Presiden Kennedy menunjuk dokter kepresidenan wanita pertama

Presiden Kennedy menunjuk dokter kepresidenan wanita pertama

Pada tanggal 26 Januari 1961, hanya sekitar seminggu setelah pelantikannya, Presiden John F. Kennedy menunjuk Janet Travell, 59, sebagai dokter pribadinya, menjadikannya wanita pertama dalam sejarah yang memegang jabatan tersebut.

Dr. Travell memiliki resume yang mengesankan termasuk lulus dengan pujian dari Wellesley College, magang di bidang kardiologi, jabatan profesor di bidang farmakologi klinis di Cornell University dan reputasi yang mapan sebagai pelopor dalam pengobatan nyeri myofascial kronis. (Istilah nyeri myofascial mengacu pada nyeri atau nyeri tekan pada otot dan jaringan fibrosa yang dapat menyebabkan kelemahan dan rasa seperti mati rasa, terbakar, kesemutan atau nyeri.) Dr. Travell juga merancang prototipe dari apa yang sekarang disebut kursi ergonomis. Pada saat dia menjadi dokter resmi kepresidenan, Dr. Travell, seorang ahli ortopedi, telah bekerja sama dengan Kennedy selama lima tahun. Kennedy menderita sakit punggung terus-menerus yang ia klaim sebagai efek kumulatif dari cedera yang diderita bermain sepak bola dan sebagai kapten kapal PT dalam Perang Dunia II.

Selama kampanye presiden tahun 1960, Lyndon B. Johnson, saingan Kennedy untuk nominasi Demokrat, membocorkan kepada pers bahwa Kennedy menderita penyakit Addison. Atas perintah Kennedy, Dr. Travell menanggapi tuduhan tersebut, dengan mengatakan bahwa John F. Kennedy tidak, juga tidak pernah menderita penyakit Addison. Pada tahun 2002, sebuah artikel di Atlantik Majalah mengungkapkan bahwa Dr. Travell memang pernah merawat Kennedy untuk penyakit Addison, penyakit yang mempengaruhi kelenjar adrenal dan dapat menyebabkan penurunan berat badan, kelemahan otot, kelelahan, infeksi kronis, dan tekanan darah rendah. Dr Jeffrey Kelman, yang meneliti dan menerbitkan sebuah buku berdasarkan tinjauannya terhadap catatan medis Kennedy menyatakan bahwa masalah kesehatan presiden mungkin akan membuatnya cacat federal atau pensiun jika dia ada hari ini.

Didiagnosis pada tahun 1947, Kennedy mempertahankan jadwal yang sibuk di tahun-tahun awal kehidupan politiknya dengan bantuan suntikan kortisol yang mahal dan sering. Namun, karir politiknya mungkin akan berakhir tiba-tiba pada tahun 1954 ketika dia menjalani operasi punggung pertama dari dua; yang kedua mengikuti tahun berikutnya. Operasi itu lebih berisiko daripada siapa pun kecuali sekelompok kecil personel medis dan anggota keluarga menyadari. Sebuah artikel November 1955 di Jurnal Asosiasi Medis Amerika mendokumentasikan kasus bedah Kennedy, merahasiakan namanya. Di dalamnya, para dokter setuju bahwa pembedahan dianggap berbahaya karena gangguan fungsi adrenal akibat penyakit Addison sangat meningkatkan risiko komplikasi serius dari operasi. Kennedy selamat dari operasi, tetapi tidak menghilangkan sakit punggungnya; dia juga terus menderita kolitis terkait Addison dan infeksi kronis.

Sepanjang masa kepresidenan Kennedy, Travell meresepkan sejumlah besar obat untuk mengobati rasa sakitnya termasuk Phenobarbital, Librium, Meprobomate, Codeine, Demerol dan Methadone. Kennedy juga menggunakan Nembutal sebagai obat tidur. Perawatan Travell untuk sakit punggung Kennedy melibatkan penggunaan sepatu ortopedi untuk memperbaiki ketidakseimbangan tulang belakang, penyangga punggung, dan kursi goyang. (Setelah foto-foto Kennedy di kursi goyang Oval Office-nya muncul di media, penjualan kursi goyang meroket di seluruh negeri.) Travell juga menggunakan pengobatan inovatif untuk kejang otot: suntikan prokain tingkat rendah ke otot lumbar, sebuah teknik yang masih digunakan dalam kedokteran olahraga saat ini. Keluarga Kennedy memuji Dr. Travell karena memungkinkan Kennedy yang gigih untuk mempertahankan jadwal hukuman yang dituntut oleh karir politiknya meskipun sakit kronis dan sakit.

Setelah pembunuhan Kennedy, Travell mempertahankan posisinya, menjadi dokter pribadi Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson.

BACA LEBIH BANYAK: Pertama Terkenal dalam Sejarah Wanita


Komisi Presiden tentang Status Perempuan

Editor kami akan meninjau apa yang Anda kirimkan dan menentukan apakah akan merevisi artikel tersebut.

Komisi Presiden tentang Status Perempuan, komisi penasehat yang dibentuk pada 14 Desember 1961, oleh Presiden AS John F. Kennedy untuk menyelidiki pertanyaan mengenai kesetaraan perempuan dalam pendidikan, di tempat kerja, dan di bawah hukum.

Diketuai oleh Eleanor Roosevelt sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1962, komisi ini terdiri dari 20 anggota yang ditunjuk oleh presiden dari kumpulan legislator dan dermawan yang aktif dalam isu-isu hak-hak perempuan. Tujuan utama komite ini adalah untuk memeriksa beberapa kebijakan ketenagakerjaan yang berlaku bagi perempuan. Di antara praktik-praktik yang ditangani oleh kelompok tersebut adalah undang-undang perburuhan yang berkaitan dengan jam kerja dan upah, kualitas perwakilan hukum bagi perempuan, kurangnya pendidikan dan konseling bagi perempuan yang bekerja, dan undang-undang asuransi dan pajak federal yang mempengaruhi pendapatan perempuan.

Dalam penelitian selanjutnya, yang diterbitkan dalam apa yang umumnya dikenal sebagai Laporan Peterson, komisi tersebut mendokumentasikan diskriminasi yang meluas terhadap perempuan di tempat kerja. Beberapa rekomendasi dibuat, termasuk penitipan anak yang terjangkau untuk semua tingkat pendapatan, praktik perekrutan yang mempromosikan kesempatan yang sama bagi perempuan, dan cuti hamil berbayar. Meskipun laporan itu sendiri tidak membawa perubahan langsung, banyak komisi negara tentang status perempuan yang dihasilkan memainkan peran penting dalam mempromosikan peluang ekonomi yang lebih setara bagi perempuan. Komite tersebut dibubarkan pada Oktober 1963 setelah penyerahan laporan akhir.


Melindungi Hak Perempuan

Ketertarikan pada hak-hak perempuan dan cara paling efektif melindungi hak-hak tersebut adalah masalah kepentingan nasional yang terus berkembang. Ada lebih dari 400 undang-undang di Kongres yang membahas status perempuan dan isu-isu diskriminasi dan perluasan hak. Keputusan pengadilan pada saat itu membahas kebebasan reproduksi (penggunaan alat kontrasepsi, misalnya) dan kewarganegaraan (apakah perempuan bertugas sebagai juri, misalnya).

Mereka yang mendukung undang-undang perlindungan bagi pekerja perempuan percaya bahwa hal itu membuat perempuan lebih layak untuk bekerja. Wanita, bahkan jika mereka bekerja penuh waktu, adalah pengasuh anak utama dan orang tua rumah tangga setelah seharian bekerja. Pendukung undang-undang perlindungan juga percaya bahwa kepentingan masyarakat untuk melindungi kesehatan perempuan termasuk kesehatan reproduksi perempuan dengan membatasi jam dan beberapa kondisi kerja, membutuhkan fasilitas kamar mandi tambahan, dll.

Mereka yang mendukung Amandemen Persamaan Hak (pertama kali diperkenalkan di Kongres segera setelah perempuan memenangkan hak untuk memilih pada tahun 1920) percaya dengan pembatasan dan hak khusus pekerja perempuan di bawah undang-undang perlindungan, pengusaha termotivasi untuk lebih sedikit perempuan atau bahkan menghindari mempekerjakan perempuan sama sekali .

Kennedy mendirikan Komisi Status Perempuan untuk menavigasi antara dua posisi ini, mencoba menemukan kompromi yang memajukan kesetaraan kesempatan kerja perempuan tanpa kehilangan dukungan dari tenaga kerja terorganisir dan para feminis yang mendukung melindungi pekerja perempuan dari eksploitasi dan melindungi hak-hak perempuan. kemampuan untuk melayani dalam peran tradisional di rumah dan keluarga.

Kennedy juga melihat kebutuhan untuk membuka tempat kerja bagi lebih banyak wanita, agar Amerika Serikat menjadi lebih kompetitif dengan Rusia, dalam perlombaan luar angkasa, dalam perlombaan senjata — secara umum, untuk melayani kepentingan "Dunia Bebas" di perang Dingin.


Isi

Tahun Gedung Putih Sunting

Caroline Bouvier Kennedy lahir pada 27 November 1957, di NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital di Manhattan dari pasangan John Fitzgerald Kennedy (saat itu seorang senator AS dari Massachusetts) dan Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy. Setahun sebelum kelahiran Caroline, orang tuanya memiliki seorang putri yang lahir mati bernama Arabella. Caroline memiliki adik laki-laki, John Jr., yang lahir tepat sebelum ulang tahunnya yang ketiga pada tahun 1960. Adik laki-lakinya, Patrick, meninggal dua hari setelah kelahiran prematurnya pada tahun 1963. Caroline tinggal bersama orang tuanya di Georgetown, Washington, DC selama tiga tahun pertama hidupnya. [7] Ketika Caroline berusia tiga tahun, keluarganya pindah ke Gedung Putih setelah ayahnya dilantik sebagai presiden Amerika Serikat. [7]

Caroline sering menghadiri taman kanak-kanak di kelas yang diselenggarakan oleh ibunya, dan dia sering difoto mengendarai kuda poni "Macaroni" di sekitar halaman Gedung Putih. Salah satu foto tersebut dalam sebuah artikel berita menginspirasi penyanyi-penulis lagu Neil Diamond untuk menulis lagu hit Top Ten-nya, "Sweet Caroline", yang dia ungkapkan saat dia menyanyikannya untuk ulang tahun ke-50 Caroline. [8] Sebagai anak kecil, Caroline menerima banyak hadiah dari pejabat tinggi, termasuk anak anjing dari Perdana Menteri Soviet Nikita Khrushchev dan kuda poni Yucatán dari Wakil Presiden Lyndon B. Johnson. [9] Sejarawan menggambarkan kepribadian masa kecil Caroline sebagai "sedikit terpencil dan sedikit pemalu" namun "sangat murni." [10] "Dia terlalu muda untuk menyadari semua kemewahan ini", kata nenek dari pihak ayah, Rose Kennedy, tentang dia. "Dia mungkin berpikir itu wajar bagi anak-anak untuk pergi dengan pesawat mereka sendiri. Tapi dia bersama sepupunya, dan beberapa dari mereka menari dan berenang lebih baik daripada dia. Mereka tidak mengizinkannya untuk didahulukan. Anak-anak kecil menerima sesuatu". [11]

Pada hari pembunuhan JFK pada 22 November 1963, pengasuh Maud Shaw membawa Caroline dan John Jr. pergi dari Gedung Putih ke rumah nenek dari pihak ibu mereka, Janet Bouvier Auchincloss, yang bersikeras bahwa Shaw akan menjadi orang yang memberi tahu Caroline bahwa ayahnya dibunuh. Malam itu, Caroline dan John Jr. kembali ke Gedung Putih, dan ketika Caroline sedang tidur di ranjangnya, Shaw menyampaikan kabar itu kepadanya. [12] Shaw segera mengetahui bahwa Jacqueline ingin menjadi orang yang memberitahu dua anak ini menyebabkan keretakan antara Shaw dan Jacqueline. [12] Pada tanggal 6 Desember, dua minggu setelah pembunuhan itu, Jacqueline, Caroline, dan John Jr. pindah dari Gedung Putih dan kembali ke Georgetown. [13] Namun, rumah baru mereka segera menjadi daya tarik wisata yang populer. Keluarga tersebut meninggalkan Georgetown pada tahun berikutnya dan kemudian pindah ke apartemen penthouse di 1040 Fifth Avenue di Upper East Side Manhattan di New York City. [7]

Tahun-tahun masa kecil kemudian Sunting

Pada tahun 1967, Caroline membaptis kapal induk Angkatan Laut AS USS John F. Kennedy dalam upacara yang dipublikasikan secara luas di Newport News, Virginia. [14] [15] Selama musim panas itu, Jacqueline membawa anak-anak dalam "perjalanan sentimental" enam minggu ke Irlandia, di mana mereka bertemu Presiden amon de Valera dan mengunjungi rumah leluhur Kennedy di Dunganstown. Di tengah perjalanan, Caroline dan John dikelilingi oleh sejumlah besar fotografer pers saat bermain di kolam. Insiden itu menyebabkan ibu mereka menelepon Departemen Luar Negeri Irlandia dan meminta dikeluarkannya pernyataan bahwa dia dan anak-anaknya ingin dibiarkan dalam damai. Sebagai hasil dari permintaan tersebut, upaya lebih lanjut oleh fotografer pers untuk memotret ketiganya berakhir dengan penangkapan oleh polisi setempat dan para fotografer dipenjara. [16]

Robert F. Kennedy menjadi sosok penting dalam kehidupan Caroline dan John Jr. setelah pembunuhan ayah mereka, dan Caroline melihat pamannya sebagai ayah pengganti. Namun, ketika Bobby Kennedy dibunuh pada tahun 1968, Jacqueline mencari cara untuk melindungi anak-anaknya, dengan menyatakan: "Saya benci negara ini. Saya membenci Amerika dan saya tidak ingin anak-anak saya tinggal di sini lagi. Jika mereka membunuh Kennedy, anak-anak saya adalah target nomor satu. Saya memiliki dua target utama. Saya ingin keluar dari negara ini". [17] Jacqueline Kennedy menikah dengan taipan pelayaran Yunani Aristoteles Onassis beberapa bulan kemudian dan dia serta anak-anaknya pindah ke Skorpios, pulau Yunani miliknya. Tahun berikutnya, Caroline yang berusia 11 tahun menghadiri pemakaman kakeknya, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. Sepupunya, David, bertanya tentang perasaannya terhadap suami baru ibunya dan dia menjawab, "Saya tidak menyukainya ". [18]

Pada tahun 1970, Jacqueline menulis surat kepada saudara iparnya, Ted Kennedy, yang menyatakan bahwa Caroline tidak memiliki ayah baptis sejak kematian Robert Kennedy dan ingin Ted mengambil peran tersebut. Ted mulai melakukan perjalanan reguler dari Washington ke New York untuk menemui Caroline, tempat dia bersekolah. [19] Pada tahun 1971, Caroline kembali ke Gedung Putih untuk pertama kalinya sejak pembunuhan ayahnya ketika dia diundang oleh Presiden Richard Nixon untuk melihat potret resmi ayahnya. [20]

Onassis meninggal pada Maret 1975, dan Caroline kembali ke Skorpios untuk pemakamannya. Beberapa hari kemudian dia dan ibu serta saudara laki-lakinya menghadiri presentasi oleh presiden Prancis Valéry Giscard d'Estaing dari penghargaan Legion of Honor kepada bibinya, Eunice Kennedy Shriver. [21] Belakangan tahun itu, Caroline mengunjungi London untuk menyelesaikan kursus seni selama setahun di rumah lelang Sotheby, ketika sebuah bom mobil IRA ditempatkan di bawah mobil tuan rumahnya, anggota parlemen Konservatif Sir Hugh Fraser dan istrinya, Antonia, meledak tak lama sebelum dia dan keluarga Frasers akan berangkat untuk perjalanan harian mereka ke Sotheby's. Caroline belum meninggalkan rumah, tetapi seorang tetangga, ahli onkologi Profesor Gordon Hamilton Fairley, sedang lewat ketika dia sedang berjalan-jalan dengan anjingnya dan terbunuh oleh ledakan. [22]

Kennedy memulai pendidikannya dengan kelas taman kanak-kanak di Gedung Putih yang diselenggarakan oleh ibunya. [23] Sebelum keluarganya pindah ke New York, dia terdaftar di Stone Ridge School of the Sacred Heart. [24] Dia menghadiri Sekolah Brearley dan Biara Hati Kudus di New York City dan lulus dari Akademi Concord di Massachusetts pada tahun 1975. [25] Dia adalah asisten fotografer di Olimpiade Musim Dingin 1976 di Innsbruck, Austria. [26] Pada tahun 1977, ia bekerja sebagai magang musim panas di New York Berita harian, menghasilkan $156 per minggu ($673,41 dalam dolar 2019), "mengambil kopi untuk editor dan reporter yang terburu-buru, mengganti pita mesin tik, dan mengirim pesan." [27] Kennedy dilaporkan "duduk di bangku sendirian selama dua jam pada hari pertama bahkan sebelum karyawan lain menyapanya" dan, menurut Richard Licata, mantan Berita reporter, "Semua orang terlalu takut." [26] Kennedy juga menulis untuk Batu bergulir tentang mengunjungi Graceland tak lama setelah kematian Elvis Presley. [26]

Pada tahun 1980, ia memperoleh gelar Bachelor of Arts dari Radcliffe College di Universitas Harvard. [28] Selama kuliah, Kennedy "dipertimbangkan untuk menjadi jurnalis foto, tetapi segera menyadari bahwa dia tidak akan pernah bisa mencari nafkah dengan mengamati orang lain karena mereka terlalu sibuk mengawasinya." [26] Setelah lulus, Kennedy dipekerjakan sebagai asisten peneliti di Departemen Film dan Televisi Metropolitan Museum of Art di New York. Dia kemudian menjadi "petugas penghubung antara staf museum dan produser dan sutradara luar yang merekam rekaman di museum", membantu mengoordinasikan jalan Sesama spesial Jangan Makan Gambar. [29] Pada tanggal 4 Desember 1984, Caroline diancam ketika seorang pria menelepon museum dan menyebutkan nama dan alamatnya saat melaporkan bahwa sebuah bom telah ditanam di sana. Tiga hari kemudian, dia ditangkap karena ancaman itu. [30] Pada tahun 1988, ia memperoleh gelar Doktor Juris dari Columbia Law School, lulus dalam sepuluh persen teratas di kelasnya. [31]

Saat bekerja di Met, Kennedy bertemu calon suaminya, desainer pameran Edwin Schlossberg. Mereka menikah pada 1986 di Our Lady of Victory Church di Centerville, Massachusetts. [32] Sepupu pertama Kennedy, Maria Shriver, menjabat sebagai ibu pengantin kehormatan, dan Ted kemudian mengantarnya ke pelaminan. Kennedy kadang-kadang salah disebut sebagai "Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg", tetapi dia tidak mengubah namanya saat dia menikah. [1] [2] Kennedy memiliki tiga anak: Rose Kennedy Schlossberg (lahir 1988), Tatiana Celia Kennedy Schlossberg (lahir 1990), dan John Bouvier Kennedy Schlossberg, yang dikenal sebagai Jack (lahir 1993).

Dibesarkan di Manhattan dan agak terpisah dari sepupu Hyannisport mereka, [33] Caroline dan John Jr. sangat dekat, dan terutama setelah kematian ibu mereka pada tahun 1994. [34] Setelah John Jr. meninggal dalam kecelakaan pesawat pada tahun 1999, Caroline satu-satunya yang tersisa dari keluarga dekat Presiden Kennedy, dan dia memilih untuk tidak mengadakan upacara pemakaman umum untuk saudara laki-lakinya. [35] Dia memutuskan bahwa jenazahnya akan dikremasi dan abunya disebar ke Samudera Atlantik di lepas pantai Martha's Vineyard, di mana dia menemui ajalnya. [36] John Jr. mewariskan kepada Caroline setengah kepemilikannya atas George majalah, tetapi Caroline percaya bahwa saudara laki-lakinya tidak ingin majalah itu terus berlanjut setelah kematiannya, [37] dan majalah itu berhenti terbit dua tahun kemudian. [38]

Kennedy memiliki tanah milik ibunya seluas 375 acre (152 ha) yang dikenal sebagai Red Gate Farm di Aquinnah (sebelumnya Gay Head) di Martha's Vineyard. [39] New York Berita harian memperkirakan kekayaan bersih Kennedy pada tahun 2008 lebih dari $100 juta. [40] Selama pencalonannya tahun 2013 sebagai duta besar untuk Jepang, laporan pengungkapan keuangan menunjukkan kekayaan bersihnya antara $67 juta dan $278 juta, termasuk perwalian keluarga, obligasi pemerintah dan otoritas publik, properti komersial di New York, Chicago, dan Washington, dan kepemilikan di Kepulauan Cayman. [41]

Pada saat 60 menit wawancara pada April 2015, Kennedy dan suaminya tinggal di dua rumah terpisah di New York. [42] Ed tinggal di sebuah apartemen di West Village Manhattan sementara Caroline tinggal di sebuah rumah besar di Park Avenue. [42] 60 menit wawancara juga menghasilkan gebrakan media sosial tentang status pernikahan Kennedy, yang telah lama memiliki sejarah rumor perceraian. [42]

Kennedy adalah seorang pengacara, penulis, dan editor yang telah menjabat di dewan berbagai organisasi nirlaba. Dengan Ellen Alderman, dia ikut menulis buku, Dalam Pertahanan Kami: Bill of Rights In Action, yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1991. Selama wawancara mengenai volume, Kennedy menjelaskan bahwa keduanya ingin menunjukkan mengapa Amandemen Keempat Konstitusi Amerika Serikat ditulis. [43] Dia menghadiri sarapan tahunan Yayasan Robin Hood pada tanggal 7 Desember 1999. Kakaknya John telah berkomitmen untuk organisasi, yang dia bicarakan di acara tersebut. [44] Pada tahun 2000, dia mendukung Al Gore untuk kursi kepresidenan dan menyebutkan perasaan kekerabatan dengan dia sejak ayah mereka bertugas bersama di Senat. [45] Kennedy berbicara di Konvensi Nasional Demokrat tahun 2000 yang diadakan di Los Angeles, California, pertama kali sejak Konvensi Nasional Demokrat tahun 1960, di mana ayahnya dinominasikan oleh Partai Demokrat untuk kursi kepresidenan. [46]

Dari tahun 2002 hingga 2004, ia bekerja sebagai direktur Kantor Kemitraan Strategis untuk Departemen Pendidikan Kota New York, yang ditunjuk oleh Rektor Sekolah Joel Klein. Pekerjaan tiga hari seminggu itu memberinya gaji $1 dan bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan uang pribadi untuk sekolah umum New York City [47] dia membantu mengumpulkan lebih dari $65 juta. [3] [48] [49] Dia menjabat sebagai salah satu dari dua wakil ketua dewan direktur Dana untuk Sekolah Umum dan saat ini menjadi direktur kehormatan dana tersebut. [50] [51] Dia juga menjabat di dewan pengawas Akademi Concord, yang dia hadiri saat remaja. [25]

Kennedy dan anggota keluarganya yang lain menciptakan Profile in Courage Award pada tahun 1989. Penghargaan ini diberikan kepada pejabat publik atau pejabat yang tindakannya menunjukkan kepemimpinan yang berani secara politik dalam semangat buku John F. Kennedy, Profil dalam Keberanian. [52] Pada tahun 2001, ia memberikan penghargaan tersebut kepada mantan presiden Gerald Ford atas pengampunan kontroversialnya terhadap mantan presiden Richard M. Nixon hampir 30 tahun sebelumnya. [53] Dia juga presiden Yayasan Perpustakaan Kennedy [3] dan penasihat Institut Politik Harvard. Kennedy adalah anggota asosiasi pengacara New York dan Washington, D.C. Dia juga anggota dewan direktur Komisi Debat Presiden dan Dana Pendidikan dan Pertahanan Hukum NAACP, dan merupakan ketua kehormatan Teater Balet Amerika. [54] Kennedy mewakili keluarganya di upacara pemakaman mantan presiden Ronald Reagan dan Gerald Ford dan mantan Ibu Negara Lady Bird Johnson dan Barbara Bush. Dia juga mewakili keluarganya pada peresmian Pusat dan Taman Kepresidenan Bill Clinton di Little Rock, Arkansas, pada November 2004. Dia juga mewakili keluarganya pada peresmian Perpustakaan Kepresidenan George HW Bush pada 1997. Kennedy menghadiri ulang tahun kelima puluh upacara Pawai di Washington pada 28 Agustus 2013. [55] Pada 7 Desember 2019, Kennedy membaptis USS baru John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) di Newport News Shipbuilding. [56]

Setelah jabatannya sebagai duta besar untuk Jepang berakhir, Perusahaan Boeing memilihnya pada Agustus 2017 untuk menjabat sebagai dewan direksi. [57] Dia mengundurkan diri dari posisinya di dewan direksi pada 15 Januari 2021. [58]


Konflik Sakit Punggung Kronis John F. Kennedy Terungkap

Dengan Perayaan Centennial kelahiran Presiden John F. Kennedy baru-baru ini muncul minat baru dalam kehidupan politik dan pribadinya. Apa yang terkadang dilupakan adalah bahwa warisan Kennedy yang mendasari adalah perjuangannya dengan berbagai masalah medis, termasuk sakit punggung kronis. Rasa sakitnya terkadang sangat parah sehingga Kennedy menjalani beberapa operasi tulang belakang, mengandalkan penggunaan penyangga punggung (dan terkadang kruk) setiap hari, dan mencoba berbagai perawatan alternatif.

T. Glenn Pait, MD, Direktur Jackson T. Stephens Spine and Neurosciences Institute di University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, telah meneliti sejarah sakit punggung kronis Kennedy selama beberapa tahun dan berbicara dengan Tulang Belakang Semesta tentang temuannya.
Berkampanye untuk kepresidenan mengambil korban pada Kennedy, dan seperti banyak orang hari ini, Kennedy harus mempertimbangkan pilihannya, termasuk, risiko dan manfaat dari operasi. Sumber Foto: Wikipedia (domain publik).

Perawatan apa yang diterima Kennedy yang dianggap modern pada saat itu?

Dr Pait: Perlakuan yang diterima John F. Kennedy dianggap modern pada masanya. Mengingat statusnya yang menonjol, ia memiliki akses ke rumah sakit dan dokter terbaik.

Meskipun disarankan oleh ahli bedah Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) untuk tidak menjalani operasi tulang belakang, pada tanggal 23 Juni 1944 ia menjalani operasi di New England Baptist Hospital (Boston, MA) oleh ahli bedah saraf Lahey Clinic. Seperti banyak orang saat ini, Kennedy harus mempertimbangkan pilihannya, termasuk risiko dan manfaat operasi. Ayah Jack Kennedy muda, Joseph Kennedy Sr, mantan Duta Besar AS untuk Inggris, mengatakan kepada dokter Klinik Lahey, termasuk Frank Lahey, sesuatu harus dilakukan!

Rasa sakit Jack Kennedy menjadi tidak tertahankan, mendorongnya untuk menjalani intervensi bedah. Kennedy menjalani laminotomi L4-L5 dan diskektomi L5-S1. Sayangnya, manfaat bedah berumur pendek dan mengecewakan. Setan tulang punggungnya melanjutkan kenakalan mereka.

Selama masa Kennedy sebagai Senator, ia membutuhkan penggunaan kruk yang hampir konstan. Dia mencari perawatan di Rumah Sakit untuk Bedah Khusus (New York, NY) di mana dia menerima implantasi pelat logam (disebut pelat Wilson) yang dipasang di sepanjang proses spinosus vertebra-nya (proyeksi berbentuk tombol di bagian belakang masing-masing tulang belakang). tulang di tulang belakang) di punggung bawahnya dan turun ke sakrumnya (tulang segitiga di ujung tulang belakang). Ini adalah contoh penggunaan awal instrumentasi dan fusi tulang belakang.

Sayangnya, operasi tersebut menyebabkan infeksi dan pengangkatan implan logam. Sama seperti hari ini, infeksi terkadang terjadi bahkan di tangan yang terbaik. Bertahun-tahun kemudian, Kennedy mengembangkan infeksi tulang belakang lain yang membutuhkan pembedahan.

Di kemudian hari, Kennedy dirawat oleh dokter terkemuka Janet Travell, MD, yang mengembangkan teknik untuk injeksi titik pemicu menggunakan prokain (obat bius yang membuat area tersebut mati rasa dan mengurangi rasa sakit). Dr. Travell menjadi dokter wanita Gedung Putih pertama. Suntikan titik pemicu dan program penguatan otot ini menghasilkan periode perbaikan pada nyeri punggung dan fungsi Kennedy.

Kemudian pada tahun 1960, kampanye untuk kepresidenan berdampak pada Kennedy. Kali ini, ia bertemu dengan Max Jacobson, MD, yang juga dikenal sebagai Dr. Feelgood, yang berkali-kali menyuntiknya dengan ramuan yang mengandung amfetamin. Bahkan, Dr. Jacobson menyuntik Kennedy sebelum debat presiden pertama dengan Richard Nixon. Amfetamin memiliki banyak efek samping, termasuk perubahan suasana hati dan gangguan penilaian, yang diyakini beberapa orang mungkin memengaruhi kinerja Kennedy dalam debat. Namun, secara fisik, dia terlihat jauh lebih baik daripada Nixon, yang penting untuk debat presiden pertama yang disiarkan televisi.

Bagaimana rehabilitasi dan terapi fisik membantu memperbaiki nyeri punggung Kennedy?

Dr Pait: Dokter Gedung Putih Laksamana Muda George C. Burkley, MD, menjadi khawatir tentang sakit punggung Kennedy yang semakin parah pada tahun 1961 dan meningkatnya penggunaan suntikan prokain oleh Dr. Travell. Dr. Burkley meminta bantuan Hans Kraus, MD, seorang spesialis kedokteran fisik dan rehabilitasi yang disebut sebagai bapak kedokteran olahraga.

Khususnya, Dr. Kraus memulai terapi air dengan Kennedy, yang membawa peningkatan dramatis, dan sebuah kolam dibangun di Gedung Putih. Kennedy telah lama berenang, termasuk di tim renang universitas Harvard. Selain itu, program rehabilitasi Kraus meliputi angkat beban, terapi pijat, dan terapi panas.

Dr. Kraus mencoba menyapih Kennedy dari penyangga punggung korset kanvas, terbuat dari kain dengan batang logam yang telah ia kenakan selama sebagian besar masa dewasanya untuk memungkinkan Kennedy membangun otot-ototnya. Kennedy menjadi tergantung pada penyangganya, tetapi berjanji bahwa dia akan menyingkirkannya.

Apa peran penyangga punggung Kennedy dalam pembunuhannya?

Dr Pait: Selama upaya Kraus untuk menyapih Kennedy dari penjepit, Kennedy mengalami ketegangan pada iliopsoas kirinya (sekelompok otot pinggul bagian dalam yang membantu melenturkan pinggul saat berjalan dan menaiki tangga) yang berasal dari tuntutan kampanye kepresidenannya. Kennedy didiagnosis dengan ketegangan oleh Preston Wade, di Rumah Sakit untuk Bedah Khusus, yang menyarankan panas, istirahat, dan penggunaan perban Ace. Kemunduran ini mengakibatkan peningkatan penggunaan penyangga punggung bersama dengan perban Ace sehingga Kennedy dapat mengikuti jadwal kampanyenya.

Telah berteori bahwa pengikatan ketat penjepit dan perban Ace mungkin menjadi alasan mengapa Kennedy tidak jatuh ke depan setelah tembakan pertama ditembakkan di Dealey Plaza. Dia mungkin selamat dari tembakan senjata pertama, tetapi penjepit dan perban Ace melarangnya jatuh ke depan, mempertahankan posisi tegaknya, yang menyebabkan dia berada di garis tembak untuk tembakan fatal kedua di kepala. Faktanya, korset brace dan perban Ace (diikat pada gambar 8 loop di sekitar batang dan pahanya) dipotong Kennedy selama upaya resusitasi di Parkland Hospital di Dallas.

Jika Kennedy adalah pasien Anda hari ini, dengan perawatan dan kemajuan teknologi yang sekarang tersedia, apa rencana perawatan yang masuk akal?

Dr Pait: Jika Kennedy dirawat hari ini, dia akan menjalani terapi konservatif, seperti terapi fisik, suntikan saraf intervensi, dan penggunaan obat-obatan, termasuk obat antiinflamasi nonsteroid dan gabapentin (obat antikonvulsan yang diresepkan untuk nyeri saraf) sebelum operasi dipertimbangkan. .

Hari ini, MRI tulang belakang lumbosakral akan dilakukan untuk lebih menentukan sumber rasa sakitnya. Pembedahan akan menjadi pilihan jika ia gagal dalam semua pilihan non-bedah, rasa sakitnya menyebabkan penurunan kemampuannya untuk bergerak dan berfungsi, dan studi radiologis (rontgen) menunjukkan kondisi tulang belakang yang berkorelasi dengan riwayat dan pemeriksaan fisiknya.

Apa yang membuat Anda melakukan penelitian ini?

Dr Pait: Setelah mengetahui operasi punggung Presiden Kennedy dan perjuangannya dengan rasa sakit yang berkelanjutan, saya mulai meneliti jenis operasi yang tepat yang dilakukan presiden. Saya tidak hanya memeriksa catatan medis Kennedy, tetapi juga membaca catatan dari teman-teman dekat dan rekan-rekannya, yang menurut saya memberikan wawasan terbesar. Sementara Kennedy selalu menggambarkan dirinya dalam keadaan sehat, dia akan memberi tahu teman-teman dekatnya tentang rasa sakitnya. Faktanya, beberapa kenalan dan teman awalnya berkomentar bahwa Kennedy terus-menerus mengeluh tentang sakit punggungnya, bahkan ketika dia sedang mengemudi di dalam mobil.

Sebagai ahli bedah saraf dengan minat utama pada tulang belakang, Kennedy menggelitik minat saya dengan sejarah panjang masalah tulang belakang. Menarik juga bahwa, sebagai seorang anak, Kennedy menderita demam berdarah, campak, batuk rejan, sinusitis kronis, dan bronkitis. Dia diganggu oleh masalah pencernaan yang sedang berlangsung (kolitis dan sindrom iritasi usus besar). Faktanya, sekitar waktu operasi tulang belakang pertama dan kedua, Kennedy didiagnosis dengan salah satu kasus awal penyakit Addison yang mungkin disebabkan oleh penggunaan kortikosteroid kronis untuk pengobatan masalah pencernaan. Penyakit Addison adalah suatu kondisi di mana kelenjar adrenal tidak menghasilkan cukup kortisol yang dapat menyebabkan kelelahan, penurunan berat badan, kelemahan otot, dan sakit perut di antara gejala lainnya.

Meskipun hidupnya menderita sakit kronis dan kondisi lain, Kennedy bertahan. Presiden Kennedy mengejar mimpinya meskipun mengalami kondisi medis yang menantang, dan terkadang melemahkan. Di sisi lain, mungkin mimpi dan komitmennya ke Amerika memungkinkan dia untuk menjaga kesehatannya dari setan.

Perpustakaan Kepresidenan John F. Kennedy. Catatan kesehatan anak, 1928. https://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKPP-001-007.aspx. Diakses pada 1 September 2017.

Perpustakaan Kepresidenan John F. Kennedy. Panduan untuk Makalah Pribadi John F. Kennedy (#1). https://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKPP.aspx?f=1. Diakses pada 1 September 2017.

Lattimer JK, Schlesinger EB, Merritt HH. Punggung Presiden Kennedy terkena peluru pertama. Bull NY Acad Med. 197753(3):280-291.


Kontribusi JFK’S untuk Hak Perempuan— dan Apa yang Dia Inginkan Kita Lakukan Selanjutnya

Ada lagi peringatan 50 tahun dalam kehidupan Presiden John F. Kennedy yang penting untuk diingat hari ini.

Hanya beberapa minggu sebelum kematiannya, pada 11 Oktober 1963, Presiden Kennedy menerima laporan akhir dari Komisi Presiden tentang Status Perempuan. Sebuah garis langsung membentang antara pekerjaan komisi ini dan pembentukan Organisasi Nasional untuk Perempuan.

Pada tahun 1961, Presiden Kennedy mengeluarkan perintah eksekutif yang membebankan komisi “ dengan tanggung jawab untuk mengembangkan rekomendasi untuk mengatasi diskriminasi dalam pekerjaan pemerintah dan swasta berdasarkan jenis kelamin…”

Pembukaan perintah eksekutif dimulai dengan pernyataan berikut:

Prasangka dan kebiasaan yang ketinggalan zaman bertindak sebagai penghalang untuk realisasi penuh hak-hak dasar perempuan, yang harus dihormati dan dibina sebagai bagian dari komitmen Bangsa kita terhadap martabat manusia, kebebasan, dan demokrasi.
Presiden Kennedy menunjuk Eleanor Roosevelt untuk memimpin Komisi, yang dia lakukan sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1962.

(Anda dapat mendengarkan percakapan antara Eleanor Roosevelt dan Presiden Kennedy tentang Komisi di sini).

As Dr. Ellen Fitzpatrick, Professor of History at University of New Hampshire, said in a video produced for a conference marking the 50th anniversary of the Commission that was held by the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University,

In appointing a presidential commission on the status of women, Kennedy was calling attention at the very most senior level of our government to the problem that there was structurally within our society enormous inequality and discrimination against women that needed to be redressed, and that was a very significant thing to have done.
The Commission’s final report, entitled American Women: Report of the President’s Commission, was presented to President Kennedy on October 11, 1963, which would have been Eleanor Roosevelt’s 79th birthday. Its central recommendation was that women should have equal political, civil and economic rights and responsibilities. That was a radical notion in 1963 — fifty years later it is one of the central principles of our efforts for equality.

Another important outgrowth of President Kennedy’s commission was that it sparked the creation of commissions on the status of women in all fifty states. By 1967, every state had one.

At a meeting in 1966 of state commissions in Washington, D.C., delegates discussed a resolution demanding that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) carry out its legal mandate to end sex discrimination in employment.

These advocates for women were told — not for the first time, nor the last — that they wouldn’t be allowed to take action. But they were determined.

Writer Betty Friedan and Dr. Pauli Murray, a Yale law professor and member of President Kennedy’s Commission on the Status of Women, were delegates to the conference and along with other attendees met in Friedan’s hotel room to discuss strategies for taking meaningful action. As this history of the National Organization for Women describes, the groundwork was set in motion then and there for a new civil rights organization that would become NOW.

The work of the commission and other progressive women’s groups helped to draw attention to gender-based discrimination in the United States, which eventually led to a renewed push to pass the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, first proposed by Alice Paul after women won the vote in 1920.

Today — with growing income and wealth disparities that particularly affect women in communities of color with more and more states blocking women’s access to abortion, birth control and other reproductive health services and with radical Tea Party extremists doing all they can to turn back the clock on women’s economic security and even our ability to be safe from domestic violence and sexual assault — a constitutional guarantee of full equality for all women is more important than ever.

While President Kennedy did not support the ERA as it was discussed in the early 1960s, (nor did the commission, in fact), I believe he might have changed his views and come to agree with his brother, Senator Edward Kennedy, who was a champion of women’s rights and the ERA for over thirty years, and was instrumental in getting the measure passed by the Senate in 1972.

The cause of equality for women is an important part of John F. Kennedy’s legacy, and I hope that women everywhere join me today in thinking about how President Kennedy would want us to continue the work he began fifty years ago.

Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan

Situs ini menggunakan Akismet untuk mengurangi spam. Pelajari bagaimana data komentar Anda diproses.


Eugenie Anderson’s Historic Firsts

The observance of Women’s History Month prompts us to explore the lives and experiences of some of the many female trailblazers in our nation’s history.

One such woman, Helen Eugenie Moore Anderson, known as Eugenie, accomplished not only one, but several “historic firsts” for women within the field of U.S. international affairs.

Eugenie Anderson officially became the first female U.S. ambassador upon her appointment by President Harry S. Truman to lead the embassy at Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1949. Her success led to a second appointment in 1962, when President John F. Kennedy appointed her as the Minister to Bulgaria, thus becoming the first woman to serve behind the “Iron Curtain.”

Her contributions to the American political scene before her appointment strongly illustrate her commitment to liberal democracy and her advocacy of America’s leadership role in the world.

One of five children born to Reverend and Mrs. Ezekial Moore in 1909, she grew up in Adair, Iowa, and studied music at several academic institutions, including the Juilliard School in New York City. Eugenie had hoped to become a concert pianist and following her marriage to John Anderson, wanted to be a Bach expert.

From their home in Minnesota, she traveled to Germany in 1937. She later recalled in an interview seeing “a group of five-year-old boys goose stepping in lock step” and how that sight “sickened and frightened her.” This visit changed her outlook on the world, her country’s place within it and set her upon the path of public service.

In 1938 Anderson joined the League of Women Voters. This first political act was followed by her joining a group, which included future Vice President and U.S. Senator Hubert Humphrey, to form the Democratic-Farmer-Labor (DFL) Party in 1944.

Her enthusiasm and ability took her to the floor of the 1948 National Democratic convention as a delegate-at-large. It was here that she is credited with putting forth the suggestion for Humphrey to add “we commend President Truman for the report of his Commission on Civil Rights,” as part of the minority plank, which was opposed by Truman regulars. Humphrey’s civil rights speech at the convention committed the Democratic Party to pursue federal legislation against lynching and the end of racial segregation and job discrimination based on skin color.

Anderson’s involvement in politics also gave her an opportunity to work with India Edwards, the executive director of the Women’s Division of the Democratic Party from 1948–50. Tammy K. Williams from the Truman Library described Edwards’s leadership as “tenacious about suggesting women for just about any position in the [Truman] administration, and always had names at the ready.” There is no doubt that Edwards and Humphrey, now a freshman U.S. senator, were instrumental in suggesting and advocating for Anderson’s appointment as U.S. ambassador.

Truman nominated her, and the Senate approved Anderson’s appointment in October 1949. Following her presentation of credentials to King Frederik, Eugenie quickly established her brand of what would be known as “people’s diplomacy” by inviting all the workers (and their wives) who had just refurbished her 37-room official residence to a house-warming party. She quickly learned the Danish language, an unheard of notion for most diplomats, and gave a speech in the nation’s tongue less than six months after her arrival.

Anderson overcame sexism in the American press and within the U.S. Foreign Service to successfully accomplish several key diplomatic goals. She convinced Denmark to play a more active role in NATO, negotiated the use of bases on Greenland for American aircraft, and became the first woman to sign a treaty when she penned her name to the Treaty of Commerce and Friendship.

The election of President Dwight D. Eisenhower prompted Anderson’s resignation, but before departing, she became the first woman to be presented the Grand Cross of the Order of Dannebrog by the King of Denmark in 1953.

Returning to Minnesota, Anderson remained active in both state and federal politics, serving various commissions. She mounted her own campaign for the DFL nomination for U.S. Senate—she lost to Eugene McCarthy—and assisted with others, including her old friend Hubert Humphrey’s 1960 Presidential run.

With President Kennedy’s win, it was Humphrey once again who argued on her behalf. Kennedy agreed that her style of diplomacy and staunch anticommunist stance was just what Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe needed.

Eugenie was off once again to Europe, but this time as Kennedy’s Minister to Bulgaria (the minister position resulted from the different diplomatic relationship that existed between the U.S. and Bulgaria at that time). The posting to Sofia became a difficult one, with restrictions, isolation, and constant surveillance.

True to form, Anderson remained tenacious and steadfast in overcoming obstacles of sexism in the press and her communist host’s interference. She implemented her “people’s diplomacy” by again attempting to learn the language and promoting American interests where she could. Anderson negotiated the successful U.S.-Bulgarian Financial Agreement in 1963. Yet, three years had been enough, especially for Eugenie’s husband. She submitted her resignation to President Johnson in 1964.

A year later, Anderson obtained an appointment as an ambassador to the U.S. delegation to the United Nations and was the first woman to sit on the Security Council.

Retiring in 1968, Anderson continued to work for Humphrey’s political campaigns. Eugenie, forever known for her “people’s democracy,” was guided by her disgust for communism and elitism, and represented not just a government, but the American people.


Capturing History

This is a photograph of the famous Louis Comfort Tiffany Screen in the White House Entrance Hall by Frances Benjamin Johnston.

This is a photograph of Benjamin Harrison McKee, affectionately nicknamed "Baby McKee" by the press, holding the reigns of "His Whiskers," a goat presented to him by his grandfather President Benjamin Harrison. Also pictured from left to right are his uncle, Russell Harrison, son of the president, Russell's daughter Marthena Harrison, the dog Jack, and sister Mary Lodge McKee.

This portrait photograph by Frances Benjamin Johnston shows Alice Roosevelt, daughter of President Theodore Roosevelt, in the White House conservatory. The conservatories were removed in 1902 to build the West Wing.

This photograph by National Photo Company shows President Woodrow Wilson's sheep grazing on the South Lawn of the White House. Instead of using groundskeepers to cut the grass, the sheep grazed on the White House lawns. The flock grew to 48 at its peak. The wool sheared from the sheep was sold at auction to raise money for the Red Cross.

This photograph by Abbie Rowe of the National Park Service shows the gutted East Room during the Truman renovation of the White House from 1948-1952.

Abbie Rowe, National Park Service

In this photograph by Abbie Rowe, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, First Lady Mamie Eisenhower, Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain, and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, pose at the bottom of the Grand Staircase before a State Dinner on October 17, 1957.

Administrasi Arsip dan Arsip Nasional

President John F. Kennedy and his son, John F. Kennedy, Jr., play with a toy horse outside the Oval Office along the West Colonnade. This picture was taken by photographer Cecil Stoughton.

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum/NARA

This black-and-white photograph by Cecil Stoughton shows Lyndon Johnson taking the oath of office aboard Air Force One in Dallas, Texas, shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Lady Bird Johnson stands to Johnson’s right, while First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy looks on from his left.

Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library and Museum/NARA

The first known image of the White House was a daguerreotype taken in 1846, during the administration of President James K. Polk. This image, taken by John Plumbe, Jr. started a long tradition of photography surrounding the White House as a building and an institution. 1 Since that first image, photographs have offered viewers a glimpse into the world of the American presidents, showcasing the interiors of the White House while illuminating the lives of those that worked and resided there. In today’s visual world, photographs are an important element of White House history as they allow us to capture and document specific moments in time, such as the flock of sheep that President Woodrow Wilson kept on the South Lawn during World War I the addition of the Truman Balcony on the south side of the White House and the decorations for Alice Roosevelt’s wedding in the East Room in 1906.

White House photographers have always worked to capture an intimate look at life in the Executive Mansion, whether it is through portraits or candid moments in the White House. Press access to the president varies by administration but White House photographers have witnessed private, secret, and contextual moments that have become vital pieces of the historical record. Those documenting the White House are visual historians, creating chronicles of the presidency in the form of images of America’s leaders in public and private. Although the position of Official White House Photographer has only been around since 1961, the photography of Frances Benjamin Johnston (1864-1962) and Abbie Rowe (1905-1967) continues to be significant assets to presidential administrations, historians, and the general public. 2

The first photograph of a president in office was taken of William Henry Harrison on March 4, 1841, when the President Harrison posed for a daguerreotype portrait on Inauguration Day. 3 The Met in New York City has the only known copy of this portrait. It became important to document presidents (both current and previous) with this new technology. Capturing presidents and former presidents was important for historical preservation and commercial gain. Citizens enjoyed seeing their leaders through this new medium, as it visually connected them to the figure in question. Photographers capitalized on the public’s fascination with the presidents, but soon enough this technology became an instrument of the presidency itself. While the public purchased these presidential portraits, it wasn’t until Abraham Lincoln that photography was used as an intentional way to connect with the public. In Lincoln’s 1860 presidential campaign, Lincoln distributed buttons that included a photo of him and Maine Senator Hannibal Hamlin. Lincoln was photographed nearly 130 times during his time in office, which gave a face to the Union war effort while also giving us a deeper look into his presidency.

A self portrait of Frances Benjamin Johnston. From the late 1880s to the 1910s, Johnston captured images of the White House that documented the lifestyles of the first families, workers, and visitors as well as its eclectic furniture and décor.

Presidential photography in publications and circulations was scarce until photography as a medium became more readily available and commercially viable. In the late nineteenth century, cameras became smaller, flash bulbs became efficient, and publishers developed technology to print photographs faster, which accelerated photography’s rise. 4 Nearly four decades after the first image of the White House was taken, these innovations helped Frances Benjamin Johnston become one of the most successful female photographers in the field. 5 She was an early proponent of the “Celebrity Portrait”— photographing people who the public wanted to see. When you conjure up an image of Mark Twain, Susan B. Anthony, or Theodore Roosevelt, you are most likely imagining one of her portraits. 6 Johnston's documentary work was extensive and included a series of photographs commissioned by Booker T. Washington for the Hampton Institute in 1899 and the Tuskegee Institute in 1906. From the late 1880s to the 1910s, Johnston captured images of the White House that documented the lifestyles of the first families, workers, and visitors as well as its eclectic furniture and décor. 7

While many are familiar with Johnston's photographs, most know little about the woman who made them. She was given her first camera by George Eastman, inventor of the Eastman Kodak cameras 8 and was formally trained in photography from Thomas Smillie, the first photographer at the United States Museum, today known as The Smithsonian. In 1894, she opened her own studio, on V Street between 13th and 14th Streets in Washington D.C. She was the only female photographer in the city at the time. 9 Johnston was well connected and often commissioned to do portrait work, capturing the elite and members of the upper class, such as Alice Roosevelt's wedding portrait. She was often at the White House or photographing related momentous events. She photographed Admiral George Dewey on the deck of the USS Olympia, 10 the Roosevelt children playing with their pet pony Algonquin at the White House, 11 and the Harrison grandchildren on the White House lawn. 12 Johnston notably also took the last known photograph of President William McKinley, at the Pan-American Exposition of 1901, one day before his assassination. 13 While Johnston’s portraits are recognizable, she also documented the interior and exterior of the White House, giving us photographs of the Tiffany Screen in the Entrance Hall, along with the gardens and conservatory on the White House Grounds. Johnston had access and photographed five first families: the Harrisons, the Clevelands, the McKinleys, the Roosevelts, and the Tafts.

This image shows the National Park Service photographer Abbie Rowe. Beginning in 1941, NPS assigned Abbie Rowe to cover the White House.

Administrasi Arsip dan Arsip Nasional

While Frances’ work gives us snapshots of these presidents and their lives, this work was not performed in any formal capacity by the U.S. Government. The responsibility of photographing the President of the United States in any formal capacity initially fell under the auspice of the National Park Service (NPS), which was tasked with capturing public photo opportunities. 14 With the start of World War II, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt requested a photographer solely responsible for covering the president. Beginning in 1941, NPS assigned Abbie Rowe to this position, particularly to cover events that occurred away from the White House. Gradually, Rowe’s duties were expanded to include the documentation of events that took place within the White House itself. By the Harry S. Truman administration, he was called upon to document the president at many official ceremonies, and his work continued through the Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon Johnson administrations. 15 Rowe can be seen as a precursor to the Chief Official White House Photographer role we see today, but it was President John F. Kennedy who appointed the first Official White House Photographer Cecil Stoughton. 16 Stoughton was given considerable access to the Kennedy family and helped expand the public’s view of Kennedy’s presidency. The pictures were pivotal in projecting President Kennedy as a youthful, relatable, and vigorous leader. Stoughton traveled everywhere with the president, including his tragic trip to Dallas, Texas in November 1963. In fact, he snapped the only pictures of Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson being sworn in as president, an image that still resonates in the minds of many Americans. 17

Photographs have the ability to transcend time, capturing greater historical context and detail that other sources may omit. The work of Frances B. Johnston, Abbie Rowe, Cecil Stoughton, and the numerous other White House photographers have created an invaluable archive for the American public. These photos shape our view of the past, and also allow us to reflect on our future and the history happening in the photos we take now.


Today in Feminist History: Eleanor Roosevelt Pushes JFK to Put Women in Top Jobs (March 13, 1961)

Thus far only nine of his 240 appointments have been to women, and none of the nine were chosen for Cabinet rank or high policy-level posts. The two had an extended discussion, lasting half an hour, but what else they may have discussed was not revealed.

When asked by a reporter if Kennedy had failed to appoint enough women, Roosevelt diplomatically replied: &ldquoSome people feel that way.&rdquo

One of those who has expressed that view is Emma Guffey Miller, a member of the Democratic National Committee since 1932. Last month she wrote to the President saying: &ldquoIt is a grievous disappointment to the women leaders and ardent workers that so few women have been named to worthwhile positions.&rdquo

Roosevelt told reporters that the reason for the low number of female appointments may simply be that the President didn&rsquot have a list of the many qualified women who could serve, and that sometimes men needed to be reminded that there are so many able women. She then noted that President Franklin D. Roosevelt had a list of women to consider for high office, supplied by an official of the National Education Association.

Eleanor Roosevelt is one of the nine women President Kennedy has appointed since he took office a little over seven weeks ago, on January 20th. She has been reappointed a member of our delegation to the United Nations. Two other women have been appointed to U.N. posts as well: Marietta Tree to its Human Rights Commission and Gladys Avery Tillett to the U.N.&rsquos Status of Women Commission.

President Kennedy&rsquos other female appointees are: Dr. Janet Travell, the first woman to be a White House physician Reva Bosone, a judicial officer of the Post Office Department Elizabeth Rudel Smith, U.S. Treasurer Esther Peterson, who heads the Labor Department&rsquos Women&rsquos Bureau Frances Willis, our Ambassador to Ceylon, and Marie McGuire is the new Commissioner of Public Housing.

Fortunately, it&rsquos still very early in the new Administration, so Eleanor Roosevelt&rsquos personal&mdashand well-publicized&mdashcall for more women among Presidential appointees could have a major effect in the long run.


Janet G. Travell, MD

Quote: Life is like a bicycle - you don't fall off until you stop pedaling. It is better to wear out than to rust out, so keep pedaling.

Janet Travell was born in New York City on December 17, 1901. At an early age she decided to become a doctor. She graduated from Wellesley College (Phi Beta Kappa) in 1922 and the Cornell University Medical College (AOA) in 1926, the top of her medical school class. After her internship at the New York Hospital, she married John W.G. “Jack” Powell, an investment counselor and had two children, Janet and Virginia.

Dr. Travell studied arterial disease at Beth Israel Hospital and was a cardiologist at Sea View Hospital in Staten Island, NY (1936-1945). As an Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacology at Cornell, she pursued an interest in pain, specifically the relief of muscle pain, an area of medicine pioneered by her father, John Willard Travell, MD. They practiced together at 9 West 16th Street in New York City. In 1955, Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts was referred to her for chronic pain in his knee and lower back. The relief that her treatments gave him offered him “new hope for a life free from crutches if not from backache,” wrote his friend and advisor, Ted Sorensen, in his book Kennedy.

In 1961, President Kennedy appointed Dr. Travell to be the White House Physician, the first woman to hold that post. She remained at the White House under President Johnson until 1965, resigning her post in order to return to private life and work on her writing. Her autobiography Office Hours: Day and Night was published in 1968 and her two-volume textbook, Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual co-authored with David G. Simons, M.D., was published in 1983 and 1992. She authored more than 100 scientific papers and has been recognized as one of the leading pioneers in the diagnosis and treatment of myofascial pain, particularly in the concept of referred pain and the discovery of trigger points. In his book, Clair Davies credits Dr. Travell for having “single-handedly created this branch of medicine.” Newly out of print books are available for purchase through her daughters. Read more on Facebook.

After many years on faculty at The George Washington University School of Medicine, Dr. Travell retired as Emeritus and later Honorary Clinical Professor of Medicine. She continued to lecture and see patients in her office until 1996, when she moved to Northampton, MA with her daughter, Virginia. She died at her home there on August 1, 1997.


The Medical Ordeals of JFK

The core of the Kennedy image was, in many respects, a lie. A presidential biographer, granted access to medical files, portrays a man far sicker than the public knew.

The lifelong health problems of John F. Kennedy constitute one of the best-kept secrets of recent U.S. history—no surprise, because if the extent of those problems had been revealed while he was alive, his presidential ambitions would likely have been dashed. Kennedy, like so many of his predecessors, was more intent on winning the presidency than on revealing himself to the public. On one level this secrecy can be taken as another stain on his oft-criticized character, a deception maintained at the potential expense of the citizens he was elected to lead. Yet there is another way of viewing the silence regarding his health—as the quiet stoicism of a man struggling to endure extraordinary pain and distress and performing his presidential (and pre-presidential) duties largely undeterred by his physical suffering. Does this not also speak to his character, but in a more complex way? …

Evidence of Kennedy’s medical problems has been trickling out for years. In 1960, during the fight for the Democratic nomination, John Connally and India Edwards, aides to Lyndon B. Johnson, told the press—correctly—that Kennedy suffered from Addison’s disease, a condition of the adrenal glands characterized by a deficiency of the hormones needed to regulate blood sugar, sodium and potassium, and the response to stress. They described the problem as life-threatening and requiring regular doses of cortisone. The Kennedys publicly denied the allegation …

It appears that Richard Nixon may have tried at one point to gain access to Kennedy’s medical history. In the fall of 1960, as he and JFK battled in what turned out to be one of the closest presidential elections ever, thieves ransacked the office of Eugene J. Cohen, a New York endocrinologist who had been treating Kennedy for Addison’s disease. When they failed to find Kennedy’s records, which were filed under a code name, they tried unsuccessfully to break into the office of Janet Travell, an internist and pharmacologist who had been relieving Kennedy’s back pain with injections of procaine (an agent similar to lidocaine). Although the thieves remain unidentified, it is reasonable to speculate that they were Nixon operatives the failed robberies have the aura of Watergate and of the break-in at the Beverly Hills office of Daniel Ellsberg’s psychiatrist.

Using personal letters, Navy records, and oral histories, biographers and historians over the past 20 years have begun to fill in a picture of Jack Kennedy as ill and ailment-ridden for his entire life—a far cry from the paragon of vigor (or “vigah,” in the family’s distinctive Massachusetts accent) that the Kennedys presented. After a sickly childhood he spent significant periods during his prep-school and college years in the hospital for severe intestinal ailments, infections, and what doctors thought for a time was leukemia. He suffered from ulcers and colitis as well as Addison’s disease, which necessitated the administration of regular steroid treatments. And it has been known for some time that Kennedy endured terrible back trouble. He wrote his book Profil dalam Keberanian while recovering from back surgery in 1954 that almost killed him.

But the full extent of Kennedy’s medical ordeals has not been known until now. Earlier this year a small committee of Kennedy-administration friends and associates agreed to open a collection of his papers for the years 1955–63. I was given access to these newly released materials, which included X-rays and prescription records from Janet Travell’s files. Together with recent research and a growing understanding of medical science, the newly available records allow us to construct an authoritative account of JFK’s medical tribulations. And they add telling detail to a story of lifelong suffering, revealing that many of the various treatments doctors gave Kennedy, starting when he was a boy, did far more harm than good. In particular, steroid treatments that he may have received as a young man for his intestinal ailments could have compounded—and perhaps even caused—both the Addison’s disease and the degenerative back trouble that plagued him later in life. Travell’s prescription records also confirm that during his presidency—and in particular during times of stress, such as the Bay of Pigs fiasco, in April of 1961, and the Cuban missile crisis, in October of 1962—Kennedy was taking an extraordinary variety of medications: steroids for his Addison’s disease painkillers for his back anti-spasmodics for his colitis antibiotics for urinary-tract infections antihistamines for allergies and, on at least one occasion, an anti-psychotic (though only for two days) for a severe mood change that Jackie Kennedy believed had been brought on by the antihistamines.

Kennedy’s charismatic appeal rested heavily on the image of youthful energy and good health he projected. This image was a myth. The real story, disconcerting though it would have been to contemplate at the time, is actually more heroic. It is a story of iron-willed fortitude in mastering the difficulties of chronic illness …

Kennedy’s collective health problems were not enough to deter him from running for president. Though they were a considerable burden, no one of them impressed him as life-threatening. Nor did he believe that the many medications he took would reduce his ability to work effectively on the contrary, he saw them as ensuring his competence to deal with the demands of the office. And apparently none of his many doctors told him that were he elevated to the presidency, his health problems (or the treatments for them) could pose a danger to the country.

After reaching the White House, Kennedy believed it was more essential than ever to hide his afflictions. The day after his election, in response to a reporter’s question, he declared himself in “excellent” shape and dismissed the rumors of Addison’s disease as false …

A Thousand Days of Suffering

During his time in the White House, despite public indications of continuing back difficulties, Kennedy enjoyed an image of robust good health. But according to the Travell records, medical attention was a fixed part of his routine. He was under the care of an allergist, an endocrinologist, a gastroenterologist, an orthopedist, and a urologist, along with that of Janet Travell, Admiral George Burkley, and Max Jacobson, an émigré doctor from Germany who now lived in New York and had made a reputation by treating celebrities with “pep pills,” or amphetamines, that helped to combat depression and fatigue. Jacobson, whom patients called “Dr. Feelgood,” administered amphetamines and back injections of painkillers that JFK believed made him less dependent on crutches …

The Travell records reveal that during the first six months of his term, Kennedy suffered stomach, colon, and prostate problems, high fevers, occasional dehydration, abscesses, sleeplessness, and high cholesterol, in addition to his ongoing back and adrenal ailments. His physicians administered large doses of so many drugs that Travell kept a “Medicine Administration Record,” cataloguing injected and ingested corticosteroids for his adrenal insufficiency procaine shots and ultrasound treatments and hot packs for his back Lomotil, Metamucil, paregoric, phenobarbital, testosterone, and trasentine to control his diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, and weight loss penicillin and other antibiotics for his urinary-tract infections and an abscess and Tuinal to help him sleep. Before press conferences and nationally televised speeches his doctors increased his cortisone dose to deal with tensions harmful to someone unable to produce his own corticosteroids in response to stress. Though the medications occasionally made Kennedy groggy and tired, he did not see them as a problem. He dismissed questions about Jacobson’s injections, saying, “I don’t care if it’s horse piss. It works” …

Kennedy continued to need extensive medication. His condition at the time of the Cuban missile crisis is a case in point. The Travell records show that during the 13 days in October of 1962 when Moscow and Washington brought the world to the brink of a nuclear war, Kennedy took his usual doses of anti-spasmodics to control his colitis, antibiotics for a flare-up of his urinary-tract problem and a bout of sinusitis, and increased amounts of hydrocortisone and testosterone, along with salt tablets, to control his Addison’s disease and boost his energy. Judging from the tape recordings made of conversations during this time, the medications were no impediment to lucid thought during these long days on the contrary, Kennedy would have been significantly less effective without them, and might even have been unable to function. But these medications were only one element in helping Kennedy to focus on the crisis his extraordinary strength of will cannot be underestimated.

This is not to suggest that Kennedy was superhuman, or to exaggerate his ability to endure physical and emotional ills. On November 2, 1962, he took 10 additional milligrams of hydrocortisone and 10 grains of salt to boost himself before giving a brief report to the American people on the dismantling of the Soviet missile bases in Cuba. In December, Jackie complained to the president’s gastroenterologist, Russell Boles, that the antihistamines for food allergies had a “depressing action” on the president. She asked Boles to prescribe something that would assure “mood elevation without irritation to the gastrointestinal tract.” The Travell records reveal that Boles prescribed one milligram twice a day of Stelazine, an anti-psychotic that was also used as a treatment for anxiety. In two days, Kennedy showed marked improvement, and he apparently never needed the drug again …

Lee Harvey Oswald killed Kennedy before the president’s medical ailments could. But the evidence suggests that Kennedy’s physical condition contributed to his demise. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was, as always, wearing a corsetlike back brace as he rode through Dallas. Oswald’s first bullet struck him in the back of the neck. Were it not for the back brace, which held him erect, the second, fatal shot to the head might not have found its mark.