas usia terlalu tinggi. Agar Negara kita dapat memenuhi jumlah yang diperlukan untuk menyediakan pensiun yang tidak memadai ini bagi warga negaranya yang membutuhkan pensiun pada usia enam puluh tahun akan membutuhkan kira-kira empat puluh delapan dan seperempat juta dolar per tahun.

Pensiun hari tua harus diberikan oleh mereka yang berproduksi dan oleh mesin-mesin produksi.

Dukungan publik dari yang tua atau yang muda hanya dapat diberikan oleh perpajakan dalam satu atau lain bentuk.

Ketika negara bagian lain gagal memberikan bantuan untuk mereka yang berusia lanjut, yang setara dengan kita, secara alami diharapkan bahwa warga negara mereka yang mendekati usia yang memenuhi syarat akan mencari tempat tinggal di sini. Ini menempatkan bagian pajak yang tidak proporsional untuk tujuan sosial yang berharga ini kepada Negara kita. Untuk tujuan penyeragaman, pensiun hari tua perlu, secara keseluruhan, dibiayai oleh Pemerintah Federal. Kami akan terus mendesak program jaminan hari tua Federal yang memadai.

Sementara itu kita akan mendukung bantuan Negara untuk pensiun kepada orang-orang lanjut usia sampai batas yang diperbolehkan oleh keuangan Negara. Batas itu, bagaimanapun, karena pajak yang diperlukan untuk bantuan pengangguran saat ini, mungkin untuk sementara waktu, hampir tercapai. Tetapi karena beban pajak kita terkait dengan pengangguran, demikian juga dengan kebutuhan akan pensiun hari tua. Pensiun hari tua yang lebih liberal dapat diantisipasi ketika para penganggur ditempatkan pada pekerjaan produktif untuk mendukung mereka sendiri dan beban pajak yang berat untuk bantuan pengangguran berkurang.

Masalah sosial diciptakan oleh ketidaksesuaian ekonomi, kemiskinan di tengah kelimpahan, pengangguran massal yang terjadi ketika perang atau persiapan perang tidak menyediakan lapangan kerja penuh; konsentrasi kekayaan dan kontrol ekonomi nasional yang terus-menerus di tangan sebagian kecil penduduk yang menentang setiap upaya pemerintah untuk melakukan kontrol untuk stabilisasi ekonomi dan untuk kesejahteraan umum.

Menurut pendapat saya, adalah tanggung jawab sosial pemerintah dalam memajukan kesejahteraan umum, untuk melakukan kontrol stabilisasi ekonomi nasional; untuk merencanakan dan menyediakan lapangan kerja penuh ketika industri swasta gagal; untuk mencegah siklus bisnis yang mengakibatkan depresi industri; menyediakan cara dan sarana untuk menyediakan perlindungan kesehatan bagi semua orang, dan pelayanan pendidikan yang setinggi-tingginya; untuk melindungi sumber daya nasional dari eksploitasi yang sia-sia demi keserakahan pribadi; untuk merencanakan dan melaksanakan proyek-proyek besar di lembah-lembah sungai besar negara untuk pengendalian banjir, reklamasi, dan konservasi sumber daya air, memanfaatkan tenaga air dan menyediakan dan menyediakan tenaga hidro-listrik rakyat dengan biaya yang wajar; untuk melindungi hak-hak sipil dan menegakkan keadilan sosial dalam hubungan industrial tanpa memandang ras atau keyakinan dan, saya dapat menambahkan, untuk meminta lisensi federal dari sirkuit radio dan televisi untuk memberikan hak yang sama kepada sekularis dengan gereja untuk membahas masalah agama melalui udara. .

Seruan politik bahwa kemajuan seperti itu akan mengarah pada kediktatoran dan resimentasi adalah murni penghasutan. Warga negara yang berpikiran sosial, dan tentu saja semua sekularis, dalam bentuk pemerintahan demokratis-republik konstitusional kita akan menjadi yang pertama melindungi hak-hak manusia dalam demokrasi Amerika kita seiring kemajuan sosial berkembang melalui proses demokrasi dan sarana konstitusional.

Keadaan kita saat ini telah dicapai setelah berabad-abad kekuasaan dominan dan pengaruh takhayul agama dan pemujaan dewa. Agama-agama yang terorganisir, yang dipimpin oleh para imam gereja, mengklaim kepemimpinan pikiran dan pemikiran orang-orang berdasarkan otoritas ilahi.

Sudah pasti bahwa agama yang terorganisir dan doa-doa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa bukanlah sarana untuk menyelamatkan umat manusia dari kekurangan atau dari peperangan, yang sebagian besar merupakan perang memperebutkan kekuasaan di antara dogma-dogma agama yang saling bertentangan. Prinsip-prinsip moralitas yang diajarkan sebagai bagian dari doktrin agama juga tidak menjadi lazim dengan metode itu. Saksikan luasnya keegoisan, keserakahan, oportunisme, kemunafikan, dan kejahatan yang kini merasuki masyarakat kita.

Saya tidak akan mengatakan bahwa agama telah mendorong kemajuan sosial umat manusia. Saya katakan bahwa itu telah merugikan kemajuan peradaban, dan saya juga akan mengatakan ini: bahwa emansipasi pikiran dari takhayul agama sama pentingnya dengan kemajuan peradaban seperti halnya emansipasi dari perbudakan fisik.


Culbert Olson

Nama Depan:Culbert Nama Belakang:Olson NamaTampilan:Culbert Olson Tanggal Lahir:1876-01-01 Tanggal Kematian:1962-04-13 KelahiranLokasi: UT Jenis Kelamin: Pria Etnis: Generasi PutihIdentifier: Kebangsaan: US ExternalResourceLink: PrimerGeografi: Agama:

Culbert Olson (1876–1962) berhasil berkampanye pada tahun 1938 untuk jabatan gubernur California pada platform Kesepakatan Baru, menikmati dukungan terbuka dari Presiden Roosevelt. Maka, tidak mengherankan bahwa Olson akan menjadi pendukung setia Perintah Eksekutif 9066 Roosevelt. Tetapi gubernur satu periode yang mengizinkan ribuan penduduk negara bagiannya diusir dari rumah mereka akan dikalahkan pada tahun 1942 oleh Earl Warren, seorang pendukung yang lebih bersemangat untuk pemindahan dan pemenjaraan orang Jepang-Amerika.

Culbert Olson, lahir pada tahun 1876, adalah seorang pengacara di negara bagian asalnya Utah, mendapatkan reputasi sebagai progresif politik dan pembela serikat pekerja. Dia pindah ke California pada tahun 1920 dan terpilih menjadi senat negara bagian pada tahun 1934 sebagai Demokrat yang mewakili Los Angeles. Ketika dia mencalonkan diri untuk jabatan tertinggi negara bagian empat tahun kemudian, tidak ada Demokrat yang menjabat sebagai gubernur California selama empat puluh tahun.

Olson memegang sejumlah posisi berhaluan kiri, menentang monopoli perusahaan minyak, mendukung asuransi kesehatan universal wajib, dan mempromosikan reformasi sistem hukuman negara. Meskipun memiliki karir yang panjang sebagai aktivis untuk hak-hak orang biasa, Olson bergabung dengan kaum liberal dan konservatif dalam semangat anti-Jepang.

Segera setelah serangan di Pearl Harbor, Jaksa Agung California Earl Warren mulai menyelidiki kepemilikan tanah Jepang, mencari pelanggaran Hukum Tanah Alien negara bagian, sementara Olson berusaha mencabut lisensi profesional dan bisnis "musuh alien." Pada bulan Januari 1942, Jenderal John DeWitt mengadakan serangkaian pertemuan untuk membahas opsi untuk "evakuasi massal" penduduk Pantai Barat keturunan Jepang. Olson merekomendasikan untuk memindahkan Issei ke pedalaman California, posisi yang dipegang DeWitt secara singkat di hadapan Provost Marsekal Jenderal Allen Gullion dan, terutama, asistennya Karl Bendetsen menekan DeWitt untuk mendukung tindakan lebih keras yang akan diterapkan pada alien dan warga negara Amerika. [1]

Namun, Olson setuju dengan Warren dan DeWitt, atas rekomendasinya E.O. 9066 beristirahat, tentang potensi sabotase yang datang dari populasi etnis Jepang California. Olson, bereaksi terhadap informasi dari DeWitt, percaya bahwa ada bukti yang mendukung penduduk Jepang di California yang mempersiapkan kegiatan kolom kelima. Mereka berargumen bahwa tindakan sabotase harus segera terjadi karena belum ada yang terjadi, sama sekali mengabaikan kemungkinan bahwa informasi DeWitt salah dan tidak ada insiden yang akan terjadi.

Tak lama setelah penerbitan E.O. 9066 pada 19 Februari 1942, Olson bersaksi di depan komite Kongres AS yang ditugaskan untuk mempelajari potensi masalah yang dihasilkan dari perintah tersebut. Pada tanggal 6 Maret 1942, Gubernur Olson menyatakan bahwa, "karena sangat sulitnya membedakan antara orang Amerika-Jepang yang setia, dan ada banyak orang yang setia kepada negara ini, dan orang-orang Jepang lainnya yang kesetiaannya kepada Mikado. Saya percaya pada evakuasi besar-besaran orang Jepang dari pesisir California." [2]

Pengusiran semua imigran Jepang dan keturunan mereka dari California akan berdampak serius pada hasil pertanian. Olson percaya bahwa zona eksklusi, seperti yang telah dia saksikan di depan komite Kongres, harus dibatasi di "pesisir California." Sebaliknya, ia mengusulkan agar pria Jepang dewasa harus tinggal di pedalaman, di kamp kerja, sehingga mereka dapat memanen tanaman di Lembah Tengah yang produktif di negara bagian itu. Ada kemungkinan bahwa Olson mempertimbangkan potensi masalah ras yang berbeda yang disebabkan oleh tersingkirnya komunitas Jepang dan masuknya pencari kerja. Penulis Michi Weglyn menuduh bahwa Olson khawatir "penggenangan negara oleh orang kulit hitam dan Chicanos tidak dapat dihindari." [3]

Namun Olson mempromosikan citra atmosfer toleransi ras di negara bagiannya. Olson berkata, "Warga California telah menjaga kepala mereka. Ada sedikit jika ada penolakan serius terhadap hak-hak sipil baik orang asing atau warga negara ras Jepang, karena perang. Tradisi permainan adil Amerika telah dipatuhi. pengaruh dan informasi publik—pers, mimbar, lembaga kesejahteraan sekolah, radio dan bioskop—telah mencegah kekerasan massa dan telah memohon toleransi dan keadilan bagi semua penduduk yang taat hukum dari ras apa pun.” [4] Pada saat 93.000 penduduk California keturunan Jepang diusir dari rumah mereka dan dipenjarakan di "kamp" yang terpencil dan terpencil, pernyataan Olson terdengar hampa.

Partai Republik menominasikan Earl Warren untuk melawan Culbert Olson dan Warren mengalahkannya dengan telak. Olson kembali ke praktik hukumnya dan, sebagai seorang ateis, memimpin United Secularists of America. Istri Olson meninggal tak lama setelah pelantikannya sebagai gubernur. Ia meninggal pada 13 April 1962 dalam usia 85 tahun.


Mengapa Gubernur California yang Tak Bertuhan Lebih Maju dari Waktunya

Culbert Olson dilantik sebagai gubernur, dengan tangan kiri di sakunya, bukan di Alkitab. Foto milik Deborah Olsen.

Oleh Debra Deane Olson | 29 Mei 2018

Culbert Olson adalah salah satu pria terpenting yang mungkin belum pernah Anda dengar. Dia adalah satu-satunya Demokrat yang menjabat sebagai gubernur California antara tahun 1896 dan 1958, dan dia hanya bertahan satu periode—terpilih pada tahun 1938, dan digulingkan pada tahun 1942. Dia adalah burung paling langka di antara politisi Amerika yang terpilih untuk jabatan tinggi, seorang ateis dan bebas. pemikir.

Dia mungkin terkenal karena menolak mengucapkan kata-kata "jadi tolong aku Tuhan," menggantikannya dengan "Aku akan menegaskan" saat dia mengambil sumpah jabatan gubernur.

Tapi dia lebih dari itu. Dia adalah seorang progresif yang jauh di depan zamannya, mungkin terlalu jauh untuk kebaikannya sendiri. Saya percaya sekarang akan menjadi waktu yang sangat baik untuk penilaian kembali dan pemahaman yang lebih dalam tentang Gubernur Olson. Aku mengatakan itu bukan hanya karena Culbert adalah kakekku. Dia terbukti tahu tentang ancaman terhadap masyarakat Amerika—dari ketidaksetaraan ekonomi, perang, rasisme, dan bahaya kesukuan agama—yang terlalu mengganggu kita hari ini.

“Tidak ada dewa yang akan menyelamatkan kita,” dia suka berkata. “Kita harus menyelamatkan diri kita sendiri.”

Olson lahir dan dibesarkan di Utah dalam kepercayaan Mormon tetapi meninggalkan gereja sebagai pemuda setelah memutuskan bahwa Joseph Smith adalah seorang penipu dan bahwa wahyu-wahyunya tidak masuk akal secara rasional. Dia menjadi ateisme setelah mendengarkan ceramah salah satu ateis Amerika paling terkenal, Robert Green Ingersoll.

Anda dapat memilih keluar atau menghubungi kami kapan saja.

Dia akan berpendapat bahwa para Founding Fathers bukanlah orang Kristen, mereka adalah deis, dan mereka membentuk negara paling sekuler di dunia dengan pemisahan yang kuat antara gereja dan negara. Olson, sebelum dan selama karir politiknya, akan mendorong orang untuk menjadi “kemanusiaan”, yang berarti menghindari kefanatikan dan kesukuan yang diasosiasikan dengan agama-agama terorganisir. Salah satu pernyataannya yang paling banyak dikutip adalah, “Kita harus memperhatikan persaudaraan manusia bukan kebapaan Allah.”

Olson memenangkan kursi di Senat Negara Bagian pada tahun 1934. Di era itu, Demokrat memiliki sedikit peluang untuk memenangkan jabatan di seluruh negara bagian. Tetapi ketika Olson dinominasikan oleh partainya sebagai gubernur pada tahun 1938, dia memiliki nasib baik untuk menentang petahana yang sangat tidak populer dan korup, Frank Merriam, pada saat Depresi semakin memburuk. Pada bulan November 1938 Olson tampil di sampul album Kehidupan majalah, yang menggambarkannya sebagai idola politik barat yang tampan dan berpakaian tanpa cela, tampak seperti proyeksi bintang film tentang seorang gubernur. Artikel tersebut memberi tahu para pembacanya bahwa “Culbert Levy Olson memajukan agenda progresif di California dan dikenal sebagai ‘gubernur rakyat.’”

Poster untuk pemilihan kembali Culbert L. Olson sebagai Gubernur California, 1942. Gambar milik Wikimedia Commons

Tidak ada gubernur yang menghadapi begitu banyak hambatan dalam mengejar ide-idenya. Badan legislatif California dan lembaga politik yang didominasi oleh Partai Republik, dan surat kabar sayap kanan William Randolph Hearst, menentang hampir semua inisiatif progresifnya dan undang-undang yang ia usulkan.

Olson tidak mempercayai perusahaan besar, terutama kepentingan yang kuat secara finansial. Dia ingin mendukung kelas menengah Amerika arus utama dengan ide-ide progresifnya. Tetapi legislatif mengalahkan sebagian besar programnya, yang mencakup dukungan untuk memecahkan krisis pengangguran yang menghancurkan dengan konsep "produksi untuk digunakan" yang diperjuangkan oleh Upton Sinclair, kepemilikan publik atas utilitas publik, asuransi kesehatan universal untuk setiap undang-undang California untuk menaikkan pajak pada bank-bank berpenghasilan tinggi. dan perusahaan dan peraturan baru tentang pelobi.

Dia berhasil memecah minyak besar, mengatur "lintah darat," dan menulis ulang undang-undang riba, mereformasi sistem pidana terbesar dan paling menindas di Amerika Serikat pada saat itu, dan menulis undang-undang untuk mendukung serikat pekerja.

Dia tidak mendapatkan semua yang dia inginkan untuk New Deal-nya di California dan dia membuat banyak musuh dalam mengejar agenda progresifnya, terutama Standard Oil dan Gereja Katolik Roma (dengan siapa dia terlibat dalam pengaruh besar dalam pendidikan publik). Dia berusaha menangani kekalahannya dengan humor. Dia berkata, "Jika Anda ingin tahu di mana neraka itu, jadilah gubernur California."

Kritik Olson terhadap kepentingan korup tidak diterima di Sacramento. Dia sangat progresif dalam menuntut regulasi pemerintah yang bijaksana terhadap industri besar. Pada tahun 1939, dia berkata: “Menurut cara berpikir saya, adalah tanggung jawab sosial pemerintah dalam memajukan kesejahteraan umum untuk melakukan kontrol dan stabilisasi ekonomi nasional, untuk merencanakan dan menyediakan lapangan kerja penuh ketika industri swasta gagal mencegah siklus bisnis. yang mengakibatkan depresi industri untuk menyediakan cara dan sarana untuk menyediakan perlindungan kesehatan bagi semua orang, dan yang terbaik dalam layanan pendidikan untuk melindungi sumber daya nasional dari eksploitasi yang sia-sia untuk keserakahan pribadi.”

Selama Perang Dunia II, Olson menentang penahanan orang-orang keturunan Jepang, yang telah didukung dan dipertahankan oleh Jaksa Agung negara bagian, Earl Warren. Dalam pernyataan publik dan dalam surat kepada teman dan orang kepercayaan politiknya, Presiden Franklin D. Roosevelt, Olson menunjukkan bahwa penduduk Jepang dan orang Amerika-Jepang adalah warga negara dan sama seperti orang Amerika lainnya di sini. Dalam pidatonya di San Francisco, dia memperingatkan, “Siapa pun yang menghasilkan kebencian rasial dan kesalahpahaman sosial adalah demagog dari tipe yang paling subversif. Dia menjadi musuh masyarakat, sama seperti penghindar pajak, penggelapan, atau pembunuh. Faktanya, dia melakukan lebih banyak kerusakan. ”

Akhirnya, Gubernur Olson harus menerima pengasingan setelah perintah militer dari Jenderal John DeWitt, seorang pendukung kuat untuk memenjarakan orang Jepang-Amerika. Pada tahun 1943 ia kehilangan tawaran pemilihannya kembali ke Earl Warren karena ekonomi membaik di California mempersiapkan Perang Dunia II. Ironisnya, Warren terbukti lebih efektif daripada Olson dalam mendorong beberapa aspek progresif dari program Olson, termasuk regulasi perusahaan, reformasi politik, dan investasi dalam infrastruktur publik.

Setelah dia meninggalkan kantor, kakek saya menjadi Presiden United Secularists of America, sebuah badan sekularis, ateis, dan pemikir bebas. Pekerjaan ini termasuk membela pemisahan gereja dan negara, menghilangkan takhayul, mempromosikan perpajakan properti gereja, dan menentang agama di sekolah umum.

Saya masih mendengar pandangan kemanusiaan Kakek dalam percakapan tentang ketimpangan pendapatan, yang sekarang sama buruknya dengan ketika dia menjabat sebagai gubernur selama Depresi Hebat. Tentang ketidaksetaraan, ia memperingatkan: “Masalah sosial diciptakan oleh ketidaksesuaian ekonomi, kemiskinan di tengah-tengah kelimpahan … berlanjutnya konsentrasi kekayaan, kontrol ekonomi nasional di tangan sebagian kecil penduduk yang menentang setiap upaya pemerintah untuk campur tangan. kontrol untuk stabilisasi ekonomi dan untuk kesejahteraan umum.”

Gubernur Culbert Olson mewakili tradisi politik Amerika yang berasal dari kebutuhan dasar manusia dan bukan dari hak pribadi atau finansial. Pesannya layak mendapatkan lebih banyak pemikiran dan perhatian hari ini.


Culbert Olson (1876-1962)

Dijelaskan oleh Waktu New York sebagai "pendukung kuat dari Kesepakatan Baru," Culbert Olson adalah anggota Demokrat dari Senat Negara Bagian California dari tahun 1934 hingga 1938 dan Gubernur California dari tahun 1939 hingga 1943 [1].

Culbert Levy Olson lahir pada 7 November 1876, di Fillmore, Utah dari pasangan George Daniel Olson dan Delilah King. Dia lulus dari Universitas Brigham Young pada tahun 1895 dan, saat bekerja sebagai jurnalis dan sekretaris kongres di Washington, D.C., memperoleh gelar sarjana hukum dari Columbian University Law School (sekarang George Washington University School of Law). Pada tahun 1901, dia diterima di Utah Bar dan mulai berlatih di Salt Lake City [2].

Olson bertugas di Senat Negara Bagian Utah dari tahun 1916 hingga 1920, setelah itu ia pindah ke California, tempat ia berpraktik hukum, menyelidiki penipuan perusahaan, dan aktif di Partai Demokrat. Pada tahun 1932, ia berkampanye untuk Franklin Roosevelt dan pada tahun 1934 mendukung pencalonan Upton Sinclair untuk jabatan gubernur California di bawah program terkenal, "Akhiri Kemiskinan di California" (EPIC). Sinclair kalah dalam pemilihan, tetapi Olson menjadi senator negara bagian California [3].

Selama waktunya di Senat Negara Bagian, Olson mendorong keras untuk reformasi progresif dan "mendapatkan kemenangan besar ketika gubernur menerima rancangan undang-undang yang menetapkan pajak pendapatan negara dan meningkatkan warisan, bank, dan pajak waralaba perusahaan ..." [4]. Olson adalah advokat terkemuka minyak “prorasi” untuk membatasi produksi dan menaikkan harga di industri yang tertekan, yang menjadi kebijakan nasional untuk setengah abad berikutnya. Presiden Roosevelt menunjuk Olson asisten khusus Jaksa Agung AS untuk mengejar tuntutan pemerintah atas royalti minyak [5].

Pada tahun 1938, Olson terpilih sebagai gubernur, Demokrat pertama yang menduduki jabatan tersebut pada abad ke-20. Banyak yang berharap dia akan mengantarkan New Deal for California [6]. Selama pidato pelantikannya, Olson menyatakan bahwa, “Konsep sosial baru lahir melalui rasa sakit dan kesusahan yang dibawa ke atas orang-orang oleh depresi industri besar seperti yang telah kita derita. Setiap individu dipaksa untuk menyadari bahwa dirinya adalah makhluk sosial, bukan entitas mandiri yang mandiri. Ini telah memberi kita administrasi nasional dengan sudut pandang sosial, dengan program New Deal layanan pemerintah untuk kebutuhan mendesak rakyat yang ditinggalkan dalam keputusasaan oleh kegagalan total kebijakan steril orde lama…” [7].

Meskipun Olson mampu memajukan beberapa reformasi penjara dan perawatan kesehatan mental, dan menunjuk beberapa hakim dan administrator negara liberal seperti Carey McWilliams, sebagian besar agendanya diblokir oleh senat negara bagian yang dikendalikan oleh Partai Republik [8]. California akan sangat diuntungkan dari Kesepakatan Baru [9] dan lagi-lagi karena negara itu dimobilisasi untuk perang [10], tetapi itu tidak cukup untuk menyelamatkan Olson, yang kalah dalam pemilihannya kembali pada tahun 1942. Ironisnya, penggantinya dari Partai Republik yang konservatif, Earl Warren , akan menjadi pendukung pascaperang kebijakan era New Deal seperti memperluas pendidikan publik, taman dan infrastruktur, dan kemudian memimpin sebagai Ketua Mahkamah Agung paling liberal dalam sejarah AS, penuh dengan Dealer Baru seperti William O. Douglas dan Hugo Black [ 11].

Olson tetap aktif di Partai Demokrat selama beberapa tahun setelah kekalahannya. Dia meninggal pada 13 April 1962, pada usia 85, meninggalkan tiga putranya, Richard, Dean, dan John (istri pertamanya adalah Nellie E. Boronson-Day dan istri keduanya adalah Kate Jeremy) [12].

Sumber: (1) “Culbert L. Olson, Mantan Gubernur, 85,” Waktu New York, 14 April 1962. (2) Ibid., dan juga lihat “Pemimpin Pantai, Mantan Utahn Meninggal,” Tribun Danau Garam, 14 April 1962 dan “Culbert Olson, 1939-1943,” Galeri Gubernur, Perpustakaan Negara Bagian California, diakses 6 Desember 2016. (3) James S. Olson (ed.), Kamus Sejarah Kesepakatan Baru, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985, hal. 381. (4) Ibid. (5) Lihat catatan 1. (6) “Culbert Olson, 1939-1943,” The Governor’s Gallery, California State Library, diakses 6 Desember 2016. (7) Ibid. (8) Lihat catatan 3. (9) Richard Walker dan Gray Brechin. The Living New Deal: Manfaat Tanpa Tanda Jasa dari New Deal untuk Amerika Serikat dan California. Working Paper 220-10, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, University of California, Berkeley. 2010. (10) “Governor Culbert L. Olson,” National Governors Association, accessed December 6, 2016. (11) John Douglass, “Earl Warren’s new deal: economic transition, postwar planning, and higher education in California.” Journal of Policy History. 2000. 12/4: 473-512. (12) See notes 1 and 6.


Culbert Levy Olson

Ближайшие родственники

About Culbert Olson, Governor

Culbert Levy Olson (November 7, 1876 – April 13, 1962) was an American lawyer and politician. A Democratic Party member, Olson was involved in Utah and California politics and was elected as the 29th governor of California from 1939 to 1943.

Olson was born in Fillmore, Utah, the son of Delilah Cornelia (nພ King) and George Daniel Olson, on November 7, 1876. Olson's mother was a suffragette and became the first female elected official in Utah. Both his mother and father belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. However, Culbert was unconvinced of the existence of God, becoming an atheist at the age of ten. Olson's change of beliefs distanced himself from his parents' Mormon beliefs. He was also the first cousin of U.S. Senator William H. King.

Leaving school at the age of 14, Olson worked briefly as a telegraph operator and in 1890, enrolled at Brigham Young University in Provo, studying law and journalism. Upon graduating at the age of 19 in 1895, Olson embarked on a career as a journalist with the Daily Ogden Standard. During the 1896 Presidential Election, Olson openly campaigned for Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan. After the election, Olson moved briefly to Michigan, studying law at the University of Michigan, and then later to Washington, D.C., working as a newspaper correspondent and secretary for the U.S. Congress. During his time in the capital, Olson attended law school at George Washington University, being admitted to the Utah Bar in 1901.

Utah and California State Legislatures

Olson moved back to Utah in 1901, settling in Salt Lake City to join a law practice. Building a reputation of defending trade unionists and political progressives, Olson was elected to the Utah State Senate in 1916. During his four years in the State Senate, Olson wrote and endorsed legislation to end child labor in the state, guarantee old age pensions, and expand government control of public utilities.

Olson declined to run again for the State Senate in the 1920 general election. Instead, Olson relocated to Los Angeles, California, beginning another law practice, where he again gained a reputation of investigating corporate fraud. Politics never remained far. Olson campaigned openly for Progressive Party candidate Robert La Follette in the 1924 Elections, and for Democrat Franklin Roosevelt in the 1932 Elections.

In 1934, in the middle of the Great Depression, Olson ran as a Democrat for the California State Senate, representing Los Angeles. During the 1934 state general elections, Olson campaigned for former Socialist Party member and Democratic nominee for Governor, Upton Sinclair, participating in Sinclair's End Poverty in California campaign. While Sinclair lost the gubernatorial election to Republican Frank Merriam, Olson was elected to the State Senate that year.

While in the California State Senate, the second state legislature he was elected to, Olson openly supported Roosevelt's New Deal policies towards the unemployed. Seeing large business interests as a barrier to change, Olson wrote the Olson Oil Bill to cut down oil company monopolies in the state.

With the open support of President Roosevelt, Olson ran for governor of California in the 1938 general elections against conservative Republican and anti-labor incumbent Governor Frank Merriam. Merriam, known for suppressing the 1934 Longshore Strike and his conservative fiscal policies, was a highly unpopular candidate among progressives and unionists, with even conservative Republicans angered by his 1935 tax reforms. Merriam lost soundly to Olson. He was the first Democrat to win the governorship since James Budd's election in 1895, breaking the 40 year Republican dynasty over the governorship.

Olson was inaugurated as California's twenty-ninth executive on January 2, 1939. In his inaugural address, Olson pointed at progressives and the Left for his inspiration, citing that "[t]hey point the way forward- toward the achievement of the aspiration of the people for an economy that will afford general employment, abundant production, equitable distribution, social security and old age retirement, which our country, with its ample resources, great facilities and the genius of its people, is capable of providing."

Olson refused to say "so help me God" during his oath of office to state Supreme Court Justice William H. Waste. Olson remarked earlier to Justice Waste that "God couldn't help me at all, and that there isn't any such person." Instead, Olson said, "I will affirm."

Olson's tenure in the governorship began to a rocky start. Olson collapsed four days after his inauguration. Doctors discovered that Olson was suffering from an ailing heart. On top of personal health matters, Kate Jeremy Olson, the Governor's wife of nearly thirty-nine years, died shortly after Olson assumed the office.

Contrasting with the conservative policies of Governor Frank Merriam, Olson extended friendly relations with the state's labor unions. In September 1939, Olson officially pardoned Tom Mooney, a labor activist and political prisoner accused of plotting the 1916 Preparedness Day Bombing in San Francisco. Olson cited scant evidence against Mooney as the reason for his pardon. The next month, Olson pardoned Mooney's alleged accomplice, Warren Billings.

Olson's relationship with the California State Legislature was often bitter. With conservative Democrats controlling the Assembly, and business friendly Republicans in the Senate, Olson had little room to promote his New Deal politics, while the Legislature remained weary of Olson's leftist agenda. By the first year of his governorship, Olson's proposed budget was cut by nearly 100 million dollars, plus the Governor's proposal of compulsory universal health insurance for every Californian was defeated. The Legislature also defeated legislation to raise income, bank and corporate taxes, as well as Olson's proposed bills to regulate lobbyists and reform the state penal system. State subsidized relief for farmers was also nearly cut in half. During his tenure of the governorship, Olson installed a telephone hotline to the Legislature to get immediate word of lawmakers' positions on bills in committee or on the floor for a vote.

During his tenure of the governorship, Olson grew increasingly critical of the Roman Catholic Church and its presence in the state educational system. Olson gained the ire of Archbishops John J. Cantwell of Los Angeles and John J. Mitty of San Francisco, during his term in office. A secular atheist, Olson was disturbed by the state legislature's passage of two bills in 1941, one to give free transportation to students attending Catholic schools, while the other would release Catholic children from public schools in the middle of the school day in order to attend catechism, leaving the schools and other students idle until the Catholic students' return. Olson signed into law the first bill, later citing the enormous pressure of the Catholic Church on his office and on state lawmakers. However, he vetoed the second ("early release") bill.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the entry of the United States into the Second World War in December 1941, many in California feared a Japanese invasion. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, allowing the US Military to create an exclusion zone. Based on this all West Coast non-citizen Japanese and citizen-Japanese Americans were moved to internment camps. Testifying before a U.S. House committee on March 6, 1942, Olson, a longtime supporter of nearly every Roosevelt position on economics, politics and foreign policy, supported the move wholeheartedly. "Because of the extreme difficulty in distinguishing between loyal Japanese-Americans, and there are many who are loyal to this country, and those other Japanese whose loyalty is to the Mikado. I believe in the wholesale evacuation of the Japanese people from coastal California."

By the 1942 general elections, Republicans had accused Olson of blatant partisan politics during wartime, citing Olson's often bitter divides with the State Legislature. The Republican Party nominated California Attorney General Earl Warren as the party's nominee for the governorship. Warren, a centrist Republican, campaigned as a moderate voice that would appeal to both liberals and conservatives during a time of war, where California was considered as a possible front line, while accusing Olson as an uncompromising, left-wing Democrat.

Olson lost to Warren by a large margin. In later years, Olson blamed "the active hostility of a certain privately owned power corporation and the Roman Catholic Church in California" for his defeat.

Following his departure from the governorship, Olson returned to law. He regained the public spotlight again in the 1950s, when the Legislature voted to exempt Catholic schools from real estate taxes. Olson filed an amicus curiae brief to the state Supreme Court, asking the court to explain how the state's exemption of a religious organization from civil taxes was constitutional.

In 1957, Olson became president of the United Secularists of America, a body made up of secularists, atheists, and freethinkers.

Olson died in Los Angeles on April 13, 1962, aged 85, long predeceased by his wife, Kate. Olson is buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, Glendale, California.

Olson speaking to his successor, Earl Warren, shortly before his inauguration in 1943:

“If you want to know what Hell is like, just be Governor.”

“It is certain that organized religion and prayers to their almighty deity have not been the means of saving humanity from want or from wars, a large proportion of which have been wars for power between conflicting religious dogmas. Nor have the principles of morality taught as a part of religious doctrine, become prevalent by that method. Witness the extent of selfishness, greed, opportunism, hypocrisy, and crime which now permeates our society.”

Olson's view of the power of the Catholic Church:

“What I wish to do now is to revert to [return to the topic of] the political activities and influence of the [Roman] Catholic Church under its priesthood direction in our secular government of California. Who in public life now or heretofore has not felt that pressure of that influence?"


GOVERNOR CULBERT OLSON - AUTOGRAPH NOTE SIGNED 11/11/1948 - HFSID 83981

CULBERT OLSON
Extremely rare signature from the California Governor on a note to a friend, dated 1948
Autograph note signed: "Culbert Olson", in blue ink, 4¼x6. Also signed on verso: "Martha Gerrard", which requires more research. In full: "Pearl: you are charming and not merely as a wonderful hostess - you inspire sincere affection [signature] Nov. 11 - 1948". Culbert Olson(1876-1962) served in office from 1939 to 1943 as Governor of California. Born in Utah, his mother was a suffragette and the first female to be elected to an official office in Utah. An independent mind as a young child, Olson declared himself an atheist at age 10 and left school at age 14 to become a telegraph operator. He later graduated from Brigham Young University and worked as a journalist for a short while before starting a career in law, and subsequently was elected to the Utah State Senate. He worked to end child labor and expand government control of public utilities, and after a move to California, continued to pursue politics until he was elected as governor in 1939. Olson was noted for being particularly liberal and progressive, aiming to end the presence of religion in many government run facilities, proposing universal health care, and hoping to reform the state penal system. Although Olson proved popular to some, he was ultimately unable to secure another term, as World War II proved too stressful to elect someone as radically liberal as Olson. After his government position, he returned to a career in law. Left edge torn and creased. Heavily toned. Ink notes (unknown hand) on bottom margin. Slight surface creases. Otherwise, fine condition.

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Culbert Olson - History

Many people suggest that atheists are necessarily barred from holding high political office by virtue of the unpopularity of their world view. Whether that is true or not today, the fact remains that at least one freethinker has achieved high political office in this century.

On November 7, 1876, Culbert Levy Olson was born in Fillmore, Utah, to a devoutly Mormon mother and a skeptical father. He attended a school run by the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints, but at an early age got into trouble. In a 1961 interview, he described his experiences:

Nevertheless, he was admitted to Brigham Young University and graduated at age nineteen in 1895. After graduation, he pursued a career in journalism, finding his way to Washington, D.C. There, he attended a lecture given by Robert G. Ingersoll, and found a tremendous sense of relief and community, realizing that there were others who shared his skepticism about the supernatural.

Thus energized, he entered Columbian Law School, today known as George Washington University School of Law, taking an L.L.M. degree (the equivalent of today’s J.D.) in 1901 with a year’s study at the University of Michigan in his second year. He passed the Utah bar in 1901 and opened a private law practice in Salt Lake City. He married Kate Jeremey in 1905, and described her as a “freethinker” who had some degree of religious faith but was critical of most religious institutions. They had three sons, one of whom followed in his father’s footsteps and entered the practice of law.

By then, Olson had begun a life of political activity (which began by working in 1896 as a campaign volunteer for, of all people, William Jennings Bryan) which increasingly supplanted the practice of law. He was elected to the lower house of the Utah Legislature in 1916, and served two terms until 1920 where he pushed for an end to child labor, support for labor unions, and progressive taxation. A strong proponent of the “reform” movement sweeping the nation at the time, he sponsored and shepherded through the Legislature laws to fight political corruption, establish minimum wages and safe working standards, and to improve the level of social services provided by the state government.

Olson moved to Los Angeles, California in 1920, and was admitted to the California Bar in September of 1921. He was only the 6,335th lawyer in the history of the organized legal profession in California. He became a great supporter of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and worked to implement the principles of FDR’s New Deal in California. Initially a behind-the-scenes operator, he was elected to the California State Senate in 1934 and served one term. He became the head of the Roosevelt wing of the Democratic party, which at that time was split between FDR’s faction, Progressives led by Upton Sinclair, and those who favored compromising with the Republican majority on economic issues, led by the man who would become his Lieutenant Governor, in order to obtain moderate social legislation.

In 1939, Olson ran for Governor and, with FDR’s personal endorsement and an alliance with Sinclair’s progressives, became the first of only four Democrats elected to the California Governor’s office since 1895. His swearing-in was delayed and conducted in private because he refused to include the words “to God” in his oath of office eventually, a member of the Supreme Court was persuaded to administer the oath in the Capitol building and to accept the words “I affirm” instead.

A friend of Olson in the entertainment industry once said, "If you'd called Central Casting for a governor, Culbert Olson is what they'd have sent you.” Sadly, it seems that Olson’s personality was not as good a fit for the job as his appearance. His problems began with a political mishandling of the then-controversial “Ham and Eggs” initiative. Olson’s campaign carefully ducked this proposal to establish generous state pensions for all retired Californians as a supplement to social security. Once in office, however, Olson sided with economic conservatism over his progressive political instincts and opposed the initiative when it went before the voters, leaving the progressives feeling betrayed.

They should not have Olson was a dedicated adherent to the generally-progressive social and governmental policies of the Roosevelt Administration and was dedicated to implementing mirror images of those policies at the state level. He took great pains to provide for social welfare programs while attempting to balance a large deficit left over from previous administrations – however, he failed in this regard because his party did not obtain majorities in both houses of the Legislature, and Republicans allied with the fiscally-conservative wing of the Democrats to deny Olson the money necessary to fund his requested social welfare programs.

The most controversial thing Olson did as Governor was to pardon labor activist Tom Mooney, who had been convicted in 1919 of involvement in an attempted bombing of a series of Pacific Gas and Electric Company facilities. Mooney has since been exonerated by further evidence demonstrating that he had been framed, justifying Olson’s pardon. Olson expanded California’s public education system significantly, in particular focusing his efforts on increasing the endowment and number of locations of the University of California. He also recognized, perhaps before any other leader of California, that public utilities required careful regulation and control by the government in order to provide for what were becoming necessities of life such as electricity and natural gas. The Republican-dominated Legislature, however, successfully obstructed Olson’s desires to impose greater regulation, if not public takeover, of these vital entities.

Fulfilling his desire to see an active government in California stimulate economic activity in the midst of the Depression, Olson he established the California Conservation Corps, which hired otherwise unemployed young men to preserve California’s wilderness areas, plant forests and preserve other natural resources. He was an advocate of prison and penal code reform, steering California’s prison system firmly down the road of providing counseling and vocational training to prisoners to encourage them not to commit crimes upon their release, and setting in place reforms to the juvenile justice system, and mental illness treatment provided in conjunction with the criminal justice system, which survive essentially intact today.

World War II came to America in Olson’s administration and Olson largely deferred to military authorities on all significant issues after December 14, 1941 when Olson declared a state of military emergency at President Roosevelt’s request. It is not clear how Olson felt about the military’s decision to relocate Japanese citizens to “holding camps” in the valleys of California’s deserts to the east of the Sierra Nevada mountains however, Olson did not protest the decision in any fashion. It is also likely Olson became somewhat depressed after the death of his wife after the first year of his administration he never re-married.

Olson was opposed for his re-election by the Attorney General, Earl Warren. Warren cross-filed and ran for both the Democratic and Republican nominations he came within 100,000 votes of beating Olson in the Democratic primary because of internecine disagreements between organized labor and progressives within the Democratic party leading to a low turnout. This presaged a solid win by the Republican Warren in 1942. Olson returned to his private law practice in 1943, and while he was still honored in Democratic circles for years afterwards, his political power had clearly vanished. He attended Earl Warren’s inauguration and famously told the future Chief Justice, “If you want to know what Hell is like, just be Governor.” Perhaps out of respect for Olson’s interest in and respect for the University of California system, Governor Warren appointed Olson to the UC Board of Regents, the governing body of that institution.

In 1947, Olson began a campaign of advocating significant changes to California’s constitution, including reform of the Legislature as a unicameral institution, permitting the Governor to appoint Constitutional officers such as the Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, and Secretary of State, and permitting executive deliberation in the process of drafting laws. While his views found some adherents in members of both parties, not enough support has ever been garnered for these ideas to be presented to the voters, and the general structure of California’s Constitution remains one of multiple executives elected independently from one another with a bicameral legislature. He also actively, and successfully, campaigned against the adoption of the phrase “In God We Trust” as California’s official motto.

During his political life, Olson kept his personal atheism quiet and only confided that facet of personal information to trusted colleagues and close family members. Nevertheless, he stated on several occasions that his policies were motivated by “secularism,” which he defined as “…an ethical system founded on natural morality which seeks the development of the physical, moral, and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point.” He joined the United Secularists of America in 1952 and became its President in 1961. When asked in his later years about his religion by the press, he bluntly replied, “I am an atheist.”

However, he struck a public nerve in May of 1959, when he published an essay entitled “The Problem of Separation of Church and State,” based on an address he had intended to give to the California Commonwealth Club the previous month, but which the Club requested he not give once its subject became known. He presented his view of moral atheism and strict separation of the government from all religious institutions (particularly the Roman Catholic Church) on several television programs in 1959 and 1960, usually writing or speaking on the topic “God is a myth.” He also filed an amicus brief, laced with firey rhetoric, in the California Supreme Court, protesting a lower court’s decision exempting the Catholic Church from paying property taxes because it was a religious institution.

Olson died at the age of eighty-five on April 13, 1962, in a nursing home in Los Angeles and is buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery in Glendale, California. It is easy to see his term as Governor of California as largely failed because of a lack of tact and misreading of the political landscape however, it is difficult to see how anyone else could have done much better, given the highly fractious state of politics and the extreme economic, and later military, pressures that California faced during Olson’s term in office. Not all of his political proposals were good, and he was guilty of permitting his late-life criticism of the Roman Catholic Church to cross the line into invective. But, Olson did achieve a very high political office as a freethinker, guided an economically and culturally complex state through some of its hardest times, was a steadfast advocate for bettering the lives of working-class people through civil liberties and economic opportunities, and he laid the foundation for substantial reforms in government and social policy which endure to this day. He remains one of the most ambiguous, and historically controversial, leaders of the Golden State’s history.

H. Brett Melendy and Benjamin F. Gilbert, The Governors of California: Peter H. Burnett to Edmund G. Brown (1965).


Neuanfang in Kalifornien

In Los Angeles ließ er sich als Anwalt nieder und erwarb sich bald einen ähnlich guten Ruf wie zuvor in Utah. Dabei verlor er nie die Politik aus den Augen. 1924 unterstützte er Robert M. La Follette sr. und 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt in deren Wahlkämpfen um die Präsidentschaft. 1934 bewarb er sich erfolgreich als Demokrat um einen Sitz im Senat von Kalifornien. Gleichzeitigt unterstützte er den ehemaligen Sozialisten Upton Sinclair, der sich, allerdings erfolglos, um das Amt des Gouverneurs bewarb. Im kalifornischen Senat war er ein Befürworter von Präsident Franklin Roosevelts New Deal Programm. Au෾rdem setzte er sich gegen Monopolstellungen von Mineralölkonzernen ein. Für die Gouverneurswahlen 1938 wurde er mit Unterstützung von Roosevelt von den Demokraten als deren Kandidat aufgestellt. Sein Gegenkandidat war Amtsinhaber Frank Merriam der inzwischen sowohl bei den Konservativen als auch bei liberaleren Kr๏ten äu෾rst unpopulär war. Infolgedessen gelang Olson ein klarer Sieg mit 52 gegen 44 Prozent der Stimmen ein komfortabler Sieg. Damit endete eine jahrzehntelange Niederlagenserie der Demokratischen Partei in Kalifornien. Seit 1895, als James Budd die Wahlen gewann, hatte es kein Demokrat mehr in das hཬhste Regierungsamt Kaliforniens geschafft.


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About Culbert Olson, Governor

Culbert Levy Olson (November 7, 1876 – April 13, 1962) was an American lawyer and politician. A Democratic Party member, Olson was involved in Utah and California politics and was elected as the 29th governor of California from 1939 to 1943.

Olson was born in Fillmore, Utah, the son of Delilah Cornelia (nພ King) and George Daniel Olson, on November 7, 1876. Olson's mother was a suffragette and became the first female elected official in Utah. Both his mother and father belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. However, Culbert was unconvinced of the existence of God, becoming an atheist at the age of ten. Olson's change of beliefs distanced himself from his parents' Mormon beliefs. He was also the first cousin of U.S. Senator William H. King.

Leaving school at the age of 14, Olson worked briefly as a telegraph operator and in 1890, enrolled at Brigham Young University in Provo, studying law and journalism. Upon graduating at the age of 19 in 1895, Olson embarked on a career as a journalist with the Daily Ogden Standard. During the 1896 Presidential Election, Olson openly campaigned for Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan. After the election, Olson moved briefly to Michigan, studying law at the University of Michigan, and then later to Washington, D.C., working as a newspaper correspondent and secretary for the U.S. Congress. During his time in the capital, Olson attended law school at George Washington University, being admitted to the Utah Bar in 1901.

Utah and California State Legislatures

Olson moved back to Utah in 1901, settling in Salt Lake City to join a law practice. Building a reputation of defending trade unionists and political progressives, Olson was elected to the Utah State Senate in 1916. During his four years in the State Senate, Olson wrote and endorsed legislation to end child labor in the state, guarantee old age pensions, and expand government control of public utilities.

Olson declined to run again for the State Senate in the 1920 general election. Instead, Olson relocated to Los Angeles, California, beginning another law practice, where he again gained a reputation of investigating corporate fraud. Politics never remained far. Olson campaigned openly for Progressive Party candidate Robert La Follette in the 1924 Elections, and for Democrat Franklin Roosevelt in the 1932 Elections.

In 1934, in the middle of the Great Depression, Olson ran as a Democrat for the California State Senate, representing Los Angeles. During the 1934 state general elections, Olson campaigned for former Socialist Party member and Democratic nominee for Governor, Upton Sinclair, participating in Sinclair's End Poverty in California campaign. While Sinclair lost the gubernatorial election to Republican Frank Merriam, Olson was elected to the State Senate that year.

While in the California State Senate, the second state legislature he was elected to, Olson openly supported Roosevelt's New Deal policies towards the unemployed. Seeing large business interests as a barrier to change, Olson wrote the Olson Oil Bill to cut down oil company monopolies in the state.

With the open support of President Roosevelt, Olson ran for governor of California in the 1938 general elections against conservative Republican and anti-labor incumbent Governor Frank Merriam. Merriam, known for suppressing the 1934 Longshore Strike and his conservative fiscal policies, was a highly unpopular candidate among progressives and unionists, with even conservative Republicans angered by his 1935 tax reforms. Merriam lost soundly to Olson. He was the first Democrat to win the governorship since James Budd's election in 1895, breaking the 40 year Republican dynasty over the governorship.

Olson was inaugurated as California's twenty-ninth executive on January 2, 1939. In his inaugural address, Olson pointed at progressives and the Left for his inspiration, citing that "[t]hey point the way forward- toward the achievement of the aspiration of the people for an economy that will afford general employment, abundant production, equitable distribution, social security and old age retirement, which our country, with its ample resources, great facilities and the genius of its people, is capable of providing."

Olson refused to say "so help me God" during his oath of office to state Supreme Court Justice William H. Waste. Olson remarked earlier to Justice Waste that "God couldn't help me at all, and that there isn't any such person." Instead, Olson said, "I will affirm."

Olson's tenure in the governorship began to a rocky start. Olson collapsed four days after his inauguration. Doctors discovered that Olson was suffering from an ailing heart. On top of personal health matters, Kate Jeremy Olson, the Governor's wife of nearly thirty-nine years, died shortly after Olson assumed the office.

Contrasting with the conservative policies of Governor Frank Merriam, Olson extended friendly relations with the state's labor unions. In September 1939, Olson officially pardoned Tom Mooney, a labor activist and political prisoner accused of plotting the 1916 Preparedness Day Bombing in San Francisco. Olson cited scant evidence against Mooney as the reason for his pardon. The next month, Olson pardoned Mooney's alleged accomplice, Warren Billings.

Olson's relationship with the California State Legislature was often bitter. With conservative Democrats controlling the Assembly, and business friendly Republicans in the Senate, Olson had little room to promote his New Deal politics, while the Legislature remained weary of Olson's leftist agenda. By the first year of his governorship, Olson's proposed budget was cut by nearly 100 million dollars, plus the Governor's proposal of compulsory universal health insurance for every Californian was defeated. The Legislature also defeated legislation to raise income, bank and corporate taxes, as well as Olson's proposed bills to regulate lobbyists and reform the state penal system. State subsidized relief for farmers was also nearly cut in half. During his tenure of the governorship, Olson installed a telephone hotline to the Legislature to get immediate word of lawmakers' positions on bills in committee or on the floor for a vote.

During his tenure of the governorship, Olson grew increasingly critical of the Roman Catholic Church and its presence in the state educational system. Olson gained the ire of Archbishops John J. Cantwell of Los Angeles and John J. Mitty of San Francisco, during his term in office. A secular atheist, Olson was disturbed by the state legislature's passage of two bills in 1941, one to give free transportation to students attending Catholic schools, while the other would release Catholic children from public schools in the middle of the school day in order to attend catechism, leaving the schools and other students idle until the Catholic students' return. Olson signed into law the first bill, later citing the enormous pressure of the Catholic Church on his office and on state lawmakers. However, he vetoed the second ("early release") bill.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the entry of the United States into the Second World War in December 1941, many in California feared a Japanese invasion. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, allowing the US Military to create an exclusion zone. Based on this all West Coast non-citizen Japanese and citizen-Japanese Americans were moved to internment camps. Testifying before a U.S. House committee on March 6, 1942, Olson, a longtime supporter of nearly every Roosevelt position on economics, politics and foreign policy, supported the move wholeheartedly. "Because of the extreme difficulty in distinguishing between loyal Japanese-Americans, and there are many who are loyal to this country, and those other Japanese whose loyalty is to the Mikado. I believe in the wholesale evacuation of the Japanese people from coastal California."

By the 1942 general elections, Republicans had accused Olson of blatant partisan politics during wartime, citing Olson's often bitter divides with the State Legislature. The Republican Party nominated California Attorney General Earl Warren as the party's nominee for the governorship. Warren, a centrist Republican, campaigned as a moderate voice that would appeal to both liberals and conservatives during a time of war, where California was considered as a possible front line, while accusing Olson as an uncompromising, left-wing Democrat.

Olson lost to Warren by a large margin. In later years, Olson blamed "the active hostility of a certain privately owned power corporation and the Roman Catholic Church in California" for his defeat.

Following his departure from the governorship, Olson returned to law. He regained the public spotlight again in the 1950s, when the Legislature voted to exempt Catholic schools from real estate taxes. Olson filed an amicus curiae brief to the state Supreme Court, asking the court to explain how the state's exemption of a religious organization from civil taxes was constitutional.

In 1957, Olson became president of the United Secularists of America, a body made up of secularists, atheists, and freethinkers.

Olson died in Los Angeles on April 13, 1962, aged 85, long predeceased by his wife, Kate. Olson is buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, Glendale, California.

Olson speaking to his successor, Earl Warren, shortly before his inauguration in 1943:

“If you want to know what Hell is like, just be Governor.”

“It is certain that organized religion and prayers to their almighty deity have not been the means of saving humanity from want or from wars, a large proportion of which have been wars for power between conflicting religious dogmas. Nor have the principles of morality taught as a part of religious doctrine, become prevalent by that method. Witness the extent of selfishness, greed, opportunism, hypocrisy, and crime which now permeates our society.”

Olson's view of the power of the Catholic Church:

“What I wish to do now is to revert to [return to the topic of] the political activities and influence of the [Roman] Catholic Church under its priesthood direction in our secular government of California. Who in public life now or heretofore has not felt that pressure of that influence?"


The 10 Worst Bombings in US History

We still don’t have all the facts about yesterday’s horrific Boston Marathon bombing. At the time this column is being written, it’s being reported that 12 people died and more than 50 were injured in the attack. If those numbers hold, which is far from a given because of the wildly inaccurate reporting that usually follows events like this one in the first 24 hours, this could arguably be considered one of the worst bombings in U.S. history. While bombings are not a common occurrence in America, there have been more of them than most people realize.

10) The World Trade Center Bombing (February 26, 1993): A van filled with explosives went off in the parking garage beneath the World Trade Center. Almost unbelievably, although over a thousand people were wounded, only six were killed. It could have been much worse because the goal of the bombing had been to take down both towers. Had that happened, the body count would have been even larger than 9/11. The terrorist behind the attack was Ramzi Yousef, who is now serving a life sentence.

9) The Preparedness Day Bombing (July 22, 1916): The Preparedness Day parade was designed to lift morale in San Francisco in anticipation of the possible entry of the United States into World War I. Before the event, anti-war activists were harshly critical and during the parade a suitcase bomb went off, killing 10 and wounding 40. Labor leaders Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings were convicted of the crime and were both eventually sentenced to life in prison. After the two men spent 20 years in jail, Democrat Governor Culbert Olson grew concerned about whether they received a fair trial and pardoned them.

8) The LaGuardia Airport Bombing (December 29, 1975): Four days after Christmas, a powerful bomb that had been placed in a locker at LaGuardia Airport went off. It collapsed the ceiling and fired shrapnel across the room. Eleven people were killed and seventy five were injured by the bomb. Although a number of groups were thought to potentially be responsible including FALN, the Palestinian Liberation Organization, the Jewish Defense League and also a Croatian nationalist named Zvonko Busic, no organization ever claimed credit and the crime remains unsolved.

7) The Haymarket Affair (May 4, 1886): A protest rally in Chicago led to a clash between anarchists, union members and police. During the protest, an anarchist threw a bomb at the police. A police officer was killed by the bomb and several others were wounded. That led to an exchange of gunfire between the cops and the violent crowd. Seven police officers and four members of the crowd were killed while one hundred twenty people were injured. While no one every figured out exactly which anarchist actually flung the bomb, seven were prosecuted for the crime. Ultimately, Oscar Neebe received 15 years in prison, Michael Schwab and Samuel Fielden served life in prison, Louis Lingg killed himself while he was jailed and Adolph Fischer, Albert Parsons, George Engel and August Spies were hung.

6) The Los Angeles Times Bombing (October 1, 1910): A bomb wired to 16 sticks of dynamite exploded in an alley next to the Los Angeles Times. The bomb killed 20 employees of the paper and injured another 100. It turned out that two brothers who were members of the Iron Workers Union, John and James McNamara, were angry about the anti-union slant of the Times and set the bomb as retaliation.

5) The Bath School Disaster (May 18, 1927): After losing an election for Township Clerk, School Board Treasurer Andrew Kehoe decided to take revenge by executing what turned out to be the worst massacre at a school in American history. After murdering his wife, Kehoe set off bombs that he had secretly been planting inside the school for months. As rescuers arrived to begin helping the wounded children and teachers, Kehoe drove up in a truck filled with explosives and blew himself up, slaughtering even more people. By the time it was over, 44 people were dead and 58 were injured.

4) The Wall Street Bombing (September 16, 1920): A horse drawn carriage packed with 100 pounds of dynamite and 500 pounds of iron was detonated outside the headquarters of J.P. Morgan Bank on Wall Street. Although anarchists were believed to be responsible, no culprit was ever prosecuted for the bombing that took the lives of 30 people and injured another 300.

3) United Airlines Flight 629 (November 1, 1955): John Gilbert Graham had a poor relationship with his mother, Daisie Eldora King. After taking out 4 life insurance policies on her, he offered his mother a “Christmas present” that turned out to be a bomb. It went off while United Airlines Flight 629 was in the air, 35 miles outside of Denver. All 44 passengers and crew died.

2) Continental Airlines Flight 11 (May 22, 1962): Thomas G. Doty bought a couple of large insurance policies, purchased 6 sticks of dynamite and then got on Continental Airlines, Flight 11. Doty then committed suicide via explosion in hopes that his wife and child would receive the insurance money. All 45 passengers on the plane died when the bomb knocked the plane out of the sky.

1) The Oklahoma City Bombing (April 19, 1995): Timothy McVeigh, along with his co-conspirators Terry Nichols and Michael Fortier were responsible for destroying a large section of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building with a truck bomb. They were motivated by anger at the government in general along with the heavy handed tactics used by the Clinton Administration during the Waco Siege and at Ruby Ridge. There were 169 people killed in the bombing and 675 were wounded.


Tonton videonya: Seriepodden 7: Krigsserier Joe Kubert