Kerusuhan Harlem - Sejarah

Kerusuhan Harlem - Sejarah



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Pada musim panas 1943, kerusuhan rasial terjadi di sejumlah kota di Utara. Beberapa yang paling serius terjadi di Harlem, New York.

Fakta Sejarah Hitam yang Sedikit Diketahui: Kerusuhan Harlem/Brooklyn Of 󈨄

Musim panas tahun 1964 adalah waktu yang penuh kemenangan dan bergejolak bagi Black America. Hanya dua minggu setelah Undang-Undang Hak Sipil diberlakukan, kerusuhan ras meletus di Harlem, menyebar ke Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn.

Pada 16 Juli 1964, seorang perwira NYPD kulit putih yang tidak bertugas menembak dan membunuh James Powell yang berusia 15 tahun. Penduduk di Harlem percaya bahwa petugas dapat menahan diri dalam masalah ini, membuat mereka memprotes secara damai tetapi pertemuan itu berubah menjadi kekerasan pada tanggal 18 Juli. Hari itu, sekelompok pengunjuk rasa yang menuntut penembakan petugas berkumpul di kantor polisi Harlem, yang berubah menjadi pertempuran antara kelompok dan petugas.

Dikatakan bahwa beberapa pengunjuk rasa melemparkan batu bata ke petugas yang menjaga gedung, dengan laporan lain menyatakan bahwa petugas pindah ke kerumunan dengan tongkat Billy mereka diperpanjang. Gambar dari protes dan kerusuhan menyoroti bahwa banyak warga kulit hitam yang mundur dari tindakan polisi.

Kerusuhan berlangsung selama enam hari. Berita tentang pertempuran itu menyebar ke Bed-Stuy, sebuah lingkungan yang sebagian besar berkulit hitam dan Puerto Rico dan mereka juga memulai pemberontakan. Pada akhirnya, satu orang kulit hitam terbunuh, lebih dari 100 orang terluka, dan sekitar 450 penangkapan terjadi bersama dengan ganti rugi $ 1 juta.

Kerusuhan Harlem dan Brooklyn hanyalah yang pertama dari banyak yang terjadi di kota-kota besar di seluruh negeri tahun itu, termasuk Philadelphia, Chicago, dan Jersey City, menggerakkan beberapa sejarawan untuk menjulukinya sebagai "Musim Panas yang Panjang dan Panas" yang pertama.


Kerusuhan Harlem, 19 Maret 1935

Kumpulan foto yang diambil saat kerusuhan di Harlem pada 19 Maret 1935

Meskipun kemiskinan, kelaparan, dan kebutuhan akan tempat berteduh mempengaruhi warga New York di seluruh kota, tidak ada tempat di kota New York yang berjuang dengan masalah ini lebih dari mereka yang tinggal di Harlem, New York. Penduduk Harlem mendapati diri mereka tidak hanya harus menghadapi tingkat pengangguran lebih dari 50%, tetapi juga harus mengatasi diskriminasi terhadap orang Afrika-Amerika dan imigran di lapangan kerja.[1] Meskipun diskriminasi terhadap orang Afrika-Amerika dan imigran sudah sangat banyak menjadi bagian dari budaya New York sebelum Depresi, depresi memperkuat faktor tersebut secara astronomis. Orang Afrika-Amerika mendapati diri mereka dilarang dari lebih dari 24 serikat pekerja di kota itu.[2] Afrika Amerika serta imigran sering menemukan diri mereka didiskriminasi oleh pekerja toko yang berbeda serta mandor dan supervisor di lokasi kerja bantuan publik, ditolak kesempatan untuk bekerja. Ketegangan dari diskriminasi tumbuh begitu tinggi sehingga kerusuhan pecah pada 19 Maret 1935 karena kesalahpahaman seputar perlakuan terhadap seorang anak laki-laki Puerto Rico berusia 16 tahun yang dituduh mencuri dari toko kulit putih.[3] Petugas yang menangkap diduga mengawal anak laki-laki itu keluar dari pintu belakang toko untuk membebaskannya ketika seorang wanita berteriak bahwa petugas membawa anak laki-laki itu ke ruang bawah tanah untuk memukulinya. Kebingungan itu menyebabkan menyebarnya desas-desus yang mengumpulkan massa kulit hitam yang marah dan imigran yang mulai merusak toko bersama dengan toko-toko milik orang kulit putih lainnya di jalan. Menjelang malam, ribuan warga Harlem telah bergabung dalam kerusuhan itu. Dengan berakhirnya kerusuhan, hampir 2 juta dolar kerusakan yang terjadi, tiga puluh orang harus dirawat di rumah sakit, dan tiga orang Afrika-Amerika kehilangan nyawa mereka.[4] Kerusuhan tersebut menyebabkan walikota New York menyelidiki tingkat diskriminasi yang diterima orang Afrika-Amerika dan imigran selama Depresi, tetapi hasilnya membuatnya muak dan dia menolak untuk mempublikasikannya.[5] Sayangnya, kerusuhan tersebut tidak dapat membawa keadilan bagi komunitas Harlem karena kondisinya tidak banyak berubah sampai setelah berakhirnya depresi.

[1] McDowell, W. (1984). Ras dan Etnisitas Selama Kampanye Pekerjaan Harlem, 1932-1935. Jurnal Sejarah Negro, 69(3/4), 134-146

Satu komentar

Terima kasih untuk penelitiannya. Saya membaca “Daddy Was a Number Runner” oleh L. Meriwether untuk pertama kalinya sejak saya berusia 12 tahun. Kali ini saya lebih tertarik pada Harlem era depresi. Artikel ini memberikan latar belakang sejarah cerita tersebut.


Rumor Tersebar di Harlem -

Desas-desus menyebar di Harlem malam itu. Beberapa orang terus berkhotbah bahwa seorang polisi kulit putih telah membunuh seorang anggota tentara kulit hitam. Baik pelaku maupun korban dirawat di rumah sakit. Pengumpulan orang kulit hitam di jalan-jalan Harlem mulai berlebihan. Ribuan orang terlibat dalam kerusuhan dalam waktu 12 jam. Tapi meski begitu, tidak ada yang bisa mengetahui kebenaran kejadian itu.

Telah dikatakan bahwa pada tahun 1943, 89 persen warga Harlem berkulit hitam. Tapi mereka adalah warga negara kelas dua di sana. Dan mereka sangat mengetahuinya. Tetapi ratusan tahun yang lalu, nenek moyang mereka memberikan hidup mereka untuk kemerdekaan Amerika. Tetapi bahkan setelah seratus tahun, mereka tidak mendapatkan hak-hak sipil penuh mereka. Dan ketika orang-orang mendengar bahwa seorang polisi kulit putih telah menembak Robert Bandy, reaksi menyebar seperti api di antara orang-orang Harlem.

Situasi sosial-ekonomi dapat disalahkan atas reaksi negatif di antara orang kulit hitam dalam kasus pembunuhan yang tidak benar ini. Tempat ketidakpercayaan kulit hitam terhadap kulit putih tidak hanya diciptakan oleh peristiwa hari itu. Dan dapat dimengerti bagaimana rumor semacam itu akan mempengaruhi orang kulit hitam yang hidup di tengah ketidaksetaraan sosial dan ekonomi yang sedang berlangsung ini. Karena di masa lalu, ada banyak insiden nyata di wilayah Amerika Serikat yang merdeka ini di mana orang kulit putih membunuh orang kulit hitam.

Michelle Flame, seorang profesor sejarah di Universitas Wesleyan di Ohio, mengatakan: Desas-desus menyebar seperti api di antara warga Harlem. Dalam pengertian ini, ada rasa frustrasi di antara orang kulit hitam karena, pada saat yang sama, saudara dan teman mereka terlibat dalam perang bersenjata melawan fasis untuk melindungi martabat Amerika. Bahkan saat itu, pembuat kebijakan belum mampu menyelesaikan rasisme yang sedang berlangsung di Amerika Serikat.


Countee Cullen

Puisi juga berkembang selama Harlem Renaissance. Countee Cullen berusia 15 tahun ketika dia pindah ke rumah Pendeta Frederick A. Cullen di Harlem, pendeta dari jemaat terbesar di Harlem, pada tahun 1918.

Lingkungan dan budayanya menginformasikan puisinya, dan sebagai mahasiswa di Universitas New York, ia memperoleh hadiah dalam sejumlah kontes puisi sebelum mengikuti program master Harvard dan menerbitkan volume puisi pertamanya: Warna. Dia mengikutinya dengan Matahari Tembaga dan balada Gadis Coklat, dan melanjutkan untuk menulis drama serta buku anak-anak.


Kerusuhan Harlem tahun 1964

Pisau, yang tidak terlihat di TKP pada saat kejadian, kemudian ditemukan oleh seorang instruktur, sejalan dengan kepala fakultas Francke. Pisau itu terletak di selokan sekitar delapan jari dari tubuh. [3] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ] [4] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ]

Episode paling kontroversial adalah kesaksian Cliff Harris, teman baik Powell Bronx, yang diwawancarai sehari setelah hilangnya nyawa James Powell. Pada pagi itu, mereka, James Powell, Cliff Harris dan Carl Dudley, meninggalkan Bronx ronde 7:30 A.M. Powell membawa dua pisau pada hari itu yang dia berikan kepada setiap temannya untuk dipegangnya. Di tempat kejadian dia meminta pisau lagi. Atas penolakan Dudley, dia meminta Cliff yang memintanya mengapa dia menginginkannya lagi? setelah itu diserahkan. [3] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ] [4] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ]

Sebagai lawan, saksi melihat Powell menabrak bangunan tanpa membawa pisau. Saat dia keluar dari ruang depan, beberapa orang mengatakan dia tertawa sampai letnan menembaknya. Dari sudut pandang kelas bahasa Prancis yang sejalan dengan Waktu New York reporter, Theodore Jones, “memiliki pandangan yang paling efektif dari tragedi berikut” [8] ketika Gilligan menarik senjatanya, Powell yang lebih muda mengangkat lengan kanannya, tidak memegang pisau tetapi sebagai sikap defensif. [3] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ] [4] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ]

Mendengar suara pecahan kaca, Gilligan berlari ke gedung kondominium sambil memegang lencana dan pistolnya. Dia pertama kali berteriak, 'Saya seorang letnan polisi. Keluar dan jatuhkan.” [7] Dia kemudian melepaskan tembakan peringatan saat dia melihat Powell mengangkat pisau. Dengan pistolnya, Gilligan memblokir serangan kedua Powell dengan membelokkan pisau ke lengannya. Serangan yang jelas membuat Gilligan membakar bola ke-3 yang membunuh Powell yang lebih muda. [3] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ] [4] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ]

Terus-menerus diperparah oleh kehadiran mahasiswa yang lebih muda di berandanya, Patrick Lynch, pengawas tiga rumah kondominium di Yorkville, pada waktu yang didominasi ruang putih kelas pekerja di Upper East Side of Manhattan, secara sukarela menyirami mahasiswa kulit hitam. sedangkan menghina mereka sejalan dengan mereka: "negro kotor, aku akan membersihkanmu" [5] pernyataan ini telah dibantah oleh Lynch. Mahasiswa kulit hitam lembab yang tersinggung mulai memungut botol dan tutup tempat sampah dan melemparkannya ke inspektur. Ini langsung menarik perhatian tiga anak Bronx, bersama dengan James Powell. Lynch kemudian mundur ke dalam gedung yang dikejar oleh Powell, yang menurut seorang saksi, “tidak bertahan selama dua menit.” [6] Ketika Powell keluar dari ruang depan, Letnan polisi yang sedang tidak bertugas Thomas Gilligan, yang menyaksikan adegan dari toko terdekat, berlari ke tempat kejadian dan menembak James Powell yang berusia 15 tahun tiga kali. Bola pertama, yang disebut-sebut sebagai tembakan peringatan, mengenai jendela kondominium. Tembakan berikutnya mengenai Powell di lengan bawah yang tepat mencapai arteri utama tepat di atas nyali. Peluru itu bersarang di paru-parunya. Akhirnya, yang terakhir melewati perutnya dan keluar lagi. Post-mortem menyimpulkan kematian luka dada di hampir semua keadaan. Namun, ahli patologi menyebutkan bahwa Powell mungkin telah diselamatkan berjuang hanya dengan perforasi perut dengan respon cepat dari ambulans. Urutan kejadian masih belum jelas pada banyak elemen seperti karena jarak gambar dan, yang terpenting, kepemilikan pisau oleh Powell. [3] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ] [4] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ]

Peristiwa kerusuhan Harlem tahun 1964 telah dicatat dalam tulisan dua wartawan surat kabar, Fred C. Shapiro dan James W. Sullivan. Mereka mengumpulkan kesaksian dari wartawan yang berbeda dan dari penduduk setiap borough, dan memberikan kesaksian tentang kehadiran mereka pada kerusuhan tersebut. [3] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ] [4] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ]

Aspek budaya Harlem didominasi oleh musik jazz dan kehidupan malam yang benar-benar iri yang diperuntukkan bagi orang kulit putih. Duke Ellington dan Louis Armstrong adalah separuh dari “Harlem Besar” [1] pada saat itu. Dengan fokus jenuh Afro-Amerika, tokoh masyarakat seperti Bapa Ilahi, Daddy Grace dan Marcus Garvey mulai menyebarkan konsep keselamatan mereka untuk kelompok negro. Setelah Perang Dunia II, bagian kaya dari “Harlem Negroes” pindah ke pinggiran kota. Ketegangan di seluruh lingkungan meningkat 12 bulan setelah 12 bulan antara warga, staf kesejahteraan dan polisi. Di siang hari, lingkungan itu cukup menawan, bangunannya menambahkan cap kelas atas dan anak-anak tampak senang bermain di jalanan. Pada waktu malam, itu cukup lain. Pembunuhan enam kali lebih sering daripada yang biasa terjadi di New York City. Prostitusi, pecandu, dan perampok telah menjadi separuh kehidupan malam Harlem. [2] [ halaman yang dibutuhkan ]

Pada awal 1900-an muncul indikator utama kebangkitan di utara Manhattan. Setelah pengembangan rute kereta bawah tanah baru yang mencapai 145th avenue, spekulan dan bisnis properti sebenarnya memanfaatkan kesempatan ini dan menginvestasikan sejumlah besar uang tunai di tempat yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Harlem. Rumah telah dibeli dan kemudian ditawarkan berkali-kali dengan nilai yang jauh lebih tinggi, mendidik lingkungan untuk rumah tangga berpenghasilan tinggi. Pada 12 bulan 1905, terlalu banyak tempat tinggal telah dibangun dan banyak tempat tinggal tidak berpenghuni yang menyebabkan tuan tanah bersaing satu sama lain untuk mengurangi sewa. Untuk menghindari kehancuran moneter dunia yang akan datang, banyak bangunan perumahan dibuka sebanyak orang kulit hitam Amerika. [ kutipan diperlukan ] Langkah selanjutnya untuk menciptakan lingkungan kulit hitam diperkuat oleh migrasi kulit hitam yang terus meningkat dari negara bagian selatan yang mengakibatkan pendirian Perusahaan Realty Afro-Amerika membuka semakin banyak rumah untuk kelompok kulit hitam. Bangunan gereja “Negro” mengambil alih pertumbuhan Harlem’s setelah musim gugur Afro-Amerika Realty, yang mungkin merupakan bangunan hitam paling aman dan makmur dari ruang yang sekarang terpisah. Mereka menghasilkan pendapatan dengan mempromosikan properti dengan nilai tinggi sambil merelokasi lingkungan ke kota. Akibatnya, Gereja adalah penjelasan mengapa Harlem begitu produktif di abad kedua puluh. Pada awal Sembilan Belas Dua Puluh, banyak perusahaan kulit hitam Amerika yang setara dengan NAACP, Odd Fellows, dan The United Order of True Reformers mulai memindahkan markas mereka ke Harlem yang, dengan migrasi terus-menerus orang kulit hitam, memperoleh nama “Harlem Besar”. [1]

NS Kerusuhan Harlem tahun 1964 terjadi antara 16 dan 22 Juli 1964. Itu dimulai setelah James Powell, seorang Afrika-Amerika berusia 15 tahun, ditembak dan dibunuh oleh polisi Letnan Thomas Gilligan di depan pintu masuk teman-teman Powell dan beberapa lusin saksi yang berbeda. Sesaat setelah pengambilan gambar, sekitar 300 mahasiswa dari fakultas Powell yang telah dikenal oleh kepala sekolah berunjuk rasa. Pengambilan gambar memicu enam malam berturut-turut kerusuhan yang mempengaruhi lingkungan New York City Harlem dan Bedford-Stuyvesant. Secara lengkap, 4.000 warga New York berpartisipasi dalam kerusuhan yang menyebabkan penyerangan terhadap Departemen Kepolisian Kota New York, vandalisme, dan penjarahan di toko-toko. Beberapa pengunjuk rasa telah sangat kewalahan oleh petugas NYPD. Di puncak pertempuran, pengalaman menghitung satu perusuh yang tidak berguna, 118 terluka, dan 465 ditangkap.


Isi

Harlem terletak di Upper Manhattan, sering disebut sebagai "Uptown" oleh penduduk setempat. Tiga lingkungan yang terdiri dari wilayah Harlem yang lebih besar — ​​Harlem Barat, Tengah, dan Timur — membentang dari Sungai Harlem dan Sungai Timur ke timur, ke Sungai Hudson di barat dan antara 155th Street di utara, di mana ia bertemu Washington Heights, dan batas yang tidak rata di sepanjang selatan yang membentang di sepanjang 96th Street di timur Fifth Avenue, 110th Street antara Fifth Avenue ke Morningside Park, dan 125th Street di barat Morningside Park ke Sungai Hudson. [7] [8] [9] Encyclopdia Britannica referensi batas-batas ini, [10] meskipun Ensiklopedia Kota New York mengambil pandangan yang jauh lebih konservatif tentang batas-batas Harlem, hanya menganggap Harlem pusat sebagai bagian dari Harlem yang tepat. [11] : 573

Central Harlem adalah nama Harlem yang sebenarnya berada di bawah Manhattan Community District 10. [7] Bagian ini dibatasi oleh Fifth Avenue di timur Central Park di selatan Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue dan Edgecombe Avenue di barat dan Harlem Sungai di utara. [7] Rangkaian tiga taman linier besar—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park, dan Jackie Robinson Park—terletak di tepian yang menanjak, membentuk sebagian besar batas barat distrik. Fifth Avenue, serta Marcus Garvey Park (juga dikenal sebagai Mount Morris Park), memisahkan area ini dari East Harlem ke timur. [7] Central Harlem termasuk Distrik Bersejarah Taman Gunung Morris.

West Harlem (Manhattanville dan Hamilton Heights) terdiri dari Manhattan Community District 9 dan bukan merupakan bagian dari Harlem. Area kedua lingkungan dibatasi oleh Cathedral Parkway/110th Street di selatan 155th Street di utara Manhattan/Morningside Ave/St. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecombe Avenue di timur dan Riverside Park/Sungai Hudson di barat. Manhattanville dimulai di kira-kira 123rd Street dan memanjang ke utara hingga 135th Street. Bagian paling utara dari West Harlem adalah Hamilton Heights. [8]

Harlem Timur, juga disebut Harlem Spanyol atau El Barrio, terletak di Manhattan Community District 11, yang dibatasi oleh East 96th Street di selatan, East 138th Street di utara, Fifth Avenue di barat, dan Sungai Harlem di timur. Itu bukan bagian dari Harlem. [9]

Kontroversi SoHa Sunting

Pada tahun 2010-an, beberapa profesional real estat mulai mengubah citra South Harlem dan Morningside Heights menjadi "SoHa" (nama singkatan dari "South Harlem" dalam gaya SoHo atau NoHo) dalam upaya untuk mempercepat gentrifikasi lingkungan. "SoHa", yang diterapkan pada area antara Jalan Barat 110 dan 125, telah menjadi nama yang kontroversial. [12] [13] [14] Penduduk dan kritikus lain yang berusaha mencegah penggantian nama kawasan ini telah menyebut merek SoHa sebagai "penghinaan dan tanda lain gentrifikasi mengamuk" [15] dan mengatakan bahwa "pengubahan merek tidak hanya menempatkan sejarah kaya lingkungan mereka di bawah penghapusan tetapi juga tampaknya berniat menarik penyewa baru, termasuk mahasiswa dari Universitas Columbia terdekat". [16]

Beberapa politisi Kota New York telah memulai upaya legislatif untuk membatasi praktik rebranding lingkungan ini, yang ketika berhasil diperkenalkan di lingkungan Kota New York lainnya, telah menyebabkan peningkatan nilai sewa dan real estat, serta "pergeseran demografi". [16] Pada tahun 2011, Perwakilan AS Hakeem Jeffries berusaha tetapi gagal menerapkan undang-undang "yang akan menghukum agen real estat karena menciptakan lingkungan palsu dan menggambar ulang batas lingkungan tanpa persetujuan kota." [16] Pada tahun 2017, Senator Negara Bagian New York Brian Benjamin juga bekerja untuk membuat ilegal praktik rebranding lingkungan yang diakui secara historis. [16]

Representasi politik Sunting

Secara politis, Harlem tengah berada di distrik kongres ke-13 New York. [17] [18] Ia berada di distrik ke-30 Senat Negara Bagian New York, [19] [20] distrik ke-68 dan ke-70 Majelis Negara Bagian New York, [21] [22] dan distrik ke-7, ke-8, dan ke-7 Dewan Kota New York. kabupaten ke-9. [23]

Sebelum kedatangan pemukim Eropa, daerah yang akan menjadi Harlem (awalnya Haarlem) dihuni oleh Manhattans, suku asli, yang bersama dengan penduduk asli Amerika lainnya, kemungkinan besar Lenape, [24] menduduki daerah tersebut secara semi-nomaden. . Sebanyak beberapa ratus bertani di tanah datar Harlem. [25] Antara 1637 dan 1639, beberapa pemukiman didirikan. [26] [27] Pemukiman Harlem secara resmi didirikan pada tahun 1660 [28] di bawah kepemimpinan Peter Stuyvesant. [29] Selama Revolusi Amerika, Inggris membakar Harlem hingga rata dengan tanah. [30] Butuh waktu lama untuk membangun kembali, karena Harlem tumbuh lebih lambat daripada bagian Manhattan lainnya selama akhir abad ke-18. [31] Setelah Perang Saudara Amerika, Harlem mengalami ledakan ekonomi mulai tahun 1868. Lingkungan itu terus menjadi tempat perlindungan bagi warga New York, tetapi semakin banyak yang datang ke utara adalah orang miskin dan Yahudi atau Italia. [32] The New York dan Harlem Railroad, [33] serta Interborough Rapid Transit dan jalur kereta api layang, [34] membantu pertumbuhan ekonomi Harlem, karena menghubungkan Harlem ke Manhattan bagian bawah dan tengah.

Demografi Yahudi dan Italia menurun, sementara populasi kulit hitam dan Puerto Rico meningkat saat ini. [35] Awal abad ke-20 Migrasi besar orang kulit hitam ke kota-kota industri utara didorong oleh keinginan mereka untuk meninggalkan Jim Crow South, mencari pekerjaan dan pendidikan yang lebih baik untuk anak-anak mereka, dan melarikan diri dari budaya kekerasan hukuman mati tanpa pengadilan selama Perang Dunia I , industri yang berkembang merekrut pekerja kulit hitam untuk mengisi pekerjaan baru, dengan staf yang sedikit setelah wajib militer mulai mengambil laki-laki muda. [36] Pada tahun 1910, populasi Central Harlem adalah sekitar 10% orang kulit hitam. Pada tahun 1930, telah mencapai 70%. [37] Dimulai sekitar akhir Perang Dunia I, Harlem menjadi terkait dengan gerakan Negro Baru, dan kemudian pencurahan artistik yang dikenal sebagai Renaisans Harlem, yang meluas ke puisi, novel, teater, dan seni visual. Begitu banyak orang kulit hitam datang sehingga "mengancam keberadaan beberapa industri terkemuka di Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, dan Alabama." [38] Banyak yang menetap di Harlem. Pada 1920, Harlem tengah adalah 32,43% hitam. Sensus tahun 1930 mengungkapkan bahwa 70,18% penduduk Harlem tengah berkulit hitam dan tinggal sejauh selatan Central Park, di 110th Street. [39]

Namun, pada 1930-an, lingkungan itu dilanda kehilangan pekerjaan di Depresi Hebat. Pada awal 1930-an, 25% dari Harlemite kehilangan pekerjaan, dan prospek pekerjaan untuk Harlemite tetap buruk selama beberapa dekade. Pekerjaan di antara warga kulit hitam New York turun karena beberapa bisnis tradisional kulit hitam, termasuk layanan rumah tangga dan beberapa jenis pekerjaan manual, diambil alih oleh kelompok etnis lain. Industri besar meninggalkan New York City sama sekali, terutama setelah tahun 1950. Beberapa kerusuhan terjadi pada periode ini, termasuk pada tahun 1935 dan 1943.

Ada perubahan besar setelah Perang Dunia II. Pada akhir 1950-an dan awal 1960-an, Harlem menjadi tempat serangkaian pemogokan sewa oleh penyewa lingkungan, yang dipimpin oleh aktivis lokal Jesse Gray, bersama dengan Kongres Kesetaraan Ras, Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited (HARYOU), dan kelompok lainnya. Kelompok-kelompok ini menginginkan kota untuk memaksa tuan tanah untuk meningkatkan kualitas perumahan dengan membawa mereka ke kode, untuk mengambil tindakan terhadap tikus dan kecoak, untuk menyediakan panas selama musim dingin, dan untuk menjaga harga sesuai dengan peraturan kontrol sewa yang ada. [40] Proyek pekerjaan umum terbesar di Harlem pada tahun-tahun ini adalah perumahan umum, dengan konsentrasi terbesar dibangun di East Harlem. [41] Biasanya, struktur yang ada dirobohkan dan diganti dengan properti yang dirancang dan dikelola kota yang, secara teori, akan menghadirkan lingkungan yang lebih aman dan lebih menyenangkan daripada yang tersedia dari tuan tanah swasta. Pada akhirnya, keberatan masyarakat menghentikan pembangunan proyek baru. [42] Sejak pertengahan abad ke-20, rendahnya kualitas pendidikan di Harlem telah menjadi sumber penderitaan. Pada tahun 1960-an, sekitar 75% siswa Harlem diuji di bawah tingkat kelas dalam keterampilan membaca, dan 80% diuji di bawah tingkat kelas dalam matematika. [43] Pada tahun 1964, penduduk Harlem melakukan dua boikot sekolah untuk meminta perhatian terhadap masalah tersebut. Di Harlem pusat, 92% siswa tinggal di rumah. [44] Di era pasca-Perang Dunia II, Harlem tidak lagi menjadi rumah bagi mayoritas orang kulit hitam kota, [45] tetapi tetap menjadi ibu kota budaya dan politik New York kulit hitam, dan mungkin Amerika kulit hitam. [46] [47]

Pada tahun 1970-an, banyak dari Harlemites yang mampu keluar dari kemiskinan meninggalkan lingkungan untuk mencari sekolah dan rumah yang lebih baik, dan jalan-jalan yang lebih aman. Mereka yang tersisa adalah yang termiskin dan paling tidak terampil, dengan peluang sukses paling sedikit. Meskipun Program Kota Model pemerintah federal menghabiskan $ 100 juta untuk pelatihan kerja, perawatan kesehatan, pendidikan, keselamatan publik, sanitasi, perumahan, dan proyek lainnya selama periode sepuluh tahun, Harlem tidak menunjukkan peningkatan. [48] ​​Kota ini mulai melelang portofolio properti Harlem yang sangat besar kepada publik pada tahun 1985. Ini dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan komunitas dengan menempatkan properti di tangan orang-orang yang akan tinggal di dalamnya dan memeliharanya. Dalam banyak kasus, kota bahkan akan membayar untuk merenovasi properti sepenuhnya sebelum menjualnya (dengan lotere) di bawah nilai pasar. [49]

Setelah tahun 1990-an, Harlem mulai tumbuh lagi. Antara tahun 1990 dan 2006 populasi lingkungan tumbuh sebesar 16,9%, dengan persentase orang kulit hitam menurun dari 87,6% menjadi 69,3%, [39] kemudian turun menjadi 54,4% pada 2010, [50] dan persentase kulit putih meningkat dari 1,5% menjadi 6,6% pada tahun 2006, [39] dan menjadi "hampir 10%" pada tahun 2010. [50] Renovasi 125th Street dan properti baru di sepanjang jalan raya [51] [52] juga membantu merevitalisasi Harlem. [53]

Pada 1920-an dan 1930-an, Harlem Tengah dan Barat menjadi fokus "Harlem Renaissance", sebuah curahan karya artistik tanpa preseden di komunitas kulit hitam Amerika. Meskipun musisi dan penulis Harlem sangat dikenang, komunitas ini juga menjadi tuan rumah bagi banyak aktor dan perusahaan teater, termasuk New Heritage Repertory Theatre, [29] National Black Theater, Lafayette Players, Harlem Suitcase Theater, The Negro Playwrights, American Negro Theater, dan Pemain Rose McClendon. [54]

Teater Apollo dibuka di 125th Street pada 26 Januari 1934, di bekas rumah olok-olok. The Savoy Ballroom, di Lenox Avenue, adalah tempat terkenal untuk swing dancing, dan diabadikan dalam sebuah lagu populer pada masa itu, "Stompin' At The Savoy". Pada 1920-an dan 1930-an, antara Lenox dan Seventh Avenues di pusat Harlem, lebih dari 125 tempat hiburan beroperasi, termasuk speakeasies, ruang bawah tanah, lounge, kafe, kedai minuman, klub makan malam, sendi iga, teater, ruang dansa, serta bar dan pemanggang. [55] 133rd Street, yang dikenal sebagai "Swing Street", menjadi terkenal karena kabaret, speakeasies dan adegan jazz selama era Larangan, dan dijuluki "Jungle Alley" karena "percampuran antar-ras" di jalan. [56] [57] Beberapa tempat jazz, termasuk Cotton Club, tempat Duke Ellington bermain, dan Connie's Inn, dibatasi hanya untuk orang kulit putih. Lainnya terintegrasi, termasuk Ballroom Renaissance dan Ballroom Savoy.

Pada tahun 1936, Orson Welles memproduksi hitamnya Macbeth di Teater Lafayette di Harlem. [58] Teater-teater megah dari akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 dirobohkan atau diubah menjadi gereja. Harlem tidak memiliki ruang pertunjukan permanen sampai penciptaan Teater Gatehouse di gedung saluran air tua Croton di 135th Street pada tahun 2006. [59]

Dari tahun 1965 hingga 2007, komunitas ini menjadi rumah bagi Harlem Boys Choir, paduan suara tur dan program pendidikan untuk anak laki-laki, yang kebanyakan berkulit hitam. [60] The Girls Choir of Harlem didirikan pada tahun 1989, dan ditutup dengan Boys Choir. [61]

Harlem juga merupakan rumah bagi Parade Hari Afrika Amerika terbesar, yang merayakan budaya diaspora Afrika di Amerika. Parade dimulai pada musim semi tahun 1969 dengan Anggota Kongres Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. sebagai Grand Marshal dari perayaan pertama. [62]

Arthur Mitchell, mantan penari di New York City Ballet, mendirikan Dance Theatre of Harlem sebagai sekolah dan perusahaan pelatihan balet dan teater klasik pada akhir 1960-an. Perusahaan telah melakukan tur nasional dan internasional. Generasi seniman teater telah memulai di sekolah.

Pada 2010, tempat makan baru dibuka di Harlem di sekitar Frederick Douglass Boulevard. [63] Pada saat yang sama, beberapa penduduk melawan gelombang gentrifikasi yang kuat yang dialami lingkungan tersebut. Pada 2013, warga menggelar aksi duduk di trotoar untuk memprotes pasar petani lima hari seminggu yang akan menutup Macombs Place di 150th Street. [64]

Pengeditan Musik

Kontribusi Manhattan untuk hip-hop sebagian besar berasal dari artis dengan akar Harlem seperti Doug E. Fresh, Big L, Kurtis Blow, The Diplomats, Mase atau Immortal Technique. Harlem juga merupakan tempat lahirnya tarian hip-hop populer seperti Harlem shake, toe wop, dan Chicken Noodle Soup.

Pada 1920-an, pianis Afrika-Amerika yang tinggal di Harlem menemukan gaya piano jazz mereka sendiri, yang disebut stride, yang sangat dipengaruhi oleh ragtime. Gaya ini memainkan peran yang sangat penting dalam piano jazz awal [65] [66]

Kehidupan beragama Sunting

Kehidupan keagamaan secara historis memiliki kehadiran yang kuat di Black Harlem. Daerah ini adalah rumah bagi lebih dari 400 gereja, [67] beberapa di antaranya merupakan kota resmi atau landmark nasional. [68] [69] Denominasi Kristen utama termasuk Baptis, Pentakosta, Metodis (umumnya Zionis Episkopal Metodis Afrika, atau "AMEZ" dan Episkopal Metodis Afrika, atau "AME"), Episkopal, dan Katolik Roma. Gereja Baptis Abyssinian telah lama berpengaruh karena jemaatnya yang besar. Gereja Yesus Kristus dari Orang-Orang Suci Zaman Akhir membangun sebuah kapel di 128th Street pada tahun 2005.

Banyak gereja di daerah itu adalah "gereja etalase", yang beroperasi di toko kosong, atau ruang bawah tanah, atau townhouse brownstone yang diubah. Jemaat-jemaat ini mungkin memiliki kurang dari 30-50 anggota masing-masing, tetapi ada ratusan dari mereka. [70] Lainnya adalah landmark tua, besar, dan ditunjuk. Terutama pada tahun-tahun sebelum Perang Dunia II, Harlem menghasilkan pemimpin "kultus" karismatik Kristen yang populer, termasuk George Wilson Becton dan Father Divine. [71] Masjid di Harlem termasuk Masjid Malcolm Shabazz (sebelumnya Masjid No. 7 Nation of Islam, dan lokasi insiden masjid Harlem tahun 1972), Masjid Ikhwanul Islam dan Masjid Aqsa. Yudaisme juga mempertahankan kehadirannya di Harlem melalui Sinagoga Broadway Lama. Sebuah sinagoga non-mainstream Black Hebrews, yang dikenal sebagai Commandment Keepers, berbasis di sebuah sinagoga di 1 West 123rd Street hingga 2008.

Sunting Tengara

Landmark yang ditunjuk secara resmi Sunting

Banyak tempat di Harlem adalah landmark kota resmi yang diberi label oleh Komisi Pelestarian Landmark Kota New York atau terdaftar di Daftar Tempat Bersejarah Nasional:

    , tengara Kota New York [72] , tengara Kota New York [73] , tengara Kota New York dan situs terdaftar NRHP [74][69] , tengara Kota New York [75] , tengara Kota New York dan situs yang terdaftar NRHP [76][69] , satu set rumah landmark Kota New York [68] : 207 , Fort Clinton, dan Nutter's Battery, bagian dari Central Park, landmark pemandangan Kota New York dan situs terdaftar NRHP [ 77][69] , tengara Kota New York [78] , tengara Kota New York [79] , tengara Kota New York [80] , tengara Kota New York dan situs terdaftar NRHP [81] , New York Landmark kota [82] , Landmark Kota New York [83] , Landmark Kota New York [84] , Landmark Kota New York [85] , Landmark Kota New York dan situs terdaftar NRHP [86][69] dan 155th Street Viaduct, sebuah landmark New York City [87] , sebuah distrik bersejarah NRHP [69] , sebuah landmark New York City dan situs yang terdaftar NRHP [88][69] , sebuah situs yang terdaftar NRHP [69] , sebuah New York Landmark pemandangan kota [89] , tengara Kota New York [90] , distrik tengara Kota New York [91] , tengara Kota New York [92] , tengara Kota New York dan situs terdaftar NRHP [93][69] , tengara Kota New York [94] , tengara Kota New York dan situs terdaftar NRHP [95][ 69] , tengara Kota New York [96] , tengara Kota New York dan situs terdaftar NRHP [97][69] , tengara Kota New York [98] (sebelumnya Gereja Trinity), tengara Kota New York [99 ] , distrik tengara Kota New York [100] , tengara Kota New York [101] , tengara Kota New York [102] , tengara Kota New York [103]

Tempat menarik lainnya Sunting

Tempat menarik lainnya yang menonjol termasuk:

Demografi komunitas Harlem telah berubah sepanjang sejarahnya. Pada tahun 1910, 10% populasi Harlem berkulit hitam tetapi pada tahun 1930, mereka telah menjadi 70% mayoritas. [6] Periode antara 1910 dan 1930 menandai titik besar dalam migrasi besar-besaran orang Afrika-Amerika dari Selatan ke New York. Itu juga menandai masuknya dari lingkungan pusat kota Manhattan di mana orang kulit hitam merasa kurang diterima, ke daerah Harlem. [6] Populasi kulit hitam di Harlem mencapai puncaknya pada tahun 1950, dengan pangsa 98% dari populasi (populasi 233.000). Pada tahun 2000, populasi kulit hitam Harlem tengah terdiri 77% dari total populasi daerah itu, namun populasi kulit hitam menurun karena banyak orang Afrika-Amerika pindah dan lebih banyak imigran masuk. [106]

Harlem menderita dari tingkat pengangguran umumnya lebih dari dua kali rata-rata seluruh kota, serta tingkat kemiskinan yang tinggi. [107] and the numbers for men have been consistently worse than the numbers for women. Private and governmental initiatives to ameliorate unemployment and poverty have not been successful. During the Great Depression, unemployment in Harlem went past 20% and people were being evicted from their homes. [108] At the same time, the federal government developed and instituted the redlining policy. This policy rated neighborhoods, such as Central Harlem, as unappealing based on the race, ethnicity, and national origins of the residents. [2] Central Harlem was deemed 'hazardous' and residents living in Central Harlem were refused home loans or other investments. [2] Comparably, wealthy and white residents in New York City neighborhoods were approved more often for housing loans and investment applications. [2] Overall, they were given preferential treatment by city and state institutions.

In the 1960s, uneducated blacks could find jobs more easily than educated ones could, confounding efforts to improve the lives of people who lived in the neighborhood through education. [2] Land owners took advantage of the neighborhood and offered apartments to the lower-class families for cheaper rent but in lower-class conditions. [109] By 1999 there were 179,000 housing units available in Harlem. [110] Housing activists in Harlem state that, even after residents were given vouchers for the Section 8 housing that was being placed, many were not able to live there and had to find homes elsewhere or become homeless. [110] These policies are examples of societal racism, also known as structural racism. As public health leaders have named structural racism as a key social determinant of health disparities between racial and ethnic minorities, [111] these 20th century policies have contributed to the current population health disparities between Central Harlem and other New York City neighborhoods. [2]

Central Harlem Edit

For census purposes, the New York City government classifies Central Harlem into two neighborhood tabulation areas: Central Harlem North and Central Harlem South, divided by 126th street. [112] Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Central Harlem was 118,665, a change of 9,574 (8.1%) from the 109,091 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 926.05 acres (374.76 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 128.1 inhabitants per acre (82,000/sq mi 31,700/km 2 ). [113] The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 9.5% (11,322) White, 63% (74,735) African American, 0.3% (367) Native American, 2.4% (2,839) Asian, 0% (46) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (372) from other races, and 2.2% (2,651) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22.2% (26,333) of the population. Harlem's Black population was more concentrated in Central Harlem North, and its White population more concentrated in Central Harlem South, while the Hispanic / Latino population was evenly split. [114]

The most significant shifts in the racial composition of Central Harlem between 2000 and 2010 were the White population's increase by 402% (9,067), the Hispanic / Latino population's increase by 43% (7,982), and the Black population's decrease by 11% (9,544). While the growth of the Hispanic / Latino was predominantly in Central Harlem North, the decrease in the Black population was slightly greater in Central Harlem South, and the drastic increase in the White population was split evenly across the two census tabulation areas. Meanwhile, the Asian population grew by 211% (1,927) but remained a small minority, and the small population of all other races increased by 4% (142). [115]

The entirety of Community District 10, which comprises Central Harlem, had 116,345 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 76.2 years. [2] : 2, 20 This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. [116] : 53 (PDF p. 84) Most inhabitants are children and middle-aged adults: 21% are between the ages of 0–17, while 35% are between 25–44, and 24% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 10% and 11% respectively. [2] : 2

As of 2017, the median household income in Community District 10 was $49,059. [3] In 2018, an estimated 21% of Community District 10 residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City. Around 12% of residents were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 48% in Community District 10, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018 [update] , Community District 10 is considered to be gentrifying: according to the Community Health Profile, the district was low-income in 1990 and has seen above-median rent growth up to 2010. [2] : 7

Other sections Edit

In 2010, the population of West Harlem was 110,193. [117] West Harlem, consisting of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, is predominately Hispanic / Latino, while African Americans make up about a quarter of the West Harlem population. [8]

In 2010, the population of East Harlem was 120,000. [118] East Harlem originally formed as a predominantly Italian American neighborhood. [119] The area began its transition from Italian Harlem to Spanish Harlem when Puerto Rican migration began after World War II, [120] though in recent decades, many Dominican, Mexican and Salvadorean immigrants have also settled in East Harlem. [121] East Harlem is now predominantly Hispanic / Latino, with a significant African-American presence. [120]

Central Harlem is patrolled by two precincts of the New York City Police Department (NYPD). [122] Central Harlem North is covered by the 32nd Precinct, located at 250 West 135th Street, [123] while Central Harlem South is patrolled by the 28th Precinct, located at 2271–2289 Eighth Avenue. [124]

The 28th Precinct has a lower crime rate than it did in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 76.0% between 1990 and 2019. The precinct reported 5 murders, 11 rapes, 163 robberies, 235 felony assaults, 90 burglaries, 348 grand larcenies, and 28 grand larcenies auto in 2019. [125] Of the five major violent felonies (murder, rape, felony assault, robbery, and burglary), the 28th Precinct had a rate of 1,125 crimes per 100,000 residents in 2019, compared to the boroughwide average of 632 crimes per 100,000 and the citywide average of 572 crimes per 100,000. [126] [127] [128]

The crime rate in the 32nd Precinct has also decreased since the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 75.7% between 1990 and 2019. The precinct reported 10 murders, 25 rapes, 219 robberies, 375 felony assaults, 110 burglaries, 315 grand larcenies, and 34 grand larcenies auto in 2019. [129] Of the five major violent felonies (murder, rape, felony assault, robbery, and burglary), the 32nd Precinct had a rate of 1,042 crimes per 100,000 residents in 2019, compared to the boroughwide average of 632 crimes per 100,000 and the citywide average of 572 crimes per 100,000. [126] [127] [128]

As of 2018 [update] , Community District 10 has a non-fatal assault hospitalization rate of 116 per 100,000 people, compared to the boroughwide rate of 49 per 100,000 and the citywide rate of 59 per 100,000. Its incarceration rate is 1,347 per 100,000 people, the second-highest in the city, compared to the boroughwide rate of 407 per 100,000 and the citywide rate of 425 per 100,000. [2] : 8

In 2019, the highest concentration of both felony assaults in Central Harlem was around the intersection of 125th Street and Malcolm X Boulevard, where there were 25 felony assaults and 18 robberies. The Harlem River Drive by the Ralph J. Rangel Houses was also a hotspot, with 23 felony assaults and 10 robberies. [126]

Crime trends Edit

In the early 20th century, Harlem was a stronghold of the Sicilian Mafia, other Italian organized crime groups, and later the Italian-American Mafia. As the ethnic composition of the neighborhood changed, black criminals began to organize themselves similarly. However, rather than compete with the established mobs, gangs concentrated on the "policy racket", also called the numbers game, or bolita in East Harlem. This was a gambling scheme similar to a lottery that could be played, illegally, from countless locations around Harlem. According to Francis Ianni, "By 1925 there were thirty black policy banks in Harlem, several of them large enough to collect bets in an area of twenty city blocks and across three or four avenues." [130]

By the early 1950s, the total money at play amounted to billions of dollars, and the police force had been thoroughly corrupted by bribes from numbers bosses. [131] These bosses became financial powerhouses, providing capital for loans for those who could not qualify for them from traditional financial institutions, and investing in legitimate businesses and real estate. One of the powerful early numbers bosses was a woman, Madame Stephanie St. Clair, who fought gun battles with mobster Dutch Schultz over control of the lucrative trade. [132]

The popularity of playing the numbers waned with the introduction of the state lottery, which is legal but has lower payouts and has taxes collected on winnings. [133] The practice continues on a smaller scale among those who prefer the numbers tradition or who prefer to trust their local numbers bank to the state.

Statistics from 1940 show about 100 murders per year in Harlem, "but rape is very rare". [134] By 1950, many whites had left Harlem and by 1960, much of the black middle class had departed. At the same time, control of organized crime shifted from Italian syndicates to local black, Puerto Rican, and Cuban groups that were somewhat less formally organized. [130] At the time of the 1964 riots, the drug addiction rate in Harlem was ten times higher than the New York City average, and twelve times higher than the United States as a whole. Of the 30,000 drug addicts then estimated to live in New York City, 15,000 to 20,000 lived in Harlem. Property crime was pervasive, and the murder rate was six times higher than New York's average. Half of the children in Harlem grew up with one parent, or none, and lack of supervision contributed to juvenile delinquency between 1953 and 1962, the crime rate among young people increased throughout New York City, but was consistently 50% higher in Harlem than in New York City as a whole. [135]

Injecting heroin grew in popularity in Harlem through the 1950s and 1960s, though the use of this drug then leveled off. In the 1980s, use of crack cocaine became widespread, which produced collateral crime as addicts stole to finance their purchasing of additional drugs, and as dealers fought for the right to sell in particular regions, or over deals gone bad. [136]

With the end of the "crack wars" in the mid-1990s, and with the initiation of aggressive policing under mayors David Dinkins and his successor Rudy Giuliani, crime in Harlem plummeted. Compared to in 1981, when 6,500 robberies were reported in Harlem, reports of robberies dropped to 4,800 in 1990 to 1,700 in 2000 and to 1,100 in 2010. [137] Within the 28th and 32nd precincts, there have been similar changes in all categories of crimes tracked by the NYPD. [123] [124]

Gangs Edit

There are many gangs in Harlem, often based in housing projects when one gang member is killed by another gang, revenge violence erupts which can last for years. [138] In addition, the East Harlem Purple Gang of the 1970s, which operated in East Harlem and surroundings, was an Italian American group of hitmen and heroin dealers. [139]

Harlem and its gangsters have a strong link to hip hop, rap and R&B culture in the United States, and many successful rappers in the music industry came from gangs in Harlem. [140] Gangster rap, which has its origins in the late 1980s, often has lyrics that are "misogynistic or that glamorize violence", glamorizing guns, drugs and easy women in Harlem and New York City. [141] [140]

Central Harlem is served by four New York City Fire Department (FDNY) fire stations: [142]

  • Engine Company 37/Ladder Company 40 – 415 West 125th Street [143]
  • Engine Company 58/Ladder Company 26 – 1367 5th Avenue [144]
  • Engine Company 59/Ladder Company 30 – 111 West 133rd Street [145]
  • Engine Company 69/Ladder Company 28/Battalion 16 – 248 West 143rd Street [146]

Five additional firehouses are located in West and East Harlem. West Harlem contains Engine Company 47 and Engine Company 80/Ladder Company 23, while East Harlem contains Engine Company 35/Ladder Company 14/Battalion 12, Engine Company 53/Ladder Company 43, and Engine Company 91. [142]

As of 2018 [update] , preterm births and births to teenage mothers are more common in Central Harlem than in other places citywide. In Central Harlem, there were 103 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 23 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide), though the teenage birth rate is based on a small sample size. [2] : 11 Central Harlem has a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 8%, less than the citywide rate of 12%. [2] : 14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Central Harlem is 0.0079 milligrams per cubic metre (7.9 × 10 −9 oz/cu ft), slightly more than the city average. [2] : 9 Ten percent of Central Harlem residents are smokers, which is less than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers. [2] : 13 In Central Harlem, 34% of residents are obese, 12% are diabetic, and 35% have high blood pressure, the highest rates in the city—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively. [2] : 16 In addition, 21% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%. [2] : 12

Eighty-four percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is less than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 79% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," more than the city's average of 78%. [2] : 13 For every supermarket in Central Harlem, there are 11 bodegas. [2] : 10

The nearest major hospital is NYC Health + Hospitals/Harlem in north-central Harlem. [147] [148]

Social factors Edit

The population health of Central Harlem is closely linked to influential social factors on health, also known as social determinants of health, and the impact of structural racism on the neighborhood. The impact of discriminatory policies such as redlining have contributed to residents' bearing worse health outcomes in comparison to the average New York city resident. This applies to life expectancy, poverty rates, environmental neighborhood health, housing quality, and childhood and adult asthma rates. Additionally, the health of Central Harlem residents are linked to their experience of racism. [149] [150] Public health and scientific research studies have found evidence that experiencing racism creates and exacerbates chronic stress that can contribute to major causes of death, particularly for African-American and Hispanic populations in the United States, like cardiovascular diseases. [150] [151] [152] [153]

Certain health disparities between Central Harlem and the rest of New York City can be attributed to 'avoidable causes' such as substandard housing quality, poverty, and law enforcement violence – all of which are issues identified by the American Public Health Association as key social determinants of health. These deaths that can be attributed to avoidable causes are known as "avertable deaths" of "excess mortality'"in public health. [154]

Health problems Edit

Health and housing conditions Edit

Access to affordable housing and employment opportunities with fair wages and benefits are closely associated with good health. [155] Public health leaders have shown that inadequate housing qualities is linked to poor health. [156] As Central Harlem also bears the effects of racial segregation, public health researchers claim that racial segregation is also linked to substandard housing and exposure to pollutants and toxins. These associations have been documented to increase individual risk of chronic diseases and adverse birth outcomes. [111] Historical income segregation via redlining also positions residents to be more exposed to risks that contribute to adverse mental health status, inadequate access to healthy foods, asthma triggers, and lead exposure. [156] [155]

Asthma Edit

Asthma is more common in children and adults in Central Harlem, compared to other New York City neighborhoods. [157] The factors that can increase risk of childhood and adult asthma are associated with substandard housing conditions. [158] Substandard housing conditions are water leaks, cracks and holes, inadequate heating, presence of mice or rats, peeling paint and can include the presence of mold, moisture, dust mites. [159] In 2014, Central Harlem tracked worse in regards to home maintenance conditions, compared to the average rates Manhattan and New York City. Twenty percent of homes had cracks or holes 21% had leaks and 19% had three or more maintenance deficiencies. [157]

Adequate housing is defined as housing that is free from heating breakdowns, cracks, holes, peeling paint and other defects. Housing conditions in Central Harlem reveal that only 37% of its renter-occupied homes were adequately maintained by landlords in 2014. Meanwhile, 25% of Central Harlem households and 27% of adults reported seeing cockroaches (a potential trigger for asthma), a rate higher than the city average. Neighborhood conditions are also indicators of population: in 2014, Central Harlem had 32 per 100,000 people hospitalized due to pedestrian injuries, higher than Manhattan's and the city's average. [157]

Additionally, poverty levels can indicate one's risk of vulnerability to asthma. In 2016, Central Harlem saw 565 children aged 5–17 years old per 10,000 residents visiting emergency departments for Asthma emergencies, over twice both Manhattan's and the citywide rates. The rate of childhood asthma hospitalization in 2016 was more than twice that of Manhattan and New York City, with 62 hospitalizations per 10,000 residents. [157] Rates of adult hospitalization due to asthma in Central Harlem trends higher in comparison to other neighborhoods. In 2016, 270 adults per 10,000 residents visited the emergency department due to asthma, close to three times the average rates of both Manhattan and New York City. [157]

Other health problems Edit

Health outcomes for men have generally been worse than those of women. Infant mortality was 124 per thousand in 1928, meaning that 12.4% of infants would die. [160] By 1940, infant mortality in Harlem was 5%, and the death rate from disease generally was twice that of the rest of New York. Tuberculosis was the main killer, and four times as prevalent among Harlem citizens than among the rest of New York's population. [160]

A 1990 study of life expectancy of teenagers in Harlem reported that 15-year-old girls in Harlem had a 65% chance of surviving to the age of 65, about the same as women in Pakistan. Fifteen-year-old men in Harlem, on the other hand, had a 37% chance of surviving to 65, about the same as men in Angola for men, the survival rate beyond the age of 40 was lower in Harlem than Bangladesh. [161] Infectious diseases and diseases of the circulatory system were to blame, with a variety of contributing factors, including consumption of the deep-fried foods traditional to the South, which may contribute to heart disease.

Harlem is located within five primary ZIP Codes. From south to north they are 10026 (from 110th to 120th Streets), 10027 (from 120th to 133rd Streets), 10037 (east of Lenox Avenue and north of 130th Street), 10030 (west of Lenox Avenue from 133rd to 145th Streets) and 10039 (from 145th to 155th Streets). Harlem also includes parts of ZIP Codes 10031, 10032, and 10035. [162] The United States Postal Service operates five post offices in Harlem:

  • Morningside Station – 232 West 116th Street [163]
  • Manhattanville Station and Morningside Annex – 365 West 125th Street [164]
  • College Station – 217 West 140th Street [165]
  • Colonial Park Station – 99 Macombs Place [166]
  • Lincoln Station – 2266 5th Avenue [167]

Central Harlem generally has a similar rate of college-educated residents to the rest of the city as of 2018 [update] . While 42% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, 19% have less than a high school education and 39% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher. [2] : 6 The percentage of Central Harlem students excelling in math rose from 21% in 2000 to 48% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 29% to 37% during the same time period. [168]

Central Harlem's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is higher than the rest of New York City. In Central Harlem, 25% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, more than the citywide average of 20%. [116] : 24 (PDF p. 55) [2] : 6 Additionally, 64% of high school students in Central Harlem graduate on time, less than the citywide average of 75%. [2] : 6

Schools Edit

The New York City Department of Education operates the following public elementary schools in Central Harlem: [169]

  • PS 76 A Phillip Randolph (grades PK-8) [170]
  • PS 92 Mary Mcleod Bethune (grades PK-5) [171]
  • PS 123 Mahalia Jackson (grades PK-8) [172]
  • PS 149 Sojourner Truth (grades PK-8) [173]
  • PS 154 Harriet Tubman (grades PK-5) [174]
  • PS 175 Henry H Garnet (grades PK-5) [175]
  • PS 185 the Early Childhood Discovery and Design Magnet School (grades PK-2) [176]
  • PS 194 Countee Cullen (grades PK-5) [177]
  • PS 197 John B Russwurm (grades PK-5) [178]
  • PS 200 The James Mccune Smith School (grades PK-5) [179]
  • PS 242 The Young Diplomats Magnet School (grades PK-5) [180]
  • Stem Institute of Manhattan (grades K-5) [181]
  • Thurgood Marshall Academy Lower School (grades K-5) [182]

The following middle and high schools are located in Central Harlem: [169]

    (grades 6-12) [183]
  • Frederick Douglass Academy II Secondary School (grades 6-12) [184]
  • Mott Hall High School (grades 9-12) [185]
  • Thurgood Marshall Academy For Learning And Social Change (grades 6-12) [186]
  • Wadleigh Secondary School for the Performing and Visual Arts (grades 6-12) [187]

Harlem has a high rate of charter school enrollment: a fifth of students were enrolled in charter schools in 2010. [188] By 2017, that proportion had increased to 36%, about the same that attended their zoned public schools. Another 20% of Harlem students were enrolled in public schools elsewhere. [189] In 2016, there were four charter-school enrollment applications for every available seat at a charter school in Manhattan. [190]

Higher education Edit

Libraries Edit

The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates four circulating branches and one research branch in Harlem, as well as several others in adjacent neighborhoods.

  • The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, a research branch, is located at 515 Malcolm X Boulevard. It is housed in a Carnegie library structure that opened in 1905, though the branch itself was established in 1925 based on a collection from its namesake, Arturo Alfonso Schomburg. The Schomburg Center is a National Historic Landmark, as well as a city designated landmark and a National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)-listed site. [191]
  • The Countee Cullen branch is located at 104 West 136th Street. It was originally housed in the building now occupied by the Schomburg Center. The current structure, in 1941, is an annex of the Schomburg building. [192]
  • The Harry Belafonte 115th Street branch is located at 203 West 115th Street. The three-story Carnegie library, built in 1908, is both a city designated landmark and an NRHP-listed site. It was renamed for the entertainer and Harlem resident Harry Belafonte in 2017. [193]
  • The Harlem branch is located at 9 West 124th Street. It is one of the oldest libraries in the NYPL system, having operated in Harlem since 1826. The current three-story Carnegie library building was built in 1909 and renovated in 2004. [194]
  • The Macomb's Bridge branch is located at 2633 Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard. The branch opened in 1955 at 2650 Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard, inside the Harlem River Houses, and was the smallest NYPL branch at 685 square feet (63.6 m 2 ). In January 2020, the branch moved across the street to a larger space. [195]

Other nearby branches include the 125th Street and Aguilar branches in East Harlem the Morningside Heights branch in Morningside Heights and the George Bruce and Hamilton Grange branches in western Harlem. [196]

Bridges Edit

The Harlem River separates the Bronx and Manhattan, necessitating several spans between the two New York City boroughs. Five free bridges connect Harlem and the Bronx: the Willis Avenue Bridge (for northbound traffic only), Third Avenue Bridge (for southbound traffic only), Madison Avenue Bridge, 145th Street Bridge, and Macombs Dam Bridge. In East Harlem, the Wards Island Bridge, also known as the 103rd Street Footbridge, connects Manhattan with Wards Island. The Triborough Bridge is a complex of three separate bridges that offers connections between Queens, East Harlem, and the Bronx. [197]

Public transportation Edit

Public transportation service is provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. This includes the New York City Subway and MTA Regional Bus Operations. Some Bronx local routes also serve Manhattan, providing customers with access between both boroughs. [198] [199] Metro-North Railroad has a commuter rail station at Harlem–125th Street, serving trains to the Lower Hudson Valley and Connecticut. [200]

Subway Edit

Harlem is served by the following subway lines:

In addition, several other lines stop nearby:

Bus Sunting

Harlem is served by numerous local bus routes operated by MTA Regional Bus Operations: [199]

    and Bx6 SBS along 155th Street along 145th Street along 135th Street along Fifth/Madison Avenues along Seventh Avenue, Central Park North, and Fifth/Madison Avenues along Manhattan Avenue, Central Park North, and Fifth/Madison Avenues along Broadway, Central Park North, and Fifth/Madison Avenues , M100, M101 and Bx15 along 125th Street and M102 along Lenox Avenue and 116th Street along Frederick Douglass Boulevard along 116th Street

Routes that run near Harlem, but do not stop in the neighborhood, include: [199]


Migrasi Hebat

In 1914, World War I began in Europe, and the northern United States saw a shortage of industrial laborers. To fix this, they started advertising job opportunities in black newspapers in the South, offering black people a chance to make more money and escape the harsh laws of the South. And thus began the Great Migration.

Between 1910 and 1920, the black population of New York City grew by 66%. Rising housing tensions led the black community to create their own neighborhoods, like Harlem. As this city within a city grew, black residents began to speak out about their experiences.


On July 19, white men initiated a riot after hearing that a Black man had been accused of rape. The men beat random African-Americans, pulling them off of streetcars and beating street pedestrians. African-Americans fought back after local police refused to intervene. For four days, African-American and white residents fought.

By July 23, four whites and two African-Americans were killed in the riots. In addition, an estimated 50 people were seriously injured. The D.C. riots were especially significant because it was one of the only instances when African-Americans aggressively fought back against whites.


NYC BLACK RADICAL HISTORY: HARLEM & BED-STUY RIOTS OF 1964 & THE CITY COLLEGE LOCK DOWN, 1969

The Harlem & Bed Stuy “Race Riot” of 1964 –
On July 2, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act which banned discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin and ended segregation of public places. Two weeks after on July 15, 1964, 15-year old African American James Powell, was murdered by white off-duty police Lieutenant Thomas Gilligan. Powell’s murder enraged the Harlem community as another instance of a black person lost to police brutality. The first two days of protest regarding Powell’s death were peaceful in Harlem and other communities of New York City. On July 18th, protesters were at the police station in Harlem to call for the resignation or termination of Thomas Gilligan. The station was being guarded by police officers leading to some protestors throwing bricks, rock and bottles at the officers who walked through the crowd with nightsticks.

After word about the confrontation outside of the police station got back to different communities, riots began in then – black and Puerto Rican neighborhood, Bedford Stuyvesant. The riots lasted in Harlem and Bed Stuy for six days with businesses being vandalized and set on fire. It all came to a cease on July 22 with roughly 450 arrests, 100 people injured and 1 million dollars worth of property damage. The riots in both boroughs spurred off into a series of summer riots in different parts of the country, such as Rochester and Philadelphia. President Lyndon B. Johnson feared these riots would cause a rise in white backlash, putting a dent in his election hopes.

“One of my political analysts tells me that every time one occurs, it costs me 90,000 votes.” – President Lyndon B. Johnson

Harlem’s City College lockdown, 1969 –
On a rainy Spring morning in 1969, 200 Black and Puerto Rican students locked down the doors to City College in a victorious attempt for the City University of New York to allow open admissions for oppressed nationalities. A take over that only took 45 seconds lasted in a two-week lockdown of 17 buildings in the south Campus. Reactionary white students antagonized the students holding the lockdown.

“Whites were generally quite upset. Some yelled “Black bastards, go back to Africa,” but the answers they received were similar to “Charlie, your momma swings to “Charlie, your momma swings through trees and she’s as Black as me,” and “Why don’t you come into the gate and get your trashy sister off South Campus.” Obviously tempers snapped. As the poor whites rushed towards the gates, they were dismissed summarily by both the Black students’ security force and the College Security, which was powerless to remove the BPRSC but which did prevent some white students from getting hurt.” – The Harvard Crimson

Fearful of extreme violence happening on the campus due to prior racial violence, Mayor John V. Lindsay and other New York City political leaders gave in to opening the doors to Black and Latinx students. White students who were also unable to attend benefitted from open admissions. The students renamed it The University of Harlem.


Tonton videonya: Destination Harlem TV: Harlem History 1