Hujan di Wajah

Hujan di Wajah


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Rain in the Face, seorang anggota Hunkpapa Sioux, lahir di dekat Sungai Cheyenne, North Dakota, pada tahun 1835. Pada usia sepuluh tahun ia ikut serta dalam perang dengan Gros Ventres. Suatu hari ia mengambil bagian dalam pertempuran selama badai hujan lebat. Di penghujung hari, wajahnya dicoret-coret dengan cat perang. Alhasil ia diberi nama Rain in the Face.

Pada tanggal 21 Desember 1866, Kapten W. J. Fetterman dan pasukan yang terdiri dari 80 orang, terlibat dalam melindungi tim yang membawa kayu ke Fort Phil Kearny. Meskipun di bawah perintah untuk tidak "melibatkan atau mengejar orang India", Fetterman memberi perintah untuk menyerang sekelompok prajurit Sioux. Para prajurit melarikan diri dan menarik para prajurit ke tempat terbuka yang dikelilingi oleh kekuatan yang jauh lebih besar. Semua tentara tewas dalam apa yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Pembantaian Fetterman. Rain in the Face adalah salah satu pendekar yang ikut dalam pembantaian ini.

Pada bulan Agustus 1873, Jenderal George A. Custer terlibat dalam melindungi sekelompok surveyor kereta api. Kelompok itu diserang oleh pesta perang Sioux di dekat muara Sungai Lidah. Dalam penggerebekan tersebut, dua orang surveyor tewas. Kemudian, Charley Reynolds, seorang pramuka India, mengatakan kepada Custer bahwa Rain in the Face telah memimpin serangan di Tongue River. Rain in the Face tinggal di Standing Rock Reservation saat itu dan Custer menahannya. Custer memaksa Rain in the Face untuk mengaku tetapi sebelum dia bisa muncul di pengadilan dia berhasil melarikan diri.

Pada bulan Desember 1875, Komisaris Urusan India mengarahkan semua band Sioux untuk memasuki reservasi pada akhir Januari 1876. Sitting Bull, sekarang seorang dukun dan pemimpin spiritual rakyatnya, menolak untuk meninggalkan tempat berburunya. Rain in the Face dan Crazy Horse setuju dan memimpin prajurit mereka ke utara untuk bergabung dengan Sitting Bull.

Pada bulan Juni 1876 Sitting Bull membuat dirinya menari matahari. Ritual ini termasuk puasa dan penyiksaan diri. Selama tarian matahari Sitting Bull melihat visi sejumlah besar tentara putih jatuh dari langit terbalik. Sebagai hasil dari penglihatan ini, dia meramalkan bahwa rakyatnya akan menikmati kemenangan besar.

Pada 17 Juni 1876, Jenderal George Crook dan sekitar 1.000 tentara, didukung oleh 300 Crow dan Shoshone, berperang melawan 1.500 anggota suku Sioux dan Cheyenne. Pertempuran di Rosebud Creek berlangsung selama lebih dari enam jam. Ini adalah pertama kalinya penduduk asli Amerika bersatu untuk berperang dalam jumlah besar.

Jenderal George A. Custer dan 655 orang dikirim untuk menemukan desa-desa Sioux dan Cheyenne yang terlibat dalam pertempuran di Rosebud Creek. Sebuah perkemahan ditemukan pada tanggal 25 Juni. Diperkirakan berisi sekitar 10.000 pria, wanita dan anak-anak. Custer berasumsi jumlahnya jauh lebih sedikit dari itu dan alih-alih menunggu pasukan utama di bawah Jenderal Alfred Terry tiba, dia memutuskan untuk langsung menyerang perkemahan.

Custer membagi anak buahnya menjadi tiga kelompok. Kapten Frederick Benteen diperintahkan untuk menjelajahi berbagai bukit lima mil dari desa. Mayor Marcus Reno akan menyerang perkemahan dari ujung atas sedangkan Custer memutuskan untuk menyerang lebih jauh ke hilir.

Reno segera menemukan bahwa dia kalah jumlah dan mundur ke sungai. Dia kemudian bergabung dengan Benteen dan anak buahnya. Custer melanjutkan serangannya tetapi dengan mudah dikalahkan oleh sekitar 4.000 prajurit. Pada pertempuran Little Bighorn Custer dan 264 anak buahnya terbunuh. Para prajurit di bawah Reno dan Benteen juga diserang dan 47 dari mereka tewas sebelum mereka diselamatkan oleh kedatangan Jenderal Alfred Terry dan pasukannya. Diklaim setelah itu bahwa Custer telah dibunuh oleh musuh lamanya, Rain in the Face. Namun, tidak ada bukti kuat untuk menunjukkan bahwa ini benar.

Tentara AS sekarang merespons dengan menambah jumlah tentara di daerah tersebut. Akibatnya Rain in the Face dan Sitting Bull melarikan diri ke Kanada. Rain in the Face tetap ada sampai tahun 1880 ketika dia memutuskan untuk menyerah kepada otoritas Amerika di Fort Koegh, Montana.

Rain in the Face meninggal di Standing Rock Reservation pada 14 September 1905.


Pasukan Angkatan Darat AS Sunting

Custer dan unit Kavaleri ke-7 adalah bagian dari kolom militer yang dikomandoi oleh Kolonel David S. Stanley yang menyertai rombongan survei Kereta Api Pasifik Utara tahun 1873 yang mengamati sisi utara Sungai Yellowstone di sebelah barat Sungai Powder di Montana timur. Kolom Stanley terdiri dari 1.530 pasukan kavaleri, infanteri, dan dua artileri (3" senapan Rodman), dan ransum 60 hari. Ia melakukan perjalanan keluar dari Wilayah Dakota pada bulan Juni 1873 dengan 1.530 tentara, 275 bagal ditarik gerobak, 353 warga sipil yang terlibat dalam survei, dan 27 pramuka India dan berdarah campuran mendukung kolom [2].

Pasukan asli Amerika Sunting

Pasukan penduduk asli Amerika yang berperang melawan ekspedisi di Wilayah Montana berasal dari desa Sitting Bull, diperkirakan berjumlah 400 hingga 500 pondok dengan lebih dari 1000 Prajurit. [3] Ini termasuk Hunkpapa Sioux di bawah Gall disertai oleh kepala perang Rain in the Face, Oglala Sioux di bawah Crazy Horse, dan Miniconjou dan Cheyenne.

Ekspedisi utama telah siap dan dimulai dari Fort Rice, Wilayah Dakota pada tanggal 20 Juni 1873. Kelompok survei dan enam kompi di bawah Mayor EF Townsend, Infanteri ke-9 telah dimulai empat hari sebelumnya dari Fort Abraham Lincoln di Sungai Missouri, diarahkan untuk melakukan perjalanan barat sampai perintah utama mungkin menyusul mereka. Dalam tujuh belas hari pertama perjalanan, hujan turun empat belas hari, dalam beberapa kasus dengan tiga atau empat hujan lebat dalam dua puluh empat jam. Setelah menghabiskan satu hari untuk menyeberangi komando utama di atas Sungai Heart, Kolonel Stanley menerima laporan dari Mr. Risser, chief engineer, dan Mayor Townsend, bahwa pada tanggal 24 Juni, rombongan survei dan pengawalnya telah "disusul oleh sebagian besar badai hujan es yang dahsyat, di mana manusia nyaris tidak bisa menyelamatkan diri, dan hewan-hewan yang menginjak-injak pawai telah menghancurkan gerobak mereka sedemikian rupa sehingga benar-benar melumpuhkan para insinyur dan pengawal." Stanley mengirim sisa dari Kavaleri ke-7 dan pakaian mekanik ke depan untuk surveyor untuk membantu memperbaiki kerusakan, sementara infanteri tinggal dengan kereta wagon berat. Pada tanggal 1 Juli, kereta infanteri dan gerobak telah menyeberangi Sungai Berlumpur, yang dibanjiri sekitar 60 kaki lebarnya, melalui jembatan ponton darurat dari tempat tidur gerobak yang terbalik, yang dirancang oleh kepala komisaris, Letnan P. H. Ray dari Infanteri ke-8. Saat ini Stanley mengirim 47 gerobak kembali ke Fort Rice untuk persediaan tambahan. Pada tanggal 5 Juli, infanteri yang mengawal gerobak telah menyusul rombongan survei di bawah Tuan Rosser, detasemen Infanteri Mayor Townsend, dan Kavaleri ke-7 di bawah Letnan Kolonel George A. Custer. Ekspedisi terus berlanjut, menyeberangi Sungai Little Missouri yang banjir, dan memasuki Wilayah Montana, mencapai Sungai Yellowstone, pada 13 Juli 1873. Custer dan dua skuadron kavaleri kemudian melintasi jalan setapak yang kasar, mencapai mulut Sungai Glendive di Yellowstone, di sana bertemu dengan kapal uap Kunci Barat, yang telah mendirikan depot pasokan pada saat itu. Setelah Stanley mencapai depot, ia meninggalkan dua kompi Kavaleri ke-7 dan satu kompi Infanteri ke-17 untuk menjaganya, dan pada tanggal 26 Juli, memiliki Kunci Barat mengangkut pasukan dan gerobak ke tepi utara Yellowstone. Setelah melakukan perjalanan ke barat, pada 1 Agustus, kolom Stanley bertemu dengan Kapal Uap Josephine di bawah Kapten Grant Marsh delapan mil di atas muara Sungai Powder. Kapten William Ludlow dari para insinyur telah membawa perahu itu ke atas dengan persediaan makanan ternak dan beberapa pakaian yang diperlukan. Malam itu ekspedisi memiliki bukti pertama kehadiran orang Indian, penjaga kamp menembaki beberapa orang di malam hari, dan jejak sepuluh orang terlihat jelas naik ke lembah keesokan paginya, 2 Agustus. Yellowstone, pengawalan satu kompi infanteri dan salah satu Kavaleri ke-7 mengurus rombongan survei, yang bertujuan mengikuti lembah, sementara kereta wagon harus mengambil banyak jalan memutar, meninggalkan lembah dan melintasi dataran tinggi tempat sungai berlari menutup tebing. [4]

Pada hari Minggu, 4 Agustus 1873, kolom Stanley berkemah di dekat muara Sunday Creek, anak sungai Yellowstone di ujung timur laut Yellowstone Hill di Custer County, Montana saat ini. Pagi-pagi sekali tanggal 4 Agustus 1873, kolom itu bergerak ke sisi barat laut bukit di sepanjang pertigaan selatan Sunday Creek. Kapten George W. Yates dengan kompi dari Kavaleri ke-7 menemani para surveyor di sepanjang sisi tenggara bukit di sepanjang Sungai Yellowstone. George Custer, dengan Kompi A dan B dari Kavaleri ke-7 di bawah komando Kapten Myles Moylan mengintai ke barat di depan barisan Stanley. Kelompok Custer terdiri dari 86 tamtama, 4 perwira, dan pramuka India. Kakak Custer, Letnan Satu Thomas Custer, dan saudara iparnya, Letnan Satu James Calhoun, menemaninya. [5]

Tembakan dipertukarkan dengan Prajurit Sioux di dekat Sungai Yellowstone di awal pertempuran, dan pasukan George Custer membentuk garis pertempuran. Sebuah tendangan voli dari garis cukup mengalihkan perhatian orang-orang India yang mengejar untuk menghentikan serangan para pejuang. Custer menyuruh Kapten Moylan menarik kembali Kompi A-nya ke daerah berhutan yang sebelumnya ditempati oleh Kompi A. [6] Setelah mencapai daerah berhutan, pasukan kavaleri turun, membentuk perimeter setengah lingkaran di sepanjang bekas saluran Sungai Yellowstone. Konfigurasi yang biasa untuk kavaleri turun adalah setiap orang keempat yang memegang kuda, namun, karena panjang perimeter setengah lingkaran, hanya setiap orang kedelapan yang dirinci untuk memegang kuda. [7] Tepi saluran kering berfungsi sebagai tembok pembatas alami.

Pengepungan prajurit pada detasemen Kavaleri ke-7 berlanjut selama sekitar tiga jam dalam panas yang dilaporkan 110 °F (43 °C), ketika tentara berkuda Custer meledak dari posisi sungai berhutan mereka dalam serangan yang menyebarkan pasukan Lakota Sioux, yang melarikan diri ke hulu dengan anak buah Custer dalam pengejaran. Para prajurit mengejar mereka sejauh hampir empat mil tetapi tidak pernah bisa mendekati mereka dengan cukup untuk melibatkan mereka. [8]

Ekspedisi Yellowstone berlanjut ke barat di Sungai Yellowstone sepanjang Agustus, mengamati sepanjang jalan. Pada tanggal 11 Agustus, pertempuran sengit dengan prajurit Sitting Bull di dekat muara Sungai Bighorn di tempat yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Pease Bottom mengakibatkan kematian Prajurit John H. Tuttle dan Letnan Satu Charles Braden yang terluka parah, keduanya dari 7th Kavaleri. Paha Braden hancur oleh peluru India dan perwira itu tetap cuti sakit permanen sampai pensiun dari tentara pada tahun 1878.

Setelah melakukan pengintaian di sepanjang Sungai Musselshell, Kolonel David S. Stanley dan Ekspedisi Yellowstone kembali menyusuri Sungai Yellowstone dan kembali ke Wilayah Dakota pada akhir tahun 1873, dengan ekspedisi yang berakhir pada tanggal 23 September 1873.

Ekspedisi Kolonel Staneley menyebabkan 11 orang tewas, dan 1 orang terluka. Nama empat orang yang tewas: John Honsinger, dokter hewan senior Kavaleri ke-7, Augustus Baliran, Sutler Kavaleri ke-7 Prajurit John Ball, Prajurit Kavaleri ke-7 John H. Tuttle, Kompi E, Kavaleri ke-7 Salah satu Letnan Satu Charles Braden yang terluka, Kavaleri ke-7. [9]

Korban penduduk asli Amerika saat berperang di Ekspedisi diperkirakan berjumlah 5 tewas, dengan banyak prajurit dan kuda lainnya terluka. [10]

Letnan Kolonel George A. Custer, Kapten Thomas W. Custer, Kapten George WM Yates, Letnan Satu James Calhoun, dan Letnan Dua Henry M. Harrington, perwira Kavaleri ke-7 yang menyertai ekspedisi Yellowstone semuanya tewas selama Pertempuran Little Bighorn, Montana pada 25 Juni 1876. Kapten Myles Moylan dan Letnan Dua Charles Varnum juga hadir tetapi selamat dari pertempuran. Moylan, empat tahun kemudian, dianugerahi Medali Kehormatan Kongres untuk keberanian yang mencolok pada Pertempuran Bear Paw, Montana, pada tanggal 30 September 1877, melawan Nez Perce di bawah Chief Joseph di dekat Havre, Montana saat ini. [11] Banteng Duduk, Empedu, Kuda Gila dan Hujan di Wajah yang semuanya berpartisipasi dalam pertempuran melawan Ekspedisi Yellowstone tahun 1873 juga berpartisipasi dalam Pertempuran Tanduk Besar Kecil.

Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat Sunting

    , Kompi C: Kapten James Powell , Kompi B, C, F dan H: Kapten Charles Porter , Kompi A, D, E, F, H dan I: Letnan Kolonel Luther P. Bradley , Kompi A, B dan H: Mayor Robert EA Crofton , Kompi E: Letnan Dua John McA. Webster , Kompi B, E, H, I dan K: Kolonel David S. Stanley, Kapten C. J. Dickey , Kompi A, B, C, E, F, G, H, K, L dan M: Letnan Kolonel George A. Custer
  • Bagian Artileri (dua) senapan persenjataan 3 inci (Meriam): Letnan Dua John McA. Webster
  • Pramuka India (27 pria): Letnan Dua Daniel H. Brush
  • Pemandu: Pemandu Utama Basil Clement, Tuan Reynolds, Tuan Norris
  • Warga sipil, 353 pria: Tuan Rosser, Tuan Frost, Tuan Clifford, Tuan Molesworth
  • Kapal uap Josephine: Kapten Grant Marsh
  • Kapal uap Kunci Barat:
  • 1.451 tamtama.
  • 79 Perwira.
  • 353 warga sipil.
  • 275 Gerobak dan Ambulans.
  • 2.321 Kuda.

Penduduk Asli Amerika Sunting

    David Sloane Stanley, Markas Besar, Infanteri ke-22. George Armstrong Custer, Markas Besar, Kavaleri ke-7. Luther P. Bradley, Markas Besar, Infanteri ke-9. Edwin Franklin Townsend, Markas Besar, Infanteri ke-9. Robert E. A. Crofton, Markas Besar, Infanteri ke-17. William Ludlow, Markas Besar, Korps Insinyur. Myles Moylan, Kompi A, Kavaleri ke-7. Thomas Ward Custer, Kavaleri ke-7. George Wilhelmus Mancius Yates, Kavaleri ke-7. James W. Powell, Infanteri ke-6. Charles Porter, Kompi B, Infanteri ke-8 Augustus W. Corliss, Kompi C, Infanteri ke-8. James J. VanHorn, Kompi F, Infanteri ke-8. Henry M. Lazelle, Kompi H, Infanteri ke-8. Philip H. Owen, Kompi D, Infanteri ke-9. Edward Pollock, Kompi E, Infanteri ke-9. Andrew S. Burt, Kompi H, Infanteri ke-9. Frederick Mears, Kompi I, Infanteri ke-9. William M. Van Horne, Kompi A, Infanteri ke-17. Charles J. Dickey, Infanteri ke-22. James Calhoun, Kompi L, Kavaleri ke-7. Charles Braden, Kavaleri ke-7. (Terluka saat beraksi) Daniel T. Wells, Kompi C, Infanteri ke-8. Egbert B. Savage, Kompi F, Infanteri ke-8. Cyrus A. Sungguh-sungguh, Kompi H, Infanteri ke-8. George W. Griffith, Kompi A, Infanteri ke-9. William B. Pease, Kompi D, Infanteri ke-9. James Regan, Kompi E, Infanteri ke-9. William E. Hofman, Kompi H, Infanteri ke-9. William P. Rogers, Kompi A, Infanteri ke-17. Charles Varnum, Kompi B, Kavaleri ke-7. Henry Moore Harrington, Kompi C, Kavaleri ke-7. Edward Lynch, Kompi C, Infanteri ke-8. Patrick Henry Ray, Kompi H, Infanteri ke-8. Jennifer H. Smallwood, Kompi A, Infanteri ke-9. William F. Norris, Kompi E, Infanteri ke-9. Charles M. Rockefeller, Kompi F, Infanteri ke-9. William L. Carpenter, Kompi H, Infanteri ke-9. James Mc B. Stembel, Kompi I, Infanteri ke-9. Daniel H. Brush, Kompi A, Infanteri ke-17. John McA. Webster, Kompi E, Infanteri ke-20.

Puisi Henry Wadsworth Longfellow "Revenge of Rain in the Face" menggambarkan bentrokan yang terjadi antara Rain in the Face dan Kapten Thomas Custer akibat Ekspedisi.

  1. ^ Lubetkin, M.John (2006). Taruhan Jay Cooke: Jalur Kereta Pasifik Utara, Sioux, dan Kepanikan 1873. Norman, Oklahoma, AS: Pers Universitas Oklahoma. ISBN0-8061-3740-1 .
  2. ^ Lubetkin, M. John, Jay Cooke's Gamble: The Northern Pacific Railroad, The Sioux and the Panic of 1873, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 2006 hal.187
  3. ^ Lubetkin, M. John, Clash on the Yellowstone, Review Penelitian: The Journal of Little Big Horn Associates, Vol. 17, No. 2, Musim Panas, 2003, hlm. 17
  4. ^
  5. Stanley, David S. (1874). Laporan Ekspedisi Yellowstone tahun 1873. Washington, D.C.: Kantor Percetakan Pemerintah.
  6. ^ Lubetkin, Taruhan Jay Cooke, supra, di 242
  7. ^ Lubetkin, Taruhan Jay Cooke, supra, di 246
  8. ^ Lubetkin, Taruhan Jay Cook, di atas 246
  9. ^ Lubetkin, Taruhan Jay Cook, di atas 247
  10. ^ Brown, Mark H., Plainsmen of the Yellowstone, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York 1961, hal. 206
  11. ^ Coklat, supra di 206
  12. ^http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/citations_1865_ind/moylan.html

Lubetkin, M. John, Jay Cooke's Gamble: The Northern Pacific Railroad, The Sioux, and the Panic of 1873, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma 2006 0-8061-3740-1


Kehidupan Awal Chief Rain

Chief Rain lahir di sebuah rumah tangga yang sederhana pada tahun 1835. Ayah dan kakeknya adalah pemburu dan pembuat pesta. Dia memiliki nama lahir Iromagaja. Ia lahir di Sungai Cheyenne di Dakota Utara, meskipun, ia bukan anggota suku Cheyenne. Seperti disebutkan, dia adalah bagian dari Hunkpapa Sioux. Selama masa kecilnya, dia suka berkelahi, mengumpulkan citranya sebagai orang yang sulit ditangani. Dia juga sangat kompetitif. Itu juga karena dia rentan terhadap perkelahian sehingga dia mendapat nama Kepala Hujan di Wajah. Ada dua teori tentang bagaimana dia mendapatkan nama itu.

Salah satunya adalah selama salah satu petualangannya dan teman-temannya, mereka menemukan sekelompok anak laki-laki Cheyenne yang lebih tua. Mereka terlibat perkelahian palsu. Chief Rain muda menghadapi yang terkuat dari grup, dan itu menjadi salah satu pertarungan paling serius yang dia alami pada usia itu. Anak laki-laki yang lebih tua juga seorang petarung yang baik, dan dengan itu, dia dipukul dengan keras di wajahnya, membuatnya terlalu berdarah. Dia masih bisa mengalahkan anak laki-laki Cheyenne, tapi wajahnya tampak berlumuran darah sehingga “Hujan di Wajah.” Yang lainnya adalah selama pertarungannya dengan Gros Ventres. Perkelahian terjadi pada hari hujan. Di tengah-tengahnya, cat perang di wajahnya tersapu oleh hujan, dan mereka mencoret-coret seluruh wajahnya, merah dan hitam. Dengan namanya yang berasal dari kemenangannya, itu sangat terhormat di pihaknya.


Hujan di Wajah - Sejarah

Ada masalah Kejadian 2:5-6:

Pemahaman saya tentang ayat ini (dan ayat-ayat berikutnya) memberi saya banyak alasan untuk mengatakan bahwa mereka berbicara tentang awal siklus hujan. Alkitab memang mengatakan bahwa Tuhan tidak menurunkan hujan ke bumi, tetapi juga dengan cepat menambahkan, "tidak ada orang untuk menggarap tanah."

Ini akan membatasi waktu tidak ada hujan dari hari ketiga sampai beberapa saat sebelum kedatangan manusia pada hari keenam – bukan seluruh era sebelum Air Bah. Saya melihat arti dari ayat tersebut sebagai berikut:

Beberapa kebingungan telah muncul mengenai arti yang tepat dari kata Ibrani ed diterjemahkan "kabut" dalam Kejadian 2:5 oleh KJV, RSV, dan lain-lain. NIV, misalnya, menerjemahkan bahasa Ibrani di sini sebagai "sungai". Memang benar bahwa Kejadian 2:10 berbicara tentang "sebuah sungai [itu] mengalir keluar dari Eden untuk menyirami taman itu, dan di sana taman itu terbagi dan menjadi empat sungai" [bukan "jutaan", saya bisa menambahkan].

Tidak ada keraguan bahwa sungai ini, serta sungai-sungai saat ini, mengairi tanaman di dekatnya. Tapi, sungai pada akhirnya memiliki sumbernya melalui curah hujan! Kita tidak boleh mengira bahwa bumi akan menopang kehidupan tumbuhan [dan karenanya, hewan] jika tidak hujan dan seluruh bumi bergantung pada sungai yang entah bagaimana mengalir tanpa curah hujan.

Ayat paralel dengan Kejadian 2:5 menggunakan kata Ibrani yang sama ed (diterjemahkan "kabut") adalah Ayub 36:27. Sangat menarik untuk memperhatikan bahwa ayat pendamping dalam Ayub ini menyisakan sedikit ruang untuk keraguan tentang arti kata Ibrani ini:

Air menguap dari lautan ["naik"] dan awan [terdiri dari kabut] memberi kita hujan. Hujan terbentuk dan jatuh dari awan (terdiri dari "kabut" [ed]).

Jadi, Kejadian 2:5 akan menjadi signifikan dalam memberitahu kita awal dari siklus hidrologi atau air. Dan permulaan itu adalah sebelum penciptaan manusia. Nuh (atau siapa pun dari bumi pra-Air Bah) tampaknya tidak mengalami kesulitan dalam memahami curah hujan. Masalahnya adalah dengan pertobatan dan perubahan hidup.

Siklus hidrologi juga dengan tepat dijelaskan dalam Pengkhotbah 1:7:

Jika tidak ada hujan sebelum Air Bah, seperti yang diyakini sebagian orang, dari mana datangnya air untuk semua sungai pada masa sebelum Air Bah dan mengapa lautan tidak "mengisi"?

Selain itu, catatan geologi memberi kita bukti bahwa hujan telah umum di bumi sejak awal. Jejak rintik hujan ditemukan dalam urutan geologi strata di semua wilayah bumi. Ini menyaksikan lamanya curah hujan di bumi sejak Minggu Penciptaan ketika Kejadian Satu menunjukkan bahwa Tuhan memulai siklus hidrologi tak lama sebelum penciptaan Manusia untuk memastikan sumber air yang berkelanjutan untuk tanah, sungai dan danau.

Tak satu pun dari ini, tentu saja, mengabaikan reservoir air bawah tanah, tetapi sekali lagi, bagaimana reservoir seperti itu berasal? Atau, mungkin lebih baik lagi, bagaimana mereka diisi ulang? Tentu saja hari ini di akuifer yang dapat diisi ulang melalui curah hujan. Ketika hujan turun, ketika ada kekeringan (seperti yang kita alami di berbagai daerah sekarang), turun.

Penafsiran yang salah dari Kejadian 2:5-6 akan menyangkal bagaimana Tuhan mengganggu Bumi sebelum Air Bah dalam upaya untuk membawa pertobatan. (Lihat model geologis Penciptaan/Kutukan/Bencana edisi 2000 dan 2007 untuk informasi rinci.) Curah hujan adalah bagian intrinsik dari sejarah awal Bumi, sama seperti saat ini.


Rain-in-the-Face (juga dikenal sebagai Ito-na-gaju atau Exa-ma-gozua) adalah seorang kepala suku Lakota. Dia termasuk di antara para pemimpin India yang mengalahkan George Armstrong Custer dan Resimen Kavaleri ke-7 AS pada Pertempuran Little Big Horn tahun 1876.

Lahir di Wilayah Dakota dekat percabangan Sungai Cheyenne sekitar tahun 1835, Rain-in-the-Face berasal dari band Hunkpapa di negara Lakota. Namanya mungkin diberikan kepadanya sebagai akibat dari perkelahian dengan seorang anak Cheyenne ketika dia masih cukup muda, wajahnya berlumuran seperti hujan dengan darah musuh Cheyenne-nya. Di penghujung hidupnya, kepala suku menceritakan bahwa nama itu diperkuat oleh sebuah insiden ketika dia masih muda di mana dia berada dalam pertempuran di tengah hujan badai dengan sekelompok Gros Ventres. Di akhir pertempuran yang panjang, wajahnya tercoreng dengan cat perang.

Dia pertama kali berperang melawan kulit putih pada musim panas 1866 ketika dia berpartisipasi dalam serangan melawan Fort Totten di tempat yang sekarang disebut North Dakota. Pada tahun 1866, ia kembali bertempur melawan Angkatan Darat AS dalam pembantaian Fetterman di dekat Fort Phil Kearny di Montana saat ini. Dia kembali berada di jalur perang selama Perang Bukit Hitam, memimpin serangan di dekat Sungai Lidah di mana dua warga sipil kulit putih yang menyertai kavaleri Custer terbunuh. Dia kembali ke Reservasi Batu Berdiri, tetapi ditangkap oleh Custer setelah dikhianati oleh orang Indian reservasi. Dia dibawa ke Fort Abraham Lincoln dan dipenjara. Namun, dia dibebaskan oleh seorang prajurit yang simpatik dan kembali ke reservasi, lalu melarikan diri ke Sungai Bubuk. Pada musim semi 1876, ia bergabung dengan Sioux yang bermusuhan di bawah Sitting Bull dan melakukan perjalanan bersamanya ke Little Big Horn River pada awal Juni.

Selama pertempuran berikutnya di Custer Hill pada tanggal 26 Juni, Rain-in-the-Face diduga telah memotong hati Thomas Custer, suatu prestasi yang dipopulerkan oleh penyair Amerika Henry Wadsworth Longfellow dalam "The Revenge of Rain in the Face ." Menurut legenda, Tom Custer telah secara tidak adil memenjarakan Rain-in-the-Face. Beberapa catatan kontemporer juga mengklaim bahwa kepala suku secara pribadi telah mengirim George Custer juga, tetapi dalam pertempuran yang membingungkan, sejumlah klaim serupa telah dikaitkan dengan prajurit lain.

Rain-in-the-Face meninggal di rumahnya di Bullhead Station di Standing Rock Reservation di North Dakota setelah lama sakit.


Hujan di Wajah

baru

Diposting oleh gocav76 pada 27 November 2007 20:54:24 GMT -5

clw
Ahli Agung

Diposting oleh clw pada 28 Nov 2007 11:26:12 GMT -5

“Jika tidak ada anjing di surga, maka ketika saya mati saya ingin pergi ke tempat mereka
pergi.". Will Rogers

Diposkan oleh harpskiddie pada 28 November 2007 12:19:41 GMT -5

Kisah Kent Thomas mungkin adalah kisah Hujan yang paling terkenal [kecuali kisah "penangkapan" dan puisi Longfellow]. Saya selalu berpikir komentar yang paling jitu tentang legitimasi cerita terkandung di dalamnya - "Pengetahuan bahasa Inggrisnya terbatas pada sekitar tiga puluh kata, tetapi dia tidak bisa mengatakannya sehingga siapa pun dapat memahaminya."

Dalam artikelnya, yang muncul di Outdoor Life, Maret 1903, Rain juga mengklaim telah membunuh "sutler dan dukun kuda" selama kampanye Yellowstone 1873 Custer: "Suatu pagi saya melihat sutler dan seorang dukun kuda pergi ke sebuah musim semi Rambut Kuning Panjang dan anak buahnya berkuda kembali sekitar 100 yard. Aku bergegas dan menembak sutler dan mengotak-atik dukun kuda dengan tongkat perangku lalu aku menembak mereka penuh panah dan memotong beberapa kancing. Rambut Kuning Panjang mendengar tembakan itu dan pasukannya menyerang balik. Saya tidak punya waktu untuk menguliti orang-orang yang saya dapatkan. Saya melompat ke atas kuda saya dan berteriak kepada mereka untuk menangkap saya. Mereka mengejar saya ke Cannon Ball. Charlie Reynolds mengenal saya dan memberi tahu Rambut Kuning Panjang siapa melakukan tindakan berani ini."

"Musim dingin berikutnya saya pergi ke toko agen di Standing Rock. Rambut Kecil memiliki tiga puluh pedang panjang di sana. Dia menyelinap di belakang saya seperti orang gemuk, ketika punggung saya diputar. Mereka semua menumpuk saya sekaligus mereka melemparkan saya ke gerobak yang sakit dan menahanku sampai mereka membawaku ke ruang jaga di Lincoln."

"Saya diperlakukan seperti orang gila. Saya memberi tahu Rambut Kecil bahwa saya akan pergi suatu saat ketika saya belum siap: ketika saya melakukannya, saya akan memotong jantungnya dan memakannya. Saya dirantai ke seorang pria kulit putih. Suatu malam Saya lolos. Mereka menembaki kami, tetapi kami lari dan bersembunyi di tepi Sungai Hart di semak-semak. Orang kulit putih itu memotong rantai dengan pisau. Mereka menangkapnya keesokan harinya."

"Saya bergabung kembali dengan Sitting Bull and Gall. Mereka takut untuk datang dan membawa saya ke sana. Saya mengirim gambar Little Hair, pada selembar kulit kerbau, hati yang berdarah. Dia tahu saya tidak melupakan sumpah saya. Lain kali Aku melihat Rambut Kecil, ugh! Aku mendapatkan hatinya. Aku sudah mengatakan semuanya."

[Seorang saksi kemudian menunjukkan kepada Rain sebuah sketsa yang dia lakukan tentang "Custer's Last Charge," dan bertanya apakah pertarungan itu terlihat seperti sketsa itu].

Ada lebih banyak cerita, tetapi semuanya berjalan dalam nada yang sama. Ada beberapa kesalahan mencolok, yang tidak dapat dihapuskan ke memori yang salah, karena Rain tampaknya mengingat hal lain dengan cukup baik, dan dia bukanlah orang tua pada tahun 1894, ketika dia seharusnya menceritakan kisah itu. Untuk satu hal, dia melaporkan bahwa Rees dengan Custer menyanyikan lagu kematian mereka, tetapi tentu saja, kita tahu bahwa Rees tidak berada di pegunungan dengan Custer, bahkan tidak ada Pramuka India. Dia juga menyatakan bahwa kamp-kamp itu bergerak ke utara untuk menjauh dari Terry dan Gibbon, padahal sebenarnya itu adalah arah lain.

Dan kemudian kami memiliki bukti dari beberapa saksi bahwa, meskipun dimutilasi dan dikeluarkan secara mengerikan, hati Tom Custer tidak dipotong. Seperti yang dikatakan clw, cerita yang luar biasa. James McLaughlin ditunjuk sebagai penerjemah.

crzhrs
Grand Master


Hujan di Wajah

Prajurit Sioux yang terkenal, Rain-in-the-Face, yang namanya pernah membawa teror ke setiap bagian perbatasan, meninggal di rumahnya di cagar Standing Rock di North Dakota pada 14 September 1905. Sekitar dua bulan sebelum kematiannya, saya pergi menemuinya untuk terakhir kalinya, di mana dia berbaring di tempat tidur penyakit yang tidak pernah dia bangun lagi, dan mengambil darinya riwayat hidupnya. Menurut pengalaman saya, Anda tidak dapat membujuk orang India untuk menceritakan sebuah kisah, atau bahkan namanya sendiri, dengan menanyakannya secara langsung.

“Teman,” Saya berkata, “bahkan jika seorang pria berada di jalan yang panas, dia berhenti untuk merokok! Di masa lalu yang indah, sebelum serangan ada asap. Di rumah, di dekat perapian, ketika orang-orang tua itu diminta untuk menceritakan keberanian mereka, sekali lagi pipa itu dilewatkan. Jadi ayo, mari kita merokok sekarang untuk mengenang masa lalu! Dia mengambil tembakau saya dan mengisi pipa panjangnya, dan kami merokok. Kemudian saya menceritakan sebuah kisah lama yang menyenangkan untuk membuatnya tertarik untuk menceritakan sejarahnya sendiri.

Lelaki tua itu berbaring di atas ranjang besi, ditutupi selimut merah, di sudut pondok kayu kecil. Dia sendirian hari itu, hanya seekor anjing tua yang berbaring diam dan waspada di kaki tuannya. Akhirnya dia mendongak dan berkata dengan senyum yang menyenangkan:

“Benar, teman, sudah menjadi kebiasaan lama untuk menelusuri kembali jejak seseorang sebelum meninggalkannya selamanya! Saya tahu bahwa saya berada di pintu rumah roh.

“Saya lahir di dekat percabangan Sungai Cheyenne, sekitar tujuh puluh tahun yang lalu. Ayah saya bukan kepala suku, kakek saya bukan kepala suku, tapi pemburu yang baik dan pembuat pesta. Di pihak ibu saya, saya memiliki beberapa leluhur yang terkenal, tetapi mereka tidak meninggalkan saya sebagai kepala suku. Saya harus bekerja untuk reputasi saya.

“Ketika saya masih kecil, saya suka berkelahi,” lanjutnya. “Dalam semua permainan kekanak-kanakan kami, saya memiliki nama yang sulit untuk ditangani, dan saya sangat bangga dengan kenyataan itu.

“Saya berusia sekitar sepuluh tahun ketika kami bertemu dengan sekelompok Cheyennes. Mereka bersahabat baik dengan kami, tetapi kami para lelaki selalu terlibat dalam perkelahian palsu pada kesempatan seperti itu, dan kali ini saya berkelahi secara jujur ​​dengan seorang bocah Cheyenne yang lebih tua dari saya. Saya mendapatkan yang terbaik dari anak laki-laki itu, tetapi dia memukul saya dengan keras. di wajah beberapa kali, dan wajah saya semua berlumuran darah dan coretan di mana cat telah hanyut. Anak-anak Sioux berteriak dan berteriak:

“‘Musuhnya jatuh, dan wajahnya terciprat seperti hujan! Hujan di Wajah! Namanya akan menjadi Rain-in-the-Face!’

“Setelah itu, ketika saya masih muda, kami pergi berperang melawan Gros Ventres. Kami mencuri beberapa kuda mereka, tetapi disusul dan harus meninggalkan kuda-kuda itu dan berjuang untuk hidup kami. Saya berharap wajah saya mewakili matahari ketika sebagian tertutup kegelapan, jadi saya melukisnya setengah hitam, setengah merah. Kami bertarung sepanjang hari di tengah hujan, dan sebagian wajahku dibasuh dan diwarnai merah dan hitam: jadi sekali lagi aku dibaptis dengan Rain-in-the-Face. Kami menganggapnya sebagai nama yang terhormat.

'Saya telah berada di banyak jalur perang, tetapi tidak terlalu berhasil sampai kira-kira saat Sioux mulai bertarung dengan orang kulit putih. Salah satu serangan paling berani yang pernah kami lakukan adalah di Fort Totten, North Dakota, pada musim panas 1866.

“Hohay, Assiniboine tawanan Sitting Bull, adalah pemimpin dalam serangan ini. Wapaypay, si Beruang Tak Takut, yang kemudian digantung di Yankton, adalah orang paling berani di antara kami. Dia menantang Hohay untuk membuat tuduhan. Hohay menerima tantangan itu, dan pada gilirannya menantang yang lain untuk ikut dengannya melalui agensi dan tepat di bawah tembok benteng, yang dijaga dengan baik dan kuat.

“Wapaypay dan saya pada masa itu saling memanggil ‘saudara-teman.’ Itu adalah sumpah hidup dan mati. Apa yang harus dilakukan yang lain dan itu berarti bahwa saya harus berada di garis depan serangan, dan jika dia terbunuh, saya harus bertarung sampai mati juga!

“Saya siap menghadapi kematian. Saya melukis seperti biasa seperti gerhana matahari, setengah hitam dan setengah merah.”

Matanya berbinar dan wajahnya bersinar luar biasa saat dia berbicara, mendorong rambut hitamnya ke belakang dari dahinya dengan gerakan gugup.

“Sekarang sinyal untuk pengisian telah diberikan! Saya mulai bahkan dengan Wapaypay, tetapi kudanya lebih cepat dari saya, jadi dia meninggalkan saya sedikit di belakang saat kami mendekati benteng. Ini buruk bagiku, karena pada saat itu para prajurit sudah agak pulih dari keterkejutan dan membidik lebih baik.

“Pistol besar mereka berbicara sangat keras, tetapi Wapaypay saya memimpin, bersandar ke depan di atas kuda poni armadanya seperti tupai terbang di atas kayu yang mulus! Dia memegang perisai kulit mentahnya di sisi kanan, sedikit ke depan, dan aku juga. Warwhoop kami seperti coyote bernyanyi di malam hari, ketika mereka mencium bau darah!

“Prajurit’ senjata berbicara cepat, tetapi hanya sedikit yang terluka. Pistol besar mereka seperti anjing tua ompong, yang hanya membuat dirinya lebih panas dengan lebih banyak suara yang dia buat,” dia berkomentar dengan sedikit humor.

“How much harm we did I do not know, but we made things lively for a time and the white men acted as people do when a swarm of angry bees get into camp. We made a successful retreat, but some of the reservation Indians followed us yelling, until Hohay told them that he did not wish to fight with the captives of the white man, for there would be no honor in that. There was blood running down my leg, and I found that both my horse and I were slightly wounded.

“Some two years later we attacked a fort west of the Black Hills [Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming]. It was there we killed one hundred soldiers.” [The military reports say eighty men, under the command of Captain Fetterman—not one left alive to tell the tale!] “Nearly every band of the Sioux nation was represented in that fight—Red Cloud, Spotted Tail, Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Big Foot, and all our great chiefs were there. Of course such men as I were then comparatively unknown. However, there were many noted young warriors, among them Sword, the younger Young-Man-Afraid, American Horse [afterward chief], Crow King, and others.

“This was the plan decided upon after many councils. The main war party lay in ambush, and a few of the bravest young men were appointed to attack the woodchoppers who were cutting logs to complete the building of the fort. We were told not to kill these men, but to chase them into the fort and retreat slowly, defying the white men and if the soldiers should follow, we were to lead them into the ambush. They took our bait exactly as we had hoped! It was a matter of a very few minutes, for every soldier lay dead in a shorter time than it takes to annihilate a small herd of buffalo.

“This attack was hastened because most of the Sioux on the Missouri River and eastward had begun to talk of suing for peace. But even this did not stop the peace movement. The very next year a treaty was signed at Fort Rice, Dakota Territory, by nearly all the Sioux chiefs, in which it was agreed on the part of the Great Father in Washington that all the country north of the Republican River in Nebraska, including the Black Hills and the Big Horn Mountains, was to be always Sioux country, and no white man should intrude upon it without our permission. Even with this agreement Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were not satisfied, and they would not sign.

“Up to this time I had fought in some important battles, but had achieved no great deed. I was ambitious to make a name for myself. I joined war parties against the Crows, Mandans, Gros Ventres, and Pawnees, and gained some little distinction.

“It was when the white men found the yellow metal in our country, and came in great numbers, driving away our game, that we took up arms against them for the last time. I must say here that the chiefs who were loudest for war were among the first to submit and accept reservation life. Spotted Tail was a great warrior, yet he was one of the first to yield, because he was promised by the Chief Soldiers that they would make him chief of all the Sioux. Ugh! he would have stayed with Sitting Bull to the last had it not been for his ambition.

“About this time we young warriors began to watch the trails of the white men into the Black Hills, and when we saw a wagon coming we would hide at the crossing and kill them all without much trouble. We did this to discourage the whites from coming into our country without our permission. It was the duty of our Great Father at Washington, by the agreement of 1868, to keep his white children away.

“During the troublesome time after this treaty, which no one seemed to respect, either white or Indian [but the whites broke it first], I was like many other young men—much on the warpath, but with little honor. I had not yet become noted for any great deed. Finally, Wapaypay and I waylaid and killed a white soldier on his way from the fort to his home in the east.

“There were a few Indians who were liars, and never on the warpath, playing ‘good Indian’ with the Indian agents and the war chiefs at the forts. Some of this faithless set betrayed me, and told more than I ever did. I was seized and taken to the fort near Bismarck, North Dakota [Fort Abraham Lincoln], by a brother [Tom Custer] of the Long-Haired War Chief, and imprisoned there. These same lying Indians, who were selling their services as scouts to the white man, told me that I was to be shot to death, or else hanged upon a tree. I answered that I was not afraid to die.

“However, there was an old soldier who used to bring my food and stand guard over me—he was a white man, it is true, but he had an Indian heart! He came to me one day and unfastened the iron chain and ball with which they had locked my leg, saying by signs and what little Sioux he could muster:

“‘Go, friend! take the chain and ball with you. I shall shoot, but the voice of the gun will lie.’

“When he had made me understand, you may guess that I ran my best! I was almost over the bank when he fired his piece at me several times, but I had already gained cover and was safe. I have never told this before, and would not, lest it should do him an injury, but he was an old man then, and I am sure he must be dead long since. That old soldier taught me that some of the white people have hearts,” he added, quite seriously.

“I went back to Standing Rock in the night, and I had to hide for several days in the woods, where food was brought to me by my relatives. The Indian police were ordered to retake me, and they pretended to hunt for me, but really they did not, for if they had found me I would have died with one or two of them, and they knew it! In a few days I departed with several others, and we rejoined the hostile camp on the Powder River and made some trouble for the men who were building the great iron track north of us [Northern Pacific].

“In the spring the hostile Sioux got together again upon the Tongue River. It was one of the greatest camps of the Sioux that I ever saw. There were some Northern Cheyennes with us, under Two Moon, and a few Santee Sioux, renegades from Canada, under Inkpaduta, who had killed white people in Iowa long before. We had decided to fight the white soldiers until no warrior should be left.”

At this point Rain-in-the-Face took up his tobacco pouch and began again to fill his pipe.

“Of course the younger warriors were delighted with the prospect of a great fight! Our scouts had discovered piles of oats for horses and other supplies near the Missouri River. They had been brought by the white man’s fire-boats. Presently they reported a great army about a day’s travel to the south, with Shoshone and Crow scouts.

“There was excitement among the people, and a great council was held. Many spoke. I was asked the condition of those Indians who had gone upon the reservation, and I told them truly that they were nothing more than prisoners. It was decided to go out and meet Three Stars [General Crook] at a safe distance from our camp.

“We met him on the Little Rosebud. I believe that if we had waited and allowed him to make the attack, he would have fared no better than Custer. He was too strongly fortified where he was, and I think, too, that he was saved partly by his Indian allies, for the scouts discovered us first and fought us first, thus giving him time to make his preparations. I think he was more wise than brave! After we had left that neighborhood he might have pushed on and connected with the Long-Haired Chief. That would have saved Custer and perhaps won the day.

“When we crossed from Tongue River to the Little Big Horn, on account of the scarcity of game, we did not anticipate any more trouble. Our runners had discovered that Crook had retraced his trail to Goose Creek, and we did not suppose that the white men would care to follow us farther into the rough country.

“Suddenly the Long-Haired Chief appeared with his men! It was a surprise.”

“What part of the camp were you in when the soldiers attacked the lower end?” I asked.

“I had been invited to a feast at one of the young men’s lodges [a sort of club]. There was a certain warrior who was making preparations to go against the Crows, and I had decided to go also,” he said.

“While I was eating my meat we heard the war cry! We all rushed out, and saw a warrior riding at top speed from the lower camp, giving the warning as he came. Then we heard the reports of the soldiers’ guns, which sounded differently from the guns fired by our people in battle.

“I ran to my teepee and seized my gun, a bow, and a quiver full of arrows. I already had my stone war club, for you know we usually carry those by way of ornament. Just as I was about to set out to meet Reno, a body of soldiers appeared nearly opposite us, at the edge of a long line of cliffs across the river.

“All of us who were mounted and ready immediately started down the stream toward the ford. There were Ogallalas, Minneconjous, Cheyennes, and some Unkpapas, and those around me seemed to be nearly all very young men.

“‘Behold, there is among us a young woman!’ I shouted. ‘Let no young man hide behind her garment!’ I knew that would make those young men brave.

“The woman was Tashenamani, or Moving Robe, whose brother had just been killed in the fight with Three Stars. Holding her brother’s war staff over her head, and leaning forward upon her charger, she looked as pretty as a bird. Always when there is a woman in the charge, it causes the warriors to vie with one another in displaying their valor,” he added.

“The foremost warriors had almost surrounded the white men, and more were continually crossing the stream. The soldiers had dismounted, and were firing into the camp from the top of the cliff.”

“My friend, was Sitting Bull in this fight?” I inquired.

“I did not see him there, but I learned afterward that he was among those who met Reno, and that was three or four of the white man’s miles from Custer’s position. Later he joined the attack upon Custer, but was not among the foremost.

“When the troops were surrounded on two sides, with the river on the third, the order came to charge! There were many very young men, some of whom had only a war staff or a stone war club in hand, who plunged into the column, knocking the men over and stampeding their horses.

“The soldiers had mounted and started back, but when the onset came they dismounted again and separated into several divisions, facing different ways. They fired as fast as they could load their guns, while we used chiefly arrows and war clubs. There seemed to be two distinct movements among the Indians. One body moved continually in a circle, while the other rode directly into and through the troops.

“Presently some of the soldiers remounted and fled along the ridge toward Reno’s position but they were followed by our warriors, like hundreds of blackbirds after a hawk. A larger body remained together at the upper end of a little ravine, and fought bravely until they were cut to pieces. I had always thought that white men were cowards, but I had a great respect for them after this day.

“It is generally said that a young man with nothing but a war staff in his hand broke through the column and knocked down the leader very early in the fight. We supposed him to be the leader, because he stood up in full view, swinging his big knife [sword] over his head, and talking loud. Some one unknown afterwards shot the chief, and he was probably killed also for if not, he would have told of the deed, and called others to witness it. So it is that no one knows who killed the Long-Haired Chief [General Custer].

“After the first rush was over, coups were counted as usual on the bodies of the slain. You know four coups [or blows] can be counted on the body of an enemy, and whoever counts the first one [touches it for the first time] is entitled to the ‘first feather.’

“There was an Indian here called Appearing Elk, who died a short time ago. He was slightly wounded in the charge. He had some of the weapons of the Long-Haired Chief, and the Indians used to say jokingly after we came upon the reservation that Appearing Elk must have killed the Chief, because he had his sword! However, the scramble for plunder did not begin until all were dead. I do not think he killed Custer, and if he had, the time to claim the honor was immediately after the fight.

“Many lies have been told of me. Some say that I killed the Chief, and others that I cut out the heart of his brother [Tom Custer], because he had caused me to be imprisoned. Why, in that fight the excitement was so great that we scarcely recognized our nearest friends! Everything was done like lightning. After the battle we young men were chasing horses all over the prairie, while the old men and women plundered the bodies and if any mutilating was done, it was by the old men.

“I have lived peaceably ever since we came upon the reservation. No one can say that Rain-in-the-Face has broken the rules of the Great Father. I fought for my people and my country. When we were conquered I remained silent, as a warrior should. Rain-in-the-Face was killed when he put down his weapons before the Great Father. His spirit was gone then only his poor body lived on, but now it is almost ready to lie down for the last time. Ho, hechetu! [It is well.]”

SOURCE:INDIAN HEROES AND GREAT CHIEFTAINS by Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa)


Rain in the Face - History

Rain In The Face's Story of the Battle #1
A Hunkpapa Sioux's account of the Battle of the Little Bighorn

As told to Dr. Charles Eastman in 1906. Here is an 1894 account, along with the famous poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, "The Revenge of Rain-in-the-Face."

RAIN IN THE FACE'S ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF THE LITTLE BIGHORN

By Dr. Charles Eastman (Ohiyesa)

The noted Sioux warrior, Rain-in-the-Face, whose name once carried terror to every part of the frontier, died at his home on the Standing Rock reserve in North Dakota on the 14th of October, 1905. About two months before his death I went to see him for the last time, where he lay upon the bed of sickness from which he never rose again, and drew from him his life history.

It has been my experience that you cannot induce an Indian to tell a story, or even his own name, by asking him directly.

"Friend," I said, "even if a man is on a hot trail, he stops for a smoke. In the good old days, before the charge there was a smoke. At home, by the fireside, when the old men were asked to tell their brave deeds, again the pipe was passed. So come, let us smoke now to the memory of the old days."

He took of my tobacco and filled his long pipe, and we smoked. Then I told an old mirthful story to get him in the humor of relating his own history.

The old man lay upon an iron bedstead, covered by a red blanket, in a corner of the little log cabin. He was all alone that day only an old dog lay silent and watchful at his master's feet.

Finally he looked up and said with a pleasant smile: "True, friend it is the old custom to retrace one's trail before leaving it forever. I know that I am at the door of the spirit home.

"I was born near the forks of the Cheyenne River, about seventy years ago. My father was not a chief my grandfather was not a chief, but a good hunter and feastmaker. On my mother's side I had some noted ancestors, but they left me no chieftainship. I had to work for my reputation.

"When I was a boy, I loved to fight," he continued. "In all our boyish games I had the name of being hard to handle, and I took much pride in the fact.

"I was about ten years old when we encountered a band of Cheyennes. They were on friendly terms with us, but we boys always indulged in sham fights on such occasions, and this time I got in an honest fight with a Cheyenne boy older than I. I got the best of the boy, but he hit me hard in the face several times, and my face was all spattered with blood and streaked where the paint had been washed away. The Sioux boys whooped and yelled:

"'His enemy is down, and his face is spattered as if with rain! Rain-in-the-Face! His name shall be Rain-in-the-Face!"

"WHEN WE CROSSED from Tongue River to the Little Big Horn, on account of the scarcity of game, we did not anticipate any more trouble. Our runners had discovered that Crook had retraced his trail to Goose Creek, and we did not suppose that the white men would care to follow us farther into the rough country.

"Suddenly the Long-Haired Chief appeared with his men! It was a surprise."

"What part of the camp were you in when the soldiers attacked the lower end?" I asked.

"I had been invited to a feast at one of the young men's lodges [a sort of club]. There was a certain warrior who was making preparations to go against the Crows, and I had decided to go also," he said.

"While I was eating my meat we heard the war cry! We all rushed out, and saw a warrior riding at top speed from the lower camp, giving the warning as he came. Then we heard the reports of the soldiers' guns, which sounded differently from the guns fired by our people in battle.

"I ran to my teepee and seized my gun, a bow, and a quiver full of arrows. I already had my stone war club, for you know we usually carry those by way of ornament. Just as I was about to set out to meet Reno, a body of soldiers appeared nearly opposite us, at the edge of a long line of cliffs across the river.

"All of us who were mounted and ready immediately started down the stream toward the ford. There were Ogallalas, Minneconjous, Cheyennes, and some Unkpapas, and those around me seemed to be nearly all very young men.

"'Behold, there is among us a young woman!' I shouted. 'Let no young man hide behind her garment!' I knew that would make those young men brave.

"The woman was Tashenamani , or Moving Robe, whose brother had just been killed in the fight with Three Stars . Holding her brother's war staff over her head, and leaning forward upon her charger, she looked as pretty as a bird. Always when there is a woman in the charge, it causes the warriors to vie with one another in displaying their valor," he added.

"The foremost warriors had almost surrounded the white men, and more were continually crossing the stream. The soldiers had dismounted, and were firing into the camp from the top of the cliff."

"My friend, was Sitting Bull in this fight?" I inquired.

"I did not see him there, but I learned afterward that he was among those who met Reno, and that was three or four of the white man's miles from pelanggan's position. Later he joined the attack upon pelanggan, but was not among the foremost.

"When the troops were surrounded on two sides, with the river on the third, the order came to charge! There were many very young men, some of whom had only a war staff or a stone war club in hand, who plunged into the column, knocking the men over and stampeding their horses. [Note: these could have been the Cheyenne suicide warriors.]

"The soldiers had mounted and started back, but when the onset came they dismounted again and separated into several divisions, facing different ways. They fired as fast as they could load their guns, while we used chiefly arrows and war clubs. There seemed to be two distinct movements among the Indians. One body moved continually in a circle, while the other rode directly into and through the troops.

"Presently some of the soldiers remounted and fled along the ridge toward Reno 's position but they were followed by our warriors, like hundreds of blackbirds after a hawk. A larger body remained together at the upper end of a little ravine, and fought bravely until they were cut to pieces. I had always thought that white men were cowards, but I had a great respect for them after this day.

"It is generally said that a young man with nothing but a war staff in his hand broke through the column and knocked down the leader very early in the fight. We supposed him to be the leader, because he stood up in full view, swinging his big knife [sword] over his head, and talking loud. Some one unknown afterwards shot the chief, and he was probably killed also for if not, he would have told of the deed, and called others to witness it. So it is that no one knows who killed the Long-Haired Chief [ General Custer ]. [Note: Eye-witness Edward Godfrey said Custer 's men were not carrying sabers that day. See Who Killed Custer -- The Eye-witness Answer for more info.]

"After the first rush was over, coups were counted as usual on the bodies of the slain. You know four coups [or blows] can be counted on the body of an enemy, and whoever counts the first one [touches it for the first time] is entitled to the 'first feather.'

"There was an Indian here called Appearing Elk , who died a short time ago. He was slightly wounded in the charge. He had some of the weapons of the Long-Haired Chief , and the Indians used to say jokingly after we came upon the reservation that Appearing Elk must have killed the Chief , because he had his sword! However, the scramble for plunder did not begin until all were dead. I do not think he killed Custer , and if he had, the time to claim the honor was immediately after the fight.

"Many lies have been told of me. Some say that I killed the Chief , and others that I cut out the heart of his brother [ Tom Custer ], because he had caused me to be imprisoned. Why, in that fight the excitement was so great that we scarcely recognized our nearest friends! [Note: according to George Bird Grinnell , Little Horse killed Tom Custer.]

"Everything was done like lightning. After the battle we young men were chasing horses all over the prairie, while the old men and women plundered the bodies and if any mutilating was done, it was by the old men.

"I have lived peaceably ever since we came upon the reservation. No one can say that Rain-in-the-Face has broken the rules of the Great Father. I fought for my people and my country. When we were conquered I remained silent, as a warrior should. Rain-in-the-Face was killed when he put down his weapons before the Great Father. His spirit was gone then only his poor body lived on, but now it is almost ready to lie down for the last time.

"Rain-in-the-Face, the story of a Sioux warrior" by Charles Alexander Eastman, in: The Outlook, October 27, 1906, p. 507 - 512

The two primary accounts of the battle by Rain In The Face are very different, and frankly contradictory. The first (actually the second chronologically) by Santee Sioux Ohiyesa is sympathetic and respectful -- essentially a death bed conversation between two old friends -- while the second by American journalist W. Kent Thomas is glibly exploitive -- Thomas purportedly got Rain In The Face drunk to induce him to tell his tale.

Yet both accounts sound like the same man talking, and they both have something to contribute, even if they contradict each other at many important turns. For instance, in the Ohiyesa version, Rain In The Face identified an Anonymous Youth (who was subsequently slain) as pelanggan's killer, while in the Thomas version, he said no one knew who killed pelanggan -- "it was like running in the dark." In the Thomas version, Rain In The Face said he cut out his old nemesis Tom Custer's heart and spit it in his face, while in the Ohiyesa version he denied the whole Tom Custer battlefield episode -- "many lies were told about me."

Even so, the Battle of the Little Bighorn story most closely associated with Rain In The Face is probably still the famous poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,"The Revenge of Rain-in-the-Face," which features Rain In The Face cutting out Tom Custer's heart in "revenge" for his abusive treatment dari Rain In The Face at Ft. Lincoln the year before, witnessed by Frank Huston, who saw Tom Custer "kick and slap Rain while troopers held him."

Historically speaking, Longfellow's poem is steeped in misconception. Sebagai permulaan, neither Custer nor his men were carrying sabers (as Rain In The Face correctly recalled in the W. Kent Thomas interview). More importantly, Seventh Cavalry surgeon Dr. H.R. Porter, who examined the corpses the day after the battle, said neither George nor Tom Custer'S heart was not cut out (although Charles Roe, who was on the burial detail after the battle, tidak setuju). Furthermore, based on the eye-witness record, it appears that Oglala Sioux war chief Little Horse or Minneconjou Sioux warrior Lazy White Bull were more likely Tom Custer's killer.

Nonetheless, Rain In The Face was a force at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Ohiyesa dikatakan Rain In The Face was a leader of the Indians' first counter-charge against Reno, which forced the American troopers to abandon their defensive line in the open and fall back to the timber along the river. Thunder Bear ditelepon Rain In The Face NS bravest man in the battle.

Little Knife said the Rain In The Face was the only Indian who took a Seventh Cavalry prisoner selama pertempuran.


Political Fallout From Hurricane Katrina

In the wake of the storm&aposs devastating effects, local, state and federal governments were criticized for their slow, inadequate response, as well as for the levee failures around New Orleans. And officials from different branches of government were quick to direct the blame at each other.

"We wanted soldiers, helicopters, food and water," Denise Bottcher, press secretary for then-Gov. Kathleen Babineaux Blanco of Louisiana told the Waktu New York. "They wanted to negotiate an organizational chart."

New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin argued that there was no clear designation of who was in charge, telling reporters, “The state and federal government are doing a two-step dance."

President George W. Bush had originally praised his director of FEMA, Michael D. Brown, but as criticism mounted, Brown was forced to resign, as was the New Orleans Police Department Superintendent. Louisiana Governor Blanco declined to seek re-election in 2007 and Mayor Nagin left office in 2010. In 2014 Nagin was convicted of bribery, fraud and money laundering while in office.

The U.S. Congress launched an investigation into government response to the storm and issued a highly critical report in February 2006 entitled, "A Failure of Initiative."


Head Covering Through the Centuries


When I first saw some Mennonite women with their head coverings, I couldn't imagine why they were wearing those things on their heads. I figured it was simply some type of quaint costume.

But then I read the writings of the early Christians. And then I understood why Mennonite and Amish women wear prayer veils or head coverings. I realized that it was in obedience to 1 Corinthians 11:5, which says, Every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head, for that is one and the same as if her head were shaved. The early Christian women veiled their heads not only in church, but also anytime they were in public.

From my later study of church history, I discovered that Christian women continued to maintain this practice through the all centuries up to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. During the nineteenth century, many Christians in the United States and western Europe began arguing that long hair constituted the only covering women needed. Others said that women only needed to wear a covering when in church. The middle class and wealthy women switched from veils and caps to ornate bonnets they wore a covering at all. Bonnets became more a matter of fashion than of modesty or obedience to 1 Corinthians 11.

By the turn of the twentieth century, the ornate bonnets of the nineteenth century had given way to ladies' hats. Until the mid-century, women in Europe and America typically wore a hat or scarf in public, but they were simply following tradition and fashion without realizing that there was originally a spiritual reason behind the practice. Similarly, until about 1960, western women wore hats when in church. But the meaning behind the hat was lost.

Today, Christian women in eastern churches still cover their heads in church. Some of them cover their heads all of the time. In the west, some Plymouth Brethren women still wear the prayer veil in church, as do many African American women. But usually these sisters do not wear a head covering at other times.

Generally speaking, in the west today, only the Mennonite, Amish, Brethren and Hutterite women still practice wearing a head covering at all times. However, in recent years, they have been joined by thousands of Christian women from house churches and other independent congregations who have re-discovered this New Testament practice.

But, as it has been said, Aa picture is worth a thousand words. So I have set forth below pictures of the Christian woman's head covering from the early Christian era to the present day.


Tonton videonya: Hujan Kotak Hati Lirik