William Bacon Sch - Sejarah

William Bacon Sch - Sejarah

William Bacon

(Sch.: t. 183; 1. 95'0"; b. 26'0"; dr. 8'10" (maks.); dph. 8'3"; a. 1 13" M.; 2 32 -pdrs.)

William Bacon—sebuah sekunar kulit kayu—dibeli oleh Angkatan Laut pada 6 September 1861 dari Van Brunt and Slaight dan ditugaskan di New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, NY, pada 3 Februari 1862, Penjabat Master William P. Rogers, USN, dalam perintah.

Ditugaskan ke armada mortir yang dilampirkan ke Skuadron Blokade Teluk Barat milik Petugas Bendera David Glasgow Farragut, William Bacon berangkat dari New York di bawah derek pada 6 Februari dan tiba di Key West, Fla., pada 18 Februari. Keesokan harinya, dia pindah ke Pilot Town.

Perwira Bendera Farragut mengumpulkan pasukannya di mulut Mississippi untuk memulai satu fase gerakan yang dirancang untuk memecah Konfederasi di sepanjang jalur air utama itu. Mempertahankan mulut arteri utama itu adalah Forts Jackson dan St. Philip, memasang di antara mereka 115 senjata, di samping penghalang berat dari hulk dan batang kayu yang dirantai yang terletak di sungai di bawah benteng untuk menghalangi jalan.

Kapal uap Westfield membawa William Bacon ke bawah pada pagi hari tanggal 11 April dan, pada 0915, menuju ke hulu, pada pukul 1300, awak di atas sekunar mortir mulai membalut tiang dengan semak-semak hijau dalam upaya untuk menyamarkan kapal — praktik standar di seluruh armada saat mulai bersiap untuk beraksi dengan pasukan Konfederasi di hulu.

William Bacon dan kapal-kapal lain dari armada mortir terus menembaki dua benteng Konfederasi dengan mantap selama minggu depan. Skuadron Farragut, sementara itu, menerobos penghalang dan berhasil melewatinya. Tiga hari kemudian, benteng-benteng tersebut—yang dihancurkan dengan keras oleh peluru dari armada mortir dan dikepung di sisi darat oleh pasukan ekspedisi Angkatan Darat di bawah Jenderal Benjamin Butler—menyerah, sehingga menghilangkan penghalang yang tangguh untuk operasi Federal. William Bacon, tugasnya dalam pengurangan benteng selesai, turun ke sungai ke Southwest Pass, di mana dia menunggu perintah lebih lanjut.

Namun, karena iklim yang melemahkan, William Bacon tidak tinggal lama di mulut Mississippi. Dia berlayar ke Hampton Roads segera setelah itu dan dipasang kembali di sana hingga musim panas. Ditugaskan secara singkat ke Potomac Flotilla, William Bacon kemudian menerima perintah pada 11 Desember 1862 untuk melapor tugas dengan Skuadron Blokade Atlantik Utara di lepas pantai Wilmington, NC. dan tampaknya tiba di akhir bulan untuk menjalankan tugasnya. Catatan yang ada menunjukkan bahwa blokade telah diperkuat dengan kapal tambahan pada tanggal 29 Desember—termasuk William Bacon.

William Bacon beroperasi terutama di Wilmington dan suara-suara Carolina Utara hingga tahun 1863. Membebaskan Matthew Vassar di Little River Inlet pada 13 Maret 1863, dia menerima air segar dari kapal uap Victoria pada 21 Maret, dari muara Little River, saat pengintaian melihat layar ke arah barat sekitar pukul 0900. Victoria, Komandan Letnan Relawan Edward Hooker, segera bangkit dan mengejar. Sesuai dengan perintah dari Hooker, William Bacon menyelipkan rantai jangkarnya dan berlayar.

Victoria, yang lebih cepat dari dua kapal Union, berhasil menutup jarak dalam kabut dan kabut yang ada. lepas pantai pagi itu dan melemparkan beberapa tembakan ke orang asing itu, yang semuanya jatuh di atas kapal. Sementara William Bacon datang dengan cepat, kapal tak dikenal itu berputar-putar dan berdiri ke arah dua blokade yang bertindak sebagai Master Rogers, memerintahkan William Bacon, setelah melaporkan: "Dan karena kami tidak tahu tetapi apa yang mungkin ada perlawanan, setiap orang berada di senjata siap beraksi segera."

Sementara William Bacon berdiri dengan sikap siap siaga, Victoria menurunkan perahu. Segera, para pemblokir mengetahui identitas kapal aneh itu: dia adalah kapal uap Inggris Nicolai I, yang berangkat dari Nassau, New Providence, di Bahama, menuju Charleston, S.C., dengan muatan barang kering, senjata, dan amunisi. Victoria akibatnya mengambil hadiahnya ke dalam tahanan dan membawanya ke badan utama armada. William Bacon segera kembali ke pekerjaan patroli pantai yang membosankan.

Catatan tidak jelas tentang apa yang dilakukan kapal selanjutnya tetapi dapat dianggap bahwa dia bertugas dalam kapasitas pendukung selama Perang Saudara. Akhirnya dinonaktifkan di Washington Navy Yard pada 17 Juni 1865, William Bacon dijual di lelang kepada William L. Wall and Co., pada 20 Juli di tahun yang sama.


William Bacon Sch - Sejarah

13. Francis BACON (1 V. St. Albans)

Sir Nicholas Bacon, Tuan Penjaga Segel

Rincian dalam biografi ini berasal dari History of Parliament, kamus biografi Anggota House of Commons.

Mungkin lahir di rumah milik orang tua Sir Francis Walsingham di Chislehurst, Kent. Pendidikan Bury St. Edmunds sch. Korpus, Kamb. adm. 1523, BA 1527 G. Inn, adm. 1532, disebut 1536. Menikah dulu, disp. 5 Apr 1540, Jane (w. Okt 1552 atau lebih baru), dau. dari William Ferneley dari London, dengan siapa ia memiliki empat putra: Edward, Natanael, Nicholas dan John dan tiga putri. Dia menikah kedua, pada Februari 1553, Anne, dau. dari Tuan Anthony Cooke, dengan siapa dia memiliki saudara Bacon yang terkenal, Antonius dan Fransiskus, dan dua putri. Dia mungkin memberi Edward VI instruksi dalam undang-undang. Kntd. (?15) Desember 1558. Bencher, G. Inn 1550, bendahara 1552-6, jt. (dengan Gilbert Gerard) bendahara 1556. Pengacara, ct. augmentasi 18 Mar 1540-Jan 1547 commr. nyanyian, Mdx. dan London 1546, Norf. 1548, lega, Suff. 1550, ajaran sesat 1552, untuk mengelola sumpah supremasi, keuskupan Ely dan pengacara Norwich 1559, ct. wards and liveries 2 Jan 1547-8 Feb 1561 j.p. Cambs., Suf. 1547-h., banyak kabupaten lain 1558/59-d. Segera setelah Elizabeth's naik ke tampuk kekuasaan, 22 Des 1558, menjadi Lord Keeper of the Seal dan keluarga segera pindah ke York House on the Strand. PC 22 Des 1558-Nov 1563, Apr 1565-h. juru sita kebebasan, kadipaten Lancaster, Clare honor 20 Jun 1559-24 Jun 1562, jt. (dengan s. Nicholas) pramugara, Clare honor 29 Jul 1562-h. pelayan tinggi, St. Albans, Herts. pada tahun 1562.

Kembalinya dia ke Parlemen tahun 1545 hampir pasti dia berutang kepada Sir Thomas Arundel, seorang rekan baru-baru ini di augmentasi. Saat dia menjadi Anggota Parlemen inilah dia menerima promosi pertamanya. Ketika pada tahun 1547 Hendley mengundurkan diri dari pengacara augmentasi demi Richard Goodrich, Daging babi asap berhasil Goodrich sebagai pengacara di pengadilan bangsal, keduanya telah memulai tugas baru mereka pada September lalu.

Pada tahun 1571, setelah kejatuhan Thomas Howard, Adipati Norfolk, dia dinominasikan sebagai ksatria shire untuk Norfolk dan salah satunya untuk Suffolk.


Pemberontakan Bacon

Pena dan Tinta menggambar pasukan Bacon yang akan membakar Jamestown

Menggambar oleh Rita Honeycutt

Bacon's Rebellion mungkin adalah salah satu bab yang paling membingungkan namun menarik dalam sejarah Jamestown. Selama bertahun-tahun, para sejarawan menganggap Pemberontakan Virginia tahun 1676 sebagai gejolak pertama sentimen revolusioner di Amerika, yang memuncak dalam Revolusi Amerika hampir tepat seratus tahun kemudian. Namun, dalam beberapa dekade terakhir, berdasarkan temuan dari sudut pandang yang lebih jauh, sejarawan telah memahami Pemberontakan Bacon sebagai perebutan kekuasaan antara dua pemimpin yang keras kepala dan egois daripada perjuangan yang mulia melawan tirani.

Tokoh sentral dalam Pemberontakan Bacon adalah kebalikannya. Gubernur Sir William Berkeley, tujuh puluh tahun ketika krisis dimulai, adalah seorang veteran Perang Saudara Inggris, seorang pejuang perbatasan India, seorang favorit Raja dalam masa jabatan pertamanya sebagai Gubernur pada tahun 1640-an, dan seorang penulis drama dan sarjana. Nama dan reputasinya sebagai Gubernur Virginia sangat dihormati. Antagonis Berkeley, Nathaniel Bacon, Jr. muda, sebenarnya adalah sepupu Berkeley melalui pernikahan. Lady Berkeley, Frances Culpeper, adalah sepupu Bacon. Bacon adalah pembuat onar dan perencana yang ayahnya mengirimnya ke Virginia dengan harapan dia akan dewasa. Meskipun meremehkan tenaga kerja, Bacon cerdas dan fasih berbicara. Setelah kedatangan Bacon, Berkeley memperlakukan sepupu mudanya dengan hormat dan persahabatan, memberinya hibah tanah yang substansial dan kursi di dewan pada tahun 1675.

Pemberontakan Bacon dapat dikaitkan dengan segudang penyebab, yang semuanya menyebabkan perbedaan pendapat di koloni Virginia. Masalah ekonomi, seperti penurunan harga tembakau, meningkatnya persaingan komersial dari Maryland dan Carolina, pasar Inggris yang semakin terbatas, dan kenaikan harga barang-barang manufaktur Inggris (merkantilisme) menyebabkan masalah bagi orang Virginia. Ada kerugian besar Inggris dalam seri terbaru perang angkatan laut dengan Belanda dan, lebih dekat ke rumah, ada banyak masalah yang disebabkan oleh cuaca. Badai hujan es, banjir, musim kemarau, dan angin topan mengguncang koloni sepanjang tahun dan memiliki efek merusak pada koloni. Kesulitan-kesulitan ini mendorong para kolonis untuk mencari kambing hitam yang dapat mereka gunakan untuk melampiaskan frustrasi mereka dan menyalahkan kemalangan mereka.

Para penjajah menemukan kambing hitam mereka dalam bentuk orang Indian setempat. Masalah dimulai pada Juli 1675 dengan serangan oleh suku Indian Doeg di perkebunan Thomas Mathews, yang terletak di bagian Leher Utara Virginia dekat Sungai Potomac. Beberapa Doeg terbunuh dalam penyerbuan itu, yang dimulai dengan perselisihan tentang tidak dibayarnya beberapa barang yang tampaknya diperoleh Mathews dari suku tersebut. Situasi menjadi kritis ketika, dalam serangan balasan oleh penjajah, mereka menyerang orang India yang salah, Susquehanaugs, yang menyebabkan serangan India skala besar dimulai.

Penerjemah Sejarah Kehidupan Kota St. Maries mendemonstrasikan penembakan Match Lock Muskets

Untuk mencegah serangan di masa depan dan untuk mengendalikan situasi, Gubernur Berkeley memerintahkan penyelidikan atas masalah tersebut. Dia mengatur apa yang akan menjadi pertemuan bencana antara pihak-pihak, yang mengakibatkan pembunuhan beberapa kepala suku. Sepanjang krisis, Berkeley terus memohon untuk menahan diri dari penjajah. Beberapa, termasuk Bacon, menolak untuk mendengarkan. Nathaniel Bacon mengabaikan perintah langsung Gubernur dengan menangkap beberapa orang Indian Appomattox yang ramah karena "diduga" mencuri jagung. Berkeley menegurnya, yang menyebabkan orang-orang Virginia yang tidak puas bertanya-tanya pria mana yang telah mengambil tindakan yang benar. Di sinilah garis pertempuran akan segera ditarik.

Masalah selanjutnya adalah upaya Berkeley untuk menemukan kompromi. Kebijakan Berkeley adalah untuk menjaga persahabatan dan kesetiaan orang-orang Indian yang tunduk sambil meyakinkan para pemukim bahwa mereka tidak bermusuhan. Untuk memenuhi tujuan pertamanya, Gubernur membebaskan orang-orang Indian setempat dari mesiu dan mesiu mereka. Untuk menghadapi tujuan kedua, Berkeley mengadakan "Majelis Panjang" pada Maret 1676. Meskipun dinilai korup, majelis itu menyatakan perang terhadap semua orang India "jahat" dan mendirikan zona pertahanan yang kuat di sekitar Virginia dengan rantai komando yang pasti. Perang India yang dihasilkan dari arahan ini menyebabkan pajak yang tinggi untuk membayar tentara dan ketidakpuasan umum di koloni karena harus memikul beban itu.

Majelis Panjang dituduh korupsi karena keputusannya tentang perdagangan dengan orang India. Bukan kebetulan, sebagian besar trader favorit adalah teman Berkeley. Pedagang biasa, beberapa di antaranya telah berdagang secara mandiri dengan orang India setempat selama beberapa generasi, tidak lagi diizinkan berdagang secara individu. Sebuah komisi pemerintah dibentuk untuk memantau perdagangan di antara mereka yang dipilih secara khusus dan untuk memastikan orang India tidak menerima senjata dan amunisi apa pun. Bacon, salah satu pedagang yang terkena dampak buruk dari perintah Gubernur, menuduh Berkeley secara terbuka bermain favorit. Bacon juga kesal karena Berkeley menolaknya mendapat komisi sebagai pemimpin milisi lokal. Bacon menjadi "Jenderal" terpilih dari sekelompok pejuang sukarelawan India lokal, karena dia berjanji untuk menanggung biaya kampanye.

Setelah Bacon mengusir Pamunkeys dari tanah terdekat mereka dalam aksi pertamanya, Berkeley melakukan salah satu dari sedikit contoh kontrol atas situasi yang akan dia alami, dengan naik ke markas Bacon di Henrico dengan 300 pria "bersenjata lengkap". Setelah kedatangan Berkeley, Bacon melarikan diri ke hutan dengan 200 orang untuk mencari tempat yang lebih disukainya untuk pertemuan. Berkeley kemudian mengeluarkan dua petisi yang menyatakan Bacon sebagai pemberontak dan memaafkan anak buah Bacon jika mereka pulang dengan damai. Bacon kemudian akan dibebaskan dari kursi dewan yang telah dia menangkan untuk tindakannya tahun itu, tetapi dia akan diberikan pengadilan yang adil atas ketidaktaatannya.

Bacon tidak, saat ini, mematuhi perintah Gubernur. Sebaliknya, dia selanjutnya menyerang kamp orang Indian Occaneecheee yang ramah di Sungai Roanoke (perbatasan antara Virginia dan Carolina Utara), dan mengambil simpanan bulu berang-berang mereka.

Gubernur Berkeley berdiri di depan Bacon dan anak buahnya menantang mereka untuk menembaknya

Dalam menghadapi bencana yang sedang terjadi, Berkeley, untuk menjaga perdamaian, bersedia melupakan bahwa Bacon tidak berwenang untuk mengambil alih hukum ke tangannya sendiri. Berkeley setuju untuk mengampuni Bacon jika dia menyerahkan diri, sehingga dia bisa dikirim ke Inggris dan diadili di hadapan Raja Charles II. Itu House of Burgesses, bagaimanapun, yang menolak alternatif ini, bersikeras bahwa Bacon harus mengakui kesalahannya dan memohon pengampunan Gubernur. Ironisnya, pada saat yang sama, Bacon kemudian terpilih menjadi anggota Burgesses oleh pemilik tanah lokal yang mendukung yang bersimpati pada kampanye India-nya. Bacon, berdasarkan pemilihan ini, menghadiri Majelis penting bulan Juni 1676. Selama sesi inilah dia secara keliru dikreditkan dengan reformasi politik yang berasal dari pertemuan ini. Reformasi didorong oleh penduduk, memotong semua garis kelas. Sebagian besar undang-undang reformasi berurusan dengan merekonstruksi peraturan pemungutan suara koloni, memungkinkan orang bebas untuk memilih, dan membatasi jumlah tahun seseorang dapat memegang jabatan tertentu di koloni. Sebagian besar undang-undang ini sudah ada di buku untuk dipertimbangkan jauh sebelum Bacon terpilih menjadi anggota Burges. Satu-satunya penyebab Bacon adalah kampanyenya melawan orang Indian.

Setibanya di Majelis Juni, Bacon ditangkap, dibawa ke hadapan Berkeley dan dewan dan dibuat untuk meminta maaf atas tindakannya sebelumnya. Berkeley segera memaafkan Bacon dan mengizinkannya duduk di majelis. Pada saat ini, dewan masih tidak tahu berapa banyak dukungan yang tumbuh dalam membela Bacon. Kesadaran penuh akan dukungan itu muncul ketika Bacon tiba-tiba meninggalkan Burgess di tengah perdebatan sengit tentang masalah-masalah India. Dia kembali dengan pasukannya untuk mengepung gedung negara. Sekali lagi Bacon menuntut komisinya, tetapi Berkeley menyebut gertakannya dan menuntut agar Bacon menembaknya.

"Di sini tembak aku di hadapan Tuhan, tembak nilai yang adil."

Bacon menolak. Berkeley memberikan komisi sukarelawan sebelumnya kepada Bacon tetapi Bacon menolaknya dan menuntut agar dia diangkat menjadi Jenderal semua pasukan melawan orang-orang Indian, yang dengan tegas ditolak oleh Berkeley dan pergi. Ketegangan memuncak saat Bacon yang berteriak dan anak buahnya mengepung gedung negara, mengancam akan menembak beberapa Burges yang melihat jika Bacon tidak diberi komisi. Akhirnya setelah beberapa saat yang menyiksa, Berkeley menyerah pada tuntutan Bacon untuk kampanye melawan orang Indian tanpa campur tangan pemerintah. Dengan otoritas Berkeley berantakan, masa jabatan singkat Bacon sebagai pemimpin pemberontakan dimulai.

Bahkan di tengah-tengah kemenangan yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya ini, Bacon bukannya tanpa kesalahan. Dia mengizinkan Berkeley meninggalkan Jamestown setelah serangan mendadak India di pemukiman terdekat. Dia juga menyita persediaan dari Gloucester dan membuat mereka rentan terhadap kemungkinan serangan India. Tak lama setelah krisis segera mereda, Berkeley sebentar pensiun ke rumahnya di Green Springs dan mencuci tangannya dari seluruh kekacauan. Nathaniel Bacon mendominasi Jamestown dari Juli sampai September 1676. Selama waktu ini, Berkeley benar-benar keluar dari kelesuannya dan mencoba kudeta, tetapi dukungan untuk Bacon masih terlalu kuat dan Berkeley terpaksa melarikan diri ke Accomack County di Eastern Shore.

Merasa bahwa itu akan membuat kemenangannya lengkap, Bacon mengeluarkan "Deklarasi Rakyat" pada 30 Juli 1676 yang menyatakan bahwa Berkeley korup, bermain favorit dan melindungi orang Indian untuk tujuan egoisnya sendiri. Bacon juga mengeluarkan sumpahnya yang mengharuskan pembuat sumpah untuk menjanjikan kesetiaannya kepada Bacon dengan cara apa pun yang diperlukan (yaitu, layanan bersenjata, persediaan, dukungan verbal). Bahkan kendali yang ketat ini tidak dapat menahan arus agar tidak berubah lagi. Armada Bacon pertama dan akhirnya diam-diam disusupi oleh anak buah Berkeley dan akhirnya ditangkap. Ini menjadi titik balik konflik, karena Berkeley sekali lagi cukup kuat untuk merebut kembali Jamestown. Bacon kemudian mengikuti nasibnya yang tenggelam ke Jamestown dan melihatnya sangat dibentengi. Dia melakukan beberapa upaya pengepungan, di mana dia menculik istri dari beberapa pendukung terbesar Berkeley, termasuk Ny. Nathaniel Bacon Sr., dan menempatkan mereka di benteng pertahanan pengepungannya saat dia menggali posisinya. Marah, Bacon membakar Jamestown hingga rata dengan tanah pada 19 September 1676. (Dia menyimpan banyak catatan berharga di gedung negara bagian.) Sekarang peruntungannya jelas habis dengan tindakan ekstrem ini dan dia mulai kesulitan mengendalikan perilaku anak buahnya juga. sebagai menjaga dukungan rakyatnya. Hanya sedikit orang yang menanggapi seruan Bacon untuk menangkap Berkeley yang sejak itu kembali ke Eastern Shore untuk alasan keamanan.

Pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1676, Bacon tiba-tiba meninggal karena "Bloodie Flux" dan "Lousey Disease" (kutu tubuh). Ada kemungkinan tentaranya membakar tubuhnya yang terkontaminasi karena tidak pernah ditemukan. (Kematiannya mengilhami Bacon kecil ini telah Mati. Maafkan saya. Kutu dan fluks harus mengambil bagian algojo".)

Tak lama setelah kematian Bacon, Berkeley mendapatkan kembali kendali penuh dan menggantung para pemimpin utama pemberontakan. Dia juga menyita properti pemberontak tanpa keuntungan dari pengadilan. Secara keseluruhan, dua puluh tiga orang digantung karena bagian mereka dalam pemberontakan. Kemudian setelah komite investigasi dari Inggris mengeluarkan laporannya kepada Raja Charles II, Berkeley dibebaskan dari jabatan Gubernur dan kembali ke Inggris di mana dia meninggal pada Juli 1677.

Maka berakhirlah salah satu bab yang paling tidak biasa dan rumit dalam sejarah Jamestown. Mungkinkah itu dicegah atau sudah waktunya untuk perubahan yang tak terhindarkan terjadi dalam struktur pemerintahan kolonial? Jelas, undang-undang itu tidak lagi efektif sejauh menetapkan kebijakan yang jelas untuk menangani masalah atau untuk menanamkan sumber kehidupan baru ke dalam ekonomi koloni. Banyaknya masalah yang melanda koloni sebelum Pemberontakan memunculkan karakter Nathaniel Bacon. Karena sifat pemberontakan, Pemberontakan Bacon tampaknya pada pandangan pertama menjadi awal dari pencarian Amerika untuk Kemerdekaan. Tapi pemeriksaan lebih dekat dari fakta mengungkapkan apa itu sebenarnya: perebutan kekuasaan antara dua kepribadian yang sangat kuat. Di antara mereka, mereka hampir menghancurkan Jamestown.


Neville, John Davenport. Pemberontakan Bacon. Abstrak Bahan dalam Proyek Catatan Kolonial. Jamestown: Yayasan Jamestown-Yorktown.

Washburn, Wilcomb E. Gubernur dan Pemberontak. Bukit Kapel: Pers Universitas North Carolina, 1957.

Webb, Stephen Saunders. 1676-Akhir Kemerdekaan Amerika. New York: Alfred A. Knope, 1984.


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Penindasan Pemberontakan Bacon

Bacon mundur ke hulu untuk mencari orang-orang Indian untuk diserang, tetapi pada akhir Juli gubernur kembali membalikkan arah, sekali lagi menyatakan Bacon sebagai pemberontak, dan pergi ke Kabupaten Gloucester untuk merekrut orang-orang untuk melawannya. Bacon dan pasukannya berbaris ke Perkebunan Tengah, tempat Williamsburg saat ini, sementara Berkeley mundur ke Pantai Timur. Sekitar 30 Juli Bacon mengeluarkan yang pertama dari serangkaian deklarasi keluhan dan keluhan terhadap Berkeley, bersama dengan pembenaran atas tindakannya sendiri, yang dia tandatangani sebagai “Jenderal, dengan persetujuan rakyat.” Bacon memaksa atau membujuk banyak orang. orang-orang untuk menyetujui deklarasinya menuduh gubernur mengobarkan perang saudara dan membahayakan keselamatan koloni, dan dia mengirim pengendara ke berbagai bagian Virginia untuk mengumpulkan tanda tangan untuk sumpah kesetiaan kepada pemberontakan dan untuk memanggil orang-orang terkemuka untuk bertemu dengannya di Perkebunan Tengah. Pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1676, Bacon memperoleh dukungan dari tujuh puluh dari mereka untuk kepemimpinannya melawan orang-orang India, dan hari berikutnya tiga puluh penandatangan menyetujui deklarasi yang lebih radikal bahwa majelis baru harus dipilih di bawah otoritasnya daripada mengingat yang pernah bertemu pada bulan Juni. Bacon kemudian menggiring anak buahnya ke Rawa Naga di hilir Sungai Rappahannock, di mana mereka menyerang orang Indian Pamunkey yang ramah.

Awal September gubernur kembali ke Jamestown dengan kekuatan kecil dan mengeluarkan proklamasi lain terhadap Bacon, dimana Bacon berbaris di sana dan mengepung ibukota. Pada malam 18 September 1676, Berkeley meninggalkan Jamestown, dan orang-orang Bacon menduduki dan membakarnya keesokan paginya. Pasukan Bacon masuk dan keluar dari Jamestown pada saat itu di luar kendali. Banyak dari mereka tampaknya menghabiskan sebagian besar waktu mereka untuk mengobrak-abrik tanah milik orang-orang yang diidentifikasi setia kepada gubernur.

Menjelang musim gugur, surat-surat dari Virginia telah tiba di London yang memberi tahu pejabat kerajaan tentang pemberontakan itu. Raja Charles II membentuk komisi tiga anggota untuk membantu gubernur dalam menekan pemberontakan dan untuk menyelidiki penyebabnya. Pada tanggal 27 Oktober raja menandatangani proklamasi untuk memadamkan pemberontakan yang dipimpin oleh “Nathaniel Bacon yang Muda.” Raja menawarkan untuk mengampuni para letnan Bacon’, yang dia sebut sebagai “Orang-orang yang beruntung dan putus asa,&# 8221 jika mereka cepat menyerah. Sehubungan dengan Nathaniel Bacon, proklamasi itu sudah menjadi surat mati. Pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1676, sehari sebelum raja menandatangani proklamasi, Bacon dan sebagian besar pengikutnya berada di Gloucester County di mana, di rumah Thomas Pate, Nathaniel Bacon meninggal karena “Bloody Flux” (disentri) dan a “Penyakit Kutu.” Tempat pemakamannya tidak diketahui. Tanpa kepemimpinannya yang terburu-buru, pemberontakan segera runtuh, dan Berkeley kemudian menggantung beberapa pengikut Bacon yang paling aktif.

Pemberontakan Bacon telah mengilhami banyak tulisan, termasuk lebih dari selusin karya fiksi, dan interpretasi ilmiah dari motivasi Nathaniel Bacon dan signifikansinya sangat bervariasi. Pada awal abad kesembilan belas sejarawan Virginia John Daly Burk disajikan Bacon sebagai pendahulu patriotik untuk revolusioner Amerika tahun 1776, interpretasi berpengaruh diulang oleh penulis lain, terutama Thomas Jefferson Wertenbaker dalam bukunya Pembawa Obor Revolusi: Kisah Pemberontakan Bacon dan Pemimpinnya (1940). Gubernur Berkeley juga memiliki pembelanya. Di dalam Gubernur dan Pemberontak: Sejarah Pemberontakan Bacon di Virginia (1957), Wilcomb E. Washburn menampilkan Bacon sebagai pemimpin yang ambisius dan terburu-buru dari gerombolan orang-orang perbatasan yang membenci India. Bagaimanapun orang dapat menafsirkannya, pemberontakan itu sendiri mendahului perubahan signifikan bagi Virginia. Para kolonis berada di bawah pengawasan Inggris yang jauh lebih dekat daripada sebelum 1676 dan, pada akhir abad ke-8, mereka telah menganut ekonomi yang didasarkan pada tenaga kerja yang diperbudak. Pemberontakan Bacon adalah salah satu peristiwa paling penting dan kontroversial dalam sejarah Virginia, dan para sarjana terus memperdebatkan penyebab dan signifikansinya.


Bersembunyi di depan mata, gedung William & Mary diidentifikasi sebagai sekolah tertua yang masih berdiri di Dunia Baru untuk anak-anak kulit hitam

WILLIAMSBURG — Analisis kerangka sebuah bangunan kecil tanpa deskripsi di kampus College of William & Mary telah membantu mengidentifikasi struktur penting: salah satu sekolah kulit hitam pertama di Dunia Baru, dan satu-satunya yang diketahui masih berdiri.

Hasil dendrochronology — metode ilmiah yang menggunakan lingkaran pohon untuk mengungkapkan kapan kayu dipanen — menunjukkan bahwa kayu yang digunakan untuk membangun rangka ditebang pada akhir 1759 atau awal 1760.

Itu selaras dengan pembukaan Sekolah Bray tahun 1760, yang didirikan untuk memberi anak-anak kulit hitam "pendidikan Kristen" - yang mencakup membaca dan mungkin menulis, tetapi juga mendorong mereka untuk menerima perbudakan sebagai bagian dari rencana Tuhan.

Terry Meyers, seorang profesor bahasa Inggris W&M yang sekarang sudah pensiun, telah meneliti arsip dan berburu gedung sekolah sejak 2004, didorong oleh minatnya pada bagian-bagian yang kurang dikenal dari sejarah Colonial Williamsburg.

Meyers dapat menentukan lokasi aslinya di Prince George Street, tetapi strukturnya dipindahkan ke jalan pada tahun 1930 - tidak jelas di mana tepatnya - dan direnovasi dan diperbesar hingga tidak lagi menyerupai pondok seperti dulu.

Dia hampir menyerah beberapa kali, yakin bahwa struktur itu pasti sudah diruntuhkan sejak lama. Namun ketekunan akhirnya membuahkan hasil, membawanya ke tempat yang tepat, sekarang menjadi bagian dari kampus, dan sebuah gedung yang digunakan perguruan tinggi itu sebagai kantor untuk Departemen Ilmu Militernya.

Berdiri di depan, secara mental menghilangkan penambahan dan mengubah garis atap, "tiba-tiba saya bisa melihatnya, seperti dulu," kata Meyers. “Momen yang luar biasa.”

Di kota yang diinventarisasi secara lengkap seperti Colonial Williamsburg — 88 bangunan bersejarah yang dipugar — menemukan yang tersembunyi adalah kejutan.

"Cukup keren," kata Ron Hurst, wakil presiden Colonial Williamsburg untuk museum, pelestarian, dan sumber daya bersejarah.

Di bawah dinding dan di dalam, sebagian besar bangunan berusia 260 tahun itu tetap utuh: rangka lantai pertama, tangga kenari, ikat jendela, papan lantai, setidaknya satu cerobong asap asli.

“Kami akan tahu lebih banyak ketika kami masuk ke restorasi,” kata Hurst.

Jika semuanya berjalan dengan baik, bangunan itu akan dipindahkan lagi, dikeluarkan dari kampus dan masuk ke area bersejarah di mana wisatawan dapat mengunjungi dan belajar tentang bab yang rumit.

“Populasi Williamsburg adalah 52% Afrika-Amerika pada saat Perang Revolusi,” kata Hurst. "Tujuan kami adalah untuk menceritakan kisah lengkapnya."

Sekolah itu adalah bagian dari organisasi yang disebut Associates of Dr. Bray. Misi kelompok yang berbasis di London, yang didirikan oleh pendeta Inggris Thomas Bray: mengindoktrinasi budak Afrika-Amerika dengan "pendidikan agama yang tepat."

Beberapa Sekolah Bray dibuka di koloni. Atas saran Benjamin Franklin, salah satunya terletak di Williamsburg.

Bertempat untuk lima tahun pertama di pondok di Prince George Street, sekolah diawasi oleh perguruan tinggi dan mempekerjakan seorang guru, seorang wanita kulit putih bernama Anne Wager. Beberapa siswa adalah anak laki-laki atau perempuan dari orang kulit hitam bebas, tetapi sebagian besar adalah anak-anak budak, yang dikirim oleh pemiliknya.

Motivasinya pasti beragam. “Beberapa mengambil tanggung jawab atas jiwa budak dan orang kulit hitam yang bebas dengan sangat serius,” kata Meyers, bahkan ketika mereka mengabadikan dan membenarkan perlakuan masyarakat terhadap mereka.

Mengkondisikan orang kulit hitam untuk menerima nasib mereka dalam hidup adalah tema umum zaman itu. Contoh: pesan seorang pendeta terkenal saat itu, Thomas Bacon, yang mengabar kepada jemaat-jemaat yang diperbudak di Williamsburg.

Pada dasarnya, kata Meyers, “dia memberi tahu mereka bahwa beberapa dari kita dilahirkan untuk menjadi tuan, pangeran dan raja dan beberapa dilahirkan untuk diperbudak, dan kita harus menerima peran kita dalam tatanan ilahi Tuhan.”

Betapapun absurd dan ofensifnya pemikiran itu dilihat sekarang, Hurst berkata, “Saya mencoba menempatkan diri saya dalam pola pikir masa itu. Hari ini, kita terlalu siap untuk mengutuk orang-orang dari masa lalu — apakah itu Roma Kuno atau Perang Dunia II — karena tidak memiliki nilai abad ke-21. Setiap manusia yang pernah lahir adalah produk dari waktu dan tempatnya. Tugas kami adalah belajar dari itu.”

Beberapa pemilik budak mengirim anak-anak ke Sekolah Bray untuk meningkatkan nilai praktis mereka. Keterampilan sopan santun dan menjahit adalah bagian dari kurikulum. Untuk mempelajari Alkitab dan risalah agama lainnya, siswa diajari membaca — berguna untuk tugas-tugas di luar lapangan. Pensil batu tulis yang ditemukan di situs sekolah asli — hampir 50 fragmen — menunjukkan bahwa mereka juga diajari cara menulis.

Membaca dan menulis kemudian dilarang untuk budak, larangan mengajar yang bertujuan untuk memblokir komunikasi yang mungkin memicu pemberontakan terpadu. Selama masa kolonial di Virginia, tidak ada undang-undang seperti itu, tetapi menulis masih dipandang tidak nyaman.

“Bahaya dalam mengajar menulis,” kata Meyers, “adalah bahwa budak kemudian dapat memalsukan kartu dan bergerak lebih bebas daripada yang bisa mereka lakukan.”

Catatan dari sekolah Williamsburg tidak secara khusus menyebutkan menulis sebagai bagian dari instruksi, tetapi "kami menemukan lebih banyak pecahan pensil batu tulis di situs itu daripada di seluruh area bersejarah yang digabungkan," kata Hurst.

Benih-benih pengetahuan yang ditanam di sana tumbuh menjadi warisan yang tak ternilai. Sekolah Bray beroperasi selama 14 tahun di Williamsburg, pindah ke rumah kedua ketika melebihi yang pertama, mendaftarkan sekitar 400 murid sebelum ditutup pada 1774.


Menciptakan Hitam Putih

Di Virginia pada tahun 1600-an, Anthony Johnson mendapatkan kebebasannya dari perbudakan kontrak, memperoleh tanah, dan menjadi anggota komunitasnya yang dihormati. Elizabeth Key berhasil mengajukan banding ke sistem hukum koloni untuk membebaskannya setelah dia diperbudak secara salah. Pada 1700-an, hukum dan kebiasaan Virginia mulai membedakan hitam orang-orang dari putih orang, sehingga tidak mungkin bagi sebagian besar orang Virginia keturunan Afrika untuk melakukan apa yang telah dilakukan Johnson dan Key.

Lukisan tahun 1905 karya Howard Pyle ini menggambarkan pembakaran Jamestown pada tahun 1676 oleh pemberontak kulit hitam dan putih yang dipimpin oleh Nathaniel Bacon.

Mengapa anggota parlemen Virginia membuat perubahan ini? Banyak sejarawan menunjuk peristiwa yang dikenal sebagai Pemberontakan Bacon pada tahun 1676 sebagai titik balik. Nathaniel Bacon adalah pemilik properti kulit putih yang kaya dan kerabat gubernur Virginia, William Berkeley. Tetapi Bacon dan Berkeley tidak menyukai satu sama lain, dan mereka tidak setuju atas masalah yang berkaitan dengan bagaimana koloni harus diatur, termasuk kebijakan koloni terhadap penduduk asli Amerika. Bacon wanted the colony to retaliate for raids by Native Americans on frontier settlements and to remove all Native Americans from the colony so landowners like himself could expand their property. Berkeley feared that doing so would unite all of the nearby tribes in a costly and destructive war against the colony. In defiance of the governor, Bacon organized his own militia, consisting of white and black indentured servants and enslaved black people, who joined in exchange for freedom, and attacked nearby tribes. A power struggle ensued with Bacon and his militia on one side and Berkeley, the Virginia House of Burgesses, and the rest of the colony’s elite on the other. Months of conflict followed, including armed skirmishes between militias. In September 1676, Bacon’s militia captured Jamestown and burned it to the ground.

Although Bacon died of fever a month later and the rebellion fell apart, Virginia’s wealthy planters were shaken by the fact that a rebel militia that united white and black servants and slaves had destroyed the colonial capital. Legal scholar Michelle Alexander writes:

The events in Jamestown were alarming to the planter elite, who were deeply fearful of the multiracial alliance of [indentured servants] and slaves. Word of Bacon’s Rebellion spread far and wide, and several more uprisings of a similar type followed. In an effort to protect their superior status and economic position, the planters shifted their strategy for maintaining dominance. They abandoned their heavy reliance on indentured servants in favor of the importation of more black slaves. 1

After Bacon’s Rebellion, Virginia’s lawmakers began to make legal distinctions between “white” and “black” inhabitants. By permanently enslaving Virginians of African descent and giving poor white indentured servants and farmers some new rights and status, they hoped to separate the two groups and make it less likely that they would unite again in rebellion. Historian Ira Berlin explains:

Soon after Bacon's Rebellion they increasingly distinguish between people of African descent and people of European descent. They enact laws which say that people of African descent are hereditary slaves. And they increasingly give some power to independent white farmers and land holders . . .

Now what is interesting about this is that we normally say that slavery and freedom are opposite things—that they are diametrically opposed. But what we see here in Virginia in the late 17th century, around Bacon's Rebellion, is that freedom and slavery are created at the same moment. 2

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first appearance in print of the adjective putih in reference to “a white man, a person of a race distinguished by a light complexion” was in 1671. Colonial charters and other official documents written in the 1600s and early 1700s rarely refer to European colonists as white.

As the status of people of African descent in the British colonies was challenged and attacked, and as white indentured servants were given new rights and status, the word putih continued to be more widely used in public documents and private papers to describe the European colonists. People of European descent were considered white, and those of African descent were labeled black. Historian Robin D. G. Kelley explains:

Many of the European-descended poor whites began to identify themselves, if not directly with the rich whites, certainly with being white. And here you get the emergence of this idea of a white race as a way to distinguish themselves from those dark-skinned people who they associate with perpetual slavery. 3

The division in American society between black and white that began in the late 1600s had devastating consequences for African Americans as slavery became an institution that flourished for centuries. Lawyer and civil rights activist Bryan Stevenson explains:

[S]lavery deprived the enslaved person of any legal rights or autonomy and granted the slave owner complete power over the black men, women, and children legally recognized as property . . .

American slavery was often brutal, barbaric, and violent. In addition to the hardship of forced labor, enslaved people were maimed or killed by slave owners as punishment for working too slowly, visiting a spouse living on another plantation, or even learning to read. Enslaved people were also sexually exploited. 4

Leaders and scientists from the United States and around the world would increasingly rely on the supposed differences between the black and white races to justify the brutal and inhuman treatment of slaves.


7. Shakespeare’s epitaph wards off would-be grave robbers with a curse.

William Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616, at the age of 52—not bad for an era when the average life expectancy ranged between 30 and 40 years. We may never know what killed him, although an acquaintance wrote that the Bard fell ill after a night of heavy drinking with fellow playwright Ben Jonson. Despite his swift demise, Shakespeare supposedly had the wherewithal to pen the epitaph over his tomb, which is located inside a Stratford church. Intended to thwart the numerous grave robbers who plundered England’s cemeteries at the time, the verse reads: “Good friend, for Jesus’ sake forbeare, / To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones, / And cursed be he that moves my bones.” It must have done the trick, since Shakespeare’s remains have yet to be disturbed.


Bacon, Shakspere, and the Rosicrucians

THE present consideration of the Bacon--Shakspere--Rosicrucian controversy is undertaken not for the vain purpose of digging up dead men's bones but rather in the hope that a critical analysis will aid in the rediscovery of that knowledge lost to the world since the oracles were silenced. It was W. F. C. Wigston who called the Bard of Avon "phantom Captain Shakespeare, the Rosicrucian mask." This constitutes one of the most significant statements relating to the Bacon-Shakspere controversy.

It is quite evident that William Shakspere could not, unaided, have produced the immortal writings bearing his name. He did not possess the necessary literary culture, for the town of Stratford where he was reared contained no school capable of imparting the higher forms of learning reflected in the writings ascribed to him. His parents were illiterate, and in his early life he evinced a total disregard for study. There are in existence but six known examples of Shakspere's handwriting. All are signatures, and three of them are in his will. The scrawling, uncertain method of their execution stamps Shakspere as unfamiliar with the use of a pen, and it is obvious either that he copied a signature prepared for him or that his hand was guided while he wrote. No autograph manuscripts of the "Shakespearian" plays or sonnets have been discovered, nor is there even a tradition concerning them other than the fantastic and impossible statement appearing in the foreword of the Great Folio.

A well-stocked library would be an essential part of the equipment of an author whose literary productions demonstrate him to be familiar with the literature of all ages, yet there is no record that Shakspere ever possessed a library, nor does he make any mention of books in his will. Commenting on the known illiteracy of Shakspere's daughter Judith, who at twenty-seven could only make her mark, Ignatius Donnelly declares it to be unbelievable that William Shakspere if he wrote the plays bearing his name would have permitted his own daughter to reach womanhood and marry without being able to read one line of the writings that made her father wealthy and locally famous.

The query also has been raised, "Where did William Shakspere secure his knowledge of modern French, Italian, Spanish, and Danish, to say nothing of classical Latin and Greek?" For, in spite of the rare discrimination with which Latin is used by the author of the Shakespearian plays, Ben Jonson, who knew Shakspere intimately, declared that the Stratford actor understood "small Latin and less Greek"! Is it not also more than strange that no record exists of William Shakspere's having ever played a leading rôle in the famous dramas he is supposed to have written or in others produced by the company of which he was a member? True, he may have owned a small interest in the Globe Theatre or Blackfriars, but apparently the height of his thespian achievements was the Ghost in Dukuh!

In spite of his admitted avarice, Shakspere seemingly made no effort during his lifetime to control or secure remuneration from the plays bearing his name, many of which were first published anonymously. As far as can be ascertained, none of his heirs were involved in any manner whatsoever in the printing of the First Folio after his death, nor did they benefit financially therefrom. Had he been their author, Shakspere's manuscripts and unpublished plays would certainly have constituted his most valued possessions, yet his will--while making special disposition of his second-best bed and his "broad silver gilt bowl" neither mentions nor intimates that he possessed any literary productions whatsoever.

While the Folios and Quartos usually are signed "William Shakespeare," all the known autographs of the Stratford actor read "William Shakspere." Does this change in spelling contain any significance heretofore generally overlooked? Furthermore, if the publishers of the First Shakespearian Folio revered their fellow actor as much as their claims in that volume would indicate, why did they, as if in ironical allusion to a hoax which they were perpetrating, place an evident caricature of him on the title page?

Certain absurdities also in Shakspere's private life are irreconcilable. While supposedly at the zenith of his literary career, he was actually engaged in buying malt, presumably for a brewing business! Also picture the immortal Shakspere--the reputed author of The Merchant of Venice--as a moneylender! Yet among those against whom Shakspere brought action to collect petty sums was a fellow townsman--one Philip Rogers--whom he sued for an unpaid loan of two shillings, or about forty-eight cents! In short, there is nothing known in the life of Shakspere that would justify the literary excellence imputed to him.

The philosophic ideals promulgated throughout the Shakespearian plays distinctly demonstrate their author to have been thoroughly familiar with certain doctrines and tenets peculiar to Rosicrucianism in fact the profundity of the Shakespearian productions stamps their creator as one of the illuminati of the ages. Most of those seeking a solution for the Bacon-Shakspere controversy have been intellectualists. Notwithstanding their scholarly attainments, they have overlooked the important part played by transcendentalism in the philosophic achievements of the ages. The mysteries of superphysics are inexplicable to the materialist, whose training does not equip him to estimate the extent of their ramifications and complexities. Yet who but a Platonist, a Qabbalist, or a Pythagorean could have written The Tempest, Macbeth, Dukuh, atau The Tragedy of Cymbeline? Who but one deeply versed in Paracelsian lore could have conceived, Sebuah mimpi di malam pertengahan musim panas?

Father of modern science, remodeler


Click to enlarge
HEADPIECE SHOWING LIGHT AND SHADED A's.

From Shakespeare's King Richard The Second, Quarto of 1597.

The ornamental headpiece shown above has long been considered a Baconian or Rosicrucian signature. The light and the dark A's appear in several volumes published by emissaries of the Rosicrucians. If the above figure be compared with that from the Alciati Emblemata on the following pages, the cryptic use of the two A's will be further demonstrated.


Click to enlarge
THE TITLE PAGE OF BURTON'S ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY.

From Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy.

Baconian experts declare Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy to be in reality Francis Bacon's scrapbook in which he gathered strange and rare bits of knowledge during the many years of eventful life. This title page has long been supposed to contain a cryptic message. The key to this cipher is the pointing figure of the maniac in the lower right-hand corner of the design. According to Mrs. Elizabeth Wells Gallup, the celestial globe at which the maniac is pointing is a cryptic symbol of Sir Francis Bacon. The planetary signs which appear in the clouds opposite the marginal figures 4, 5, 6, and 7 signify the planetary configurations, which produce the forms of mania depicted. The seated man, with his head resting upon his hand. is declared by Baconian enthusiasts to represent Sir Francis Bacon.

of modern law, editor of the modem Bible, patron of modem democracy, and one of the founders of modern Freemasonry, Sir Francis Bacon was a man of many aims and purposes. He was a Rosicrucian, some have intimated NS Rosicrucian. If not actually the Illustrious Father C.R.C. referred to in the Rosicrucian manifestoes, he was certainly a high initiate of the Rosicrucian Order, and it is his activities in connection with this secret body that are of prime importance to students of symbolism, philosophy, and literature.

Scores of volumes have been written to establish Sir Francis Bacon as the real author of the plays and sonnets popularly ascribed to William Shakspere. An impartial consideration of these documents cannot but convince the open-minded of the verisimilitude of the Baconian theory. In fact those enthusiasts who for years have struggled to identify Sir Francis Bacon as the true "Bard of Avon" might long since have won their case had they emphasized its most important angle, namely, that Sir Francis Bacon, the Rosicrucian initiate, wrote into the Shakespearian plays the secret teachings of the Fraternity of R.C. and the true rituals of the Freemasonic Order, of which order it may yet be discovered that he was the actual founder. A sentimental world, however, dislikes to give up a traditional hero, either to solve a controversy or to right a wrong. Nevertheless, if it can be proved that by raveling out the riddle there can be discovered information of practical value to mankind, then the best minds of the world will cooperate in the enterprise. The Bacon-Shakspere controversy, as its most able advocates realize, involves the most profound aspects of science, religion, and ethics he who solves its mystery may yet find therein the key to the supposedly lost wisdom of antiquity.

It was in recognition of Bacon's intellectual accomplishments that King James turned over to him the translators' manuscripts of what is now known as the King James Bible for the presumable purpose of checking, editing, and revising them. The documents remained in his hands for nearly a year, but no information is to be had concerning what occurred in that time. Regarding this work, William T. Smedley writes: " It will eventually be proved that the whole scheme of the Authorised Version of the Bible was Francis Bacon's." (Lihat The Mystery of Francis Bacon.) The first edition of the King James Bible contains a cryptic Baconian headpiece. Did Bacon cryptographically conceal in the Authorized Bible that which he dared not literally reveal in the text--the secret Rosicrucian key to mystic and Masonic Christianity?

Sir Francis Bacon unquestionably possessed the range of general and philosophical knowledge necessary to write the Shakespearian plays and sonnets, for it is usually conceded that he was a composer, lawyer, and linguist. His chaplain, Doctor William Rawley, and Ben Jonson both attest his philosophic and poetic accomplishments. The former pays Bacon this remarkable tribute: "I have been enduced to think that if there were a beame of knowledge derived from God upon any man in these modern times, it was upon him. For though he was a great reader of books yet he had not his knowledge from books but from some grounds and notions from within himself. " (See Introduction to the Resuscitado.)

Sir Francis Bacon, being not only an able barrister but also a polished courtier, also possessed that intimate knowledge of parliamentary law and the etiquette of the royal court revealed in the Shakespearian plays which could scarcely have been acquired by a man in the humble station of the Stratford actor. Lord Verulam furthermore visited many of the foreign countries forming the background for the plays and was therefore in a position to create the authentic local atmosphere contained therein, but there is no record of William Shakspere's ever having traveled outside of England.

The magnificent library amassed by Sir Francis Bacon contained the very volumes necessary to supply the quotations and anecdotes incorporated into the Shakespearian plays. Many of the plays, in fact, were taken from plots in earlier writings of which there was no English translation at that time. Because of his scholastic acquirements, Lord Verulam could have read the original books it is most unlikely that William Shakspere could have done so.

Abundant cryptographic proof exists that Bacon was concerned in the production of the Shakespearian plays. Sir Francis Bacon's cipher number was 33. In the First Part of King Henry the Fourth, the word "Francis" appears 33 times upon one page. To attain this end, obviously awkward sentences were required, as: "Anon Francis? No Francis, but tomorrow Francis: or Francis, on Thursday: or indeed Francis when thou wilt. But Francis."

Throughout the Shakespearian Folios dan Quartos occur scores of acrostic signatures. The simplest form of the acrostic is that whereby a name--in these instances Bacon's--was hidden in the first few letters of lines. Di dalam The Tempest, Act I, Scene 2, appears a striking example of the Baconian acrostic:

"Begun to tell me what I am, but stopt
And left me to a bootelesse Inquisition,
Concluding, stay: not yet.

The first letters of the first and second lines together with the first three letters of the third line form the word BACon. Similar acrostics appear frequently in Bacon's acknowledged writings.

The tenor of the Shakespearian dramas politically is in harmony with the recognized viewpoints of Sir Francis Bacon, whose enemies are frequently caricatured in the plays. Likewise their religious, philosophic, and educational undercurrents all reflect his personal opinions. Not only do these marked similarities of style and terminology exist in Bacon's writings and the Shakespearian plays, but there are also certain historical and philosophical inaccuracies common to both, such as identical misquotations from Aristotle.

"Evidently realizing that futurity would unveil his full genius, Lord Verulam in his will bequeathed his soul to God above by the oblations of his Savior, his body to be buried obscurely, his name and memory to men's charitable speeches, to foreign nations, to succeeding ages, and to his own countrymen after some time had elapsed. That portion appearing in italics Bacon deleted from his will, apparently fearing that he had said too much.

That Sir Francis Bacon's subterfuge was known to a limited few during his lifetime is quite evident. Accordingly, stray hints regarding the true author of the Shakespearian plays may be found in many seventeenth century volumes. On page 33 (Bacon's cipher number) of the 1609 edition of Robert Cawdry's Treasurie or Storehouse

Dari Alciati Emblemata.

The curious volume from which this figure is taken was published in Paris in r618. The attention of the Baconian student is immediately attracted by the form of the hog in the foreground. Bacon often used this animal as a play upon his own name, especially because the name Bacon was derived from he word beech and the nut of this tree was used to fatten hogs. The two pillars in the background have considerable Masonic interest. The two A's nearly in the center of the picture--one light and one shaded--are alone almost conclusive proof of Baconian influence. The most convincing evidence, however, is the fact that 17 is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the Latin farm of Bacon's name (F. Baco) and there are 17 letters in the three words appearing in the illustration.


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FRANCIS BACON, BARON VERULAM, VISCOUNT ST. ALBANS.

From Bacon's Advancement of Learning.

Lord Bacon was born in 1561 and history records his death in 1626. There are records in existence, however, which would indicate the probability that his funeral was a mock funeral and that, leaving England, he lived for many years under another name in Germany, there faithfully serving the secret society to the promulgation of whose doctrines he had consecrate his life. Little doubt seems to exist in the minds of impartial investigators that Lord Bacon was the legitimate son of Queen Elizabeth and the Earl of Leicester.

of Similes appears the following significant allusion: "Like as men would laugh at a poore man, if having precious garments lent him to act and play the part of some honourable personage upon a stage, when the play were at an ende he should keepe them as his owne, and bragge up and downe in them."

Repeated references to the word hog and the presence of cryptographic statements on page 33 of various contemporary writings demonstrate that the keys to Bacon's ciphers were his own name, words playing upon it, or its numerical equivalent. Notable examples are the famous statement of Mistress Quickly in The Merry Wives of Windsor: "Hang-hog is latten for Bacon, I warrant you" the title pages of Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia and Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene and the emblems appearing in the works of Alciatus and Wither. Furthermore, the word honorificabilitudinitatibus appearing in the fifth act of Love's Labour's Lost is a Rosicrucian signature, as its numerical equivalent (287) indicates.

Again, on the title page of the first edition of Sir Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Father Time is depicted bringing a female figure out of the darkness of a cave. Around the device is a Latin inscription: "In time the secret truth shall be revealed." The catchwords and printer's devices appearing in volumes published especially during the first half of the seventeenth century were designed, arranged, and in some cases mutilated according to a definite plan.

It is evident also that the mispaginations in the Shakespearian Folios and other volumes are keys to Baconian ciphers, for re-editions--often from new type and by different printers--contain the same mistakes. Misalnya, Pertama dan Second Folios of Shakespeare are printed from entirely different type and by different printers nine years apart, but in both editions page 153 of the Comedies is numbered 151, and pages 249 and 250 are numbered 250 and 251 respectively. Also in the 1640 edition of Bacon's The Advancement and Proficience of Learning, pages 353 and 354 are numbered 351 and 352 respectively, and in the 1641 edition of Du Bartas' Divine Weeks pages 346 to 350 inclusive are entirely missing, while page 450 is numbered 442. The frequency with which pages ending in numbers 50, 51, 52,53, and 54 are involved will he noted.

The requirements of Lord Verulam's biliteral cipher are fully met in scores of volumes printed between 1590 and 1650 and in some printed at other times. An examination of the verses by L. Digges, dedicated to the memory of the deceased "Authour Maister W. Shakespeare," reveals the use of two fonts of type for both capital and small letters, the differences being most marked in the capital T's, n's, and A's, (Seethe First Folio.) The cipher has been deleted from subsequent editions.

The presence of hidden material in the text is often indicated by needless involvement of words. On the sixteenth unnumbered page of the 1641 edition of Du Bartas' Divine Weeks is a boar surmounting a pyramidal text. The text is meaningless jargon, evidently inserted for cryptographic reasons and marked with Bacon's signature--the hog. The year following publication of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays in 1623, there was printed in "Lunæburg" a remarkable volume on cryptography, avowedly by Gustavus Selenus. It is considered extremely probable that this volume constitutes the cryptographic key to the Great Shakespearian Folio.

Peculiar symbolical head- and tail-pieces also mark the presence of cryptograms. While such ornaments are found in many early printed books, certain emblems are peculiar to volumes containing Baconian Rosicrucian ciphers. The light and dark shaded A is an interesting example. Bearing in mind the frequent recurrence in Baconian symbolism of the light and dark shaded A and the hog, the following statement by Bacon in his Interpretation of Nature is highly significant: "If the sow with her snout should happen to imprint the letter A upon the ground, wouldst thou therefore imagine that she could write out a whole tragedy as one letter?"

The Rosicrucians and other secret societies of the seventeenth century used watermarks as mediums for the conveyance of cryptographic references, and books presumably containing Baconian ciphers are usually printed upon paper bearing Rosicrucian or Masonic watermarks often there are several symbols in one book, such as the Rose Cross, urns, bunches of grapes, and others.

At hand is a document which may prove a remarkable key to a cipher beginning in The Tragedy of Cymbeline. So far as known it has never been published and is applicable only to the 1623 Folio of the Shakespearian plays. The cipher is a line-and-word count involving punctuation, especially the long and short exclamation points and the straight and slanting interrogation points. This code was discovered by Henry William Bearse in 1900, and after it has been thoroughly checked its exact nature will be made public.

No reasonable doubt remains that the Masonic Order is the direct outgrowth of the secret societies of the Middle Ages, nor can it be denied that Freemasonry is permeated by the symbolism and mysticism of the ancient and mediæval worlds. Sir Francis Bacon knew the true secret of Masonic origin and there is reason to suspect that he concealed this knowledge in cipher and cryptogram. Bacon is not to be regarded solely as a man but rather as the focal point between an invisible institution and a world which was never able to distinguish between the messenger and the message which he promulgated. This secret society, having rediscovered the lost wisdom of the ages and fearing that the knowledge might be lost again, perpetuated it in two ways: (1) by an organization (Freemasonry)

From Ralegh's Sejarah Dunia.

Many documents influenced by Baconian philosophy--or intended m conceal Baconian or Rosicrucian cryptograms--use certain conventional designs at the beginning and end of chapters, which reveal to the initiated the presence of concealed information. The above ornamental has long been accepted as of the presence of Baconian influence and is to be found only in a certain number of rare volumes, all of which contain Baconian cryptograms. These cipher messages were placed in the books either by Bacon himself or by contemporaneous and subsequent authors belonging to the same secret society which Bacon served with his remarkable knowledge of ciphers and enigmas. Variants of this headpiece adorn the Great Shakespearian Folio (1623) Bacon's Novum Organum (1620) the St. James Bible (1611) Spencer's Faerie Queene (1611) and Sir Walter Ralegh's History of the World (1614) (See American Baconiana.)


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THE DROESHOUT PORTRAIT OF SHAKSPERE.

From Shakespeare's Great Folio of 1623.

There are no authentic portraits of Shakspere in existence. The dissimilarities the Droeshout, Chandos, Janssen, Hunt, Ashbourne, Soest, and Dunford portraits prove conclusively that the artists were unaware of Shakspere's actual features. An examination of the Droeshout portrait discloses several peculiarities. Baconian enthusiasts are convinced that the face is only a caricature, possibly the death mask of Francis Bacon. A comparison of the Droeshout Shakspere with portraits and engravings of Francis Bacon demonstrates the identity of the structure of the two faces, the difference in expression being caused by lines of shading. Not also the peculiar line running from the ear down to the chin. Does this line subtly signify that the face itself a mask, ending at the ear? Notice also that the head is not connected with the body, but is resting on the collar. Most strange of all is the coat: one-half is on backwards. In drawing the jacket, the artist has made the left arm correctly, but the right arm has the back of the shoulder to the front. Frank Woodward has noted that there are 157 letters on the title page. This is a Rosicrucian signature of first importance. The date, 1623, Plus the two letters "ON" from the word "LONDON," gives the cryptic signature of Francis Bacon, by a simple numerical cipher. By merely exchanging the 26 letters of the alphabet for numbers, 1 became A, 6 becomes F, 2 becomes B, and 3 becomes C, giving AFBC. To this is added the ON from LONDON, resulting in AFBCON, which rearranged forms F. BACON.

to the initiates of which it revealed its wisdom in the form of symbols (2) by embodying its arcana in the literature of the day by means of cunningly contrived ciphers and enigmas.

Evidence points to the existence of a group of wise and illustrious Fratres who assumed the responsibility of publishing and preserving for future generations the choicest of the secret books of the ancients, together with certain other documents which they themselves had prepared. That future members of their fraternity might not only identify these volumes bur also immediately note the significant passages, words, chapters, or sections therein, they created a symbolic alphabet of hieroglyphic designs. By means of a certain key and order, the discerning few were thus enabled to find that wisdom by which a man is "raised" to an illumined life.

The tremendous import of the Baconian mystery is daily becoming more apparent. Sir Francis Bacon was a link in that great chain of minds which has perpetuated the secret doctrine of antiquity from its beginning. This secret doctrine is concealed in his cryptic writings. The search for this divine wisdom is the only legitimate motive for the effort to decode his cryptograms.

Masonic research might discover much of value if it would turn its attention to certain volumes published during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries which bear the stamp and signet of that secret society whose members first established modern Freemasonry but themselves remained as an intangible group controlling and directing the activities of the outer body. The unknown history and lost rituals of Freemasonry may be rediscovered in the symbolism and cryptograms of the Middle Ages. Freemasonry is the bright and glorious son of a mysterious and hidden father. It cannot trace its parentage because that origin is obscured by the veil of the superphysical and the mystical. NS Great Folio of 1623 is a veritable treasure house of Masonic lore and symbolism, and the time is at hand when that Great Work should be accorded the consideration which is its due.

Though Christianity shattered the material organization of the pagan Mysteries, it could not destroy the knowledge of supernatural power which the pagans possessed. Therefore it is known that the Mysteries of Greece and Egypt were secretly perpetuated through the early centuries of the church, and later, by being clothed in the symbolism of Christianity, were accepted as elements of that faith. Sir Francis Bacon was one of those who had been entrusted with the perpetuation and dissemination of s the arcana of the superphysical originally in the possession of the pagan hierophants, and to attain that end either formulated the Fraternity of R.C. or was admitted into an organization already existing under that name and became one of its principal representatives.

For some reason not apparent to the uninitiated there has been a continued and consistent effort to prevent the unraveling of the Baconian skein. Whatever the power may be which continually blocks the efforts of investigators, it is as unremitting now as it was immediately following Bacon's death, and those attempting to solve the enigma still feel the weight of its resentment.

A misunderstanding world has ever persecuted those who understood the secret workings of Nature, seeking in every conceivable manner to exterminate the custodians of this divine wisdom. Sir Francis Bacon's political prestige was finally undermined and Sir Walter Ralegh met a shameful fate because their transcendental knowledge was considered dangerous.

The forging of Shakspere's handwriting the foisting of fraudulent portraits and death masks upon a gullible public the fabrication of spurious biographies the mutilation of books and documents the destruction or rendering illegible of tablets and inscriptions containing cryptographic messages, have all compounded the difficulties attendant upon the solution of the Bacon-Shakspere-Rosicrucian riddle. The Ireland forgeries deceived experts for years.

According to material available, the supreme council of the Fraternity of R.C. was composed of a certain number of individuals who had died what is known as the "philosophic death." When the time came for an initiate to enter upon his labors for the Order, he conveniently "died" under somewhat mysterious circumstances. In reality he changed his name and place of residence, and a box of rocks or a body secured for the purpose was buried in his stead. It is believed that this happened in the case of Sir Francis Bacon who, like all servants of the Mysteries, renounced all personal credit and permitted others to be considered as the authors of the documents which he wrote or inspired.

The cryptic writings of Francis Bacon constitute one of the most powerful tangible elements in the mysteries of transcendentalism and symbolic philosophy. Apparently many years must yet pass before an uncomprehending world will appreciate the transcending genius of that mysterious man who wrote the Novum Organum, who sailed his little ship far out into the unexplored sea of learning through the Pillars of Hercules, and whose ideals for a new civilization are magnificently expressed in the Utopian dream of The New Atlantis. Was Sir Francis Bacon a second Prometheus? Did his great love for the people of the world and his pity for their ignorance cause him to bring the divine fire from heaven concealed within the contents of a printed page?

In all probability, the keys to the Baconian riddle will be found in classical mythology. He who understands the secret of the Seven-Rayed God will comprehend the method employed by Bacon to accomplish his monumental labor. Aliases were assumed by him in accordance with the attributes and order of the members of the planetary system. One of the least known--but most important--keys to the Baconian enigma is the Third, or 1637, Edition, published in Paris, of Les Images ou Tableaux de platte peinture des deux Philostrates sophistes grecs et les statues de Callistrate, by Blaise de Vigenere. The title page of this volume--which, as the name of the author when properly deciphered indicates, was written by or under the direction of Bacon or his secret society--is one mass of important Masonic or Rosicrucian symbols. On page 486 appears a plate entitled "Hercules Furieux," showing a gigantic figure shaking a spear, the ground before him strewn with curious emblems. In his curious work, Das Bild des Speershüttlers die Lösung des Shakespeare-Rätsels, Alfred Freund attempts to explain the Baconian symbolism in the Philostrates. Bacon he reveals as the philosophical Hercules, whom time will establish as the true "Spear-Shaker" (Shakespeare).


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TITLE PAGE OF THE FAMOUS FIRST EDITION OF SIR WALTER RALEGH'S HISTORY OF THE WORLD.

From Ralegh's Sejarah Dunia.

What was the mysterious knowledge which Sir Walter Ralegh possessed and which was declared to be detrimental to the British government? Why was he executed when the charges against him could not be proved? Was he a member of me of those feared and hated secret societies which nearly overthrew political and religious Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Was Sir Walter Ralegh an important factor in the Bacon-Shakspere-Rosicrucian-Masonic enigma? By those seeking the keys to this great controversy, he seems to have been almost entirely overlooked. His contemporaries are unanimous in their praise of his remarkable intellect, and he has long been considered me of Britain's most brilliant sons.

Sir Walter Ralegh--soldier, courtier, statesman, writer, poet, philosopher, and explorer--was a scintillating figure at the court of Queen Elizabeth. Upon this same man, King James--after the death of Elizabeth--heaped every indignity within his power. The cowardly James, who shuddered at the mention of weapons and cried like a child when he was crossed, was insanely jealous of the brilliant courtier. Ralegh's enemies, Playing upon the king's weakness, did not cease their relentless persecution until Ralegh had been hanged and his decapitated, quartered, and disemboweled body lay at their feet.

The title page reproduced above was used by Ralegh's political foes as a powerful weapon against him. They convinced James I that the face of the central figure upholding the globe was a caricature of his own, and the enraged king ordered every copy of the engraving destroyed. But a few copies escaped the royal wrath consequently the plate is extremely rare. The engraving is a mass Rosicrucian and Masonic symbols, and the figures on the columns in all probability conceal a cryptogram. More significant still is the fact that the page facing this plate is a headpiece identical with that used in the 1623 Folio of "Shakespeare" and also in Bacon's Novum Organum.


WHO WAS THE REAL CHRISTOPHER “KIT” MARLOWE?

A Discovery of Witches introduces Christopher “Kit” Marlowe as a member of Matthew de Clairmont’s Elizabethan household dan a demon. However he’s best-known as one of the greatest poets and dramatists in the English language.

In the 1580s and early 󈨞s, Marlowe was considered the king of the stage. He is best-known for his plays, Dokter Faustus dan Tamburlaine, but his true legacy is the influence he left on his many, many imitators.

Many scholars believe that Marlowe might have eclipsed Shakespeare had he lived longer. Spoilers — for history! Christopher Marlowe was stabbed to death in a bar brawl in 1593. He was only 29 years old. The brawl itself has been attributed to everything from a dispute over the bill to spy games gone awry to even a tiff between gay lovers.

While it’s unlikely that Marlowe was a demon in real life, there is a lot of evidence to suggest that he was involved in the spy games of Queen Elizabeth’s court, much like Matthew is in A Discovery of Witches.


Tonton videonya: Bacons Rebellion